Crooked River National Grassland
Crooked River National Grassland is a National Grassland located in Jefferson County in the north-central part of the U. S. state of Oregon. It has a land area of 173,629 acres, it contains the Deschutes River and the Crooked River. The grassland is managed together with the Ochoco National Forest from Forest Service offices in Prineville. There are local ranger district offices located in its nearest city. Media related to Crooked River National Grassland at Wikimedia Commons
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site
Fort Vancouver National Historic Site is a United States National Historic Site located in the states of Washington and Oregon. The National Historic Site consists of two units, one located on the site of Fort Vancouver in modern-day Vancouver, Washington; the two sites were separately given national historic designation in the 1940s. The Fort Vancouver unit was designated a National Historic Site in 1961, was combined with the McLoughlin House into a unit in 2003; the visitor center at Fort Vancouver National Historic Site was built in 1966 as a part of the National Park Service's Mission 66 Program. Today, the visitor center is co-operated by the both the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service. Recent renovations to the visitor center transformed the historic building as an information center for both Fort Vancouver National Historic Site and the Gifford Pinchot National Forest; the visitor center features rotating archaeological exhibits from the national historic site and art exhibits from local native artists.
The building has a theater that shows 3 films from the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service: Fort Vancouver - One place Across Time, Vancouver Kaiser Shipyards Documentary, Mount St. Helens - Eruption of Life; the main unit of the site, containing Fort Vancouver, is located in Vancouver, just north of Portland, Oregon. Fort Vancouver was an important Hudson's Bay Company fur trading post, established in 1824. Operations until 1845 were overseen by Chief Factor John McLoughlin, it was the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company's fur trade activity on the Pacific coast and its influence stretched from the Rocky mountains in the east, to Alaska in the north, Alta California in the south, to the Kingdom of Hawaii in the Pacific. Ratified in 1846, the Treaty of Oregon was signed by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States, thereby ending the decades long Oregon boundary dispute; the treaty permitted the Hudson's Bay Company to continue to operate at Fort Vancouver, now within the Oregon Territory.
On June 14, 1860, Fort Vancouver was abandoned by the Hudson's Bay Company in favor of their stations in British Columbia, such as Fort Victoria. In 1849, the United States Army constructed the Vancouver Barracks adjacent to the British trading post. A fire destroyed the Hudson's Bay Company fort in 1866, but the Army facility continued in operation in various forms until to the present. Fort Vancouver was separated from the Army's barracks and became a national monument in 1948. Congress re-designated the site as a National Historic Site. For some years after its addition to the National Park System, the National Park Service was reluctant to begin reconstruction of the fort walls or buildings, preferring to manage it as an archaeological site as provided by its standing policies. However, in 1965, with the urging of the local community, Congress directed reconstruction to begin. All fort structures seen today are modern replicas, albeit placed on the original locations. In response to concerns about the designation of reconstructed structures, the Park Service designated the Vancouver National Historic Reserve Historic District to encompass reconstructed buildings as well as historic Army and Mission 66 era Park Service structures.
The National Park Service operates the Pearson Air Museum on the fort grounds. An earth-covered pedestrian land bridge was built over the Lewis and Clark Highway, as part of the Confluence Project, in 2007, it connects the site with the Columbia River. The McLoughlin House unit consists of the homes of McLoughlin, of Dr. Forbes Barclay, an explorer and associate of McLoughlin's, they are located adjacent to each other on a bluff overlooking the Willamette River in Oregon City, Oregon, on a plot of land set aside for public use by McLoughlin in the 1840s. In 1846, McLoughlin left the employ of Hudson's Bay Company, purchased from the company a land claim located on the Willamette River in Oregon City. McLoughlin constructed the house there, lived there until his death in 1857; the house, a two-style colonial mansion, is typical of East Coast residences from the time. After McLoughlin's death in 1857, his widow lived there; the home soon became a bordello known as the Phoenix Hotel. In 1908, the paper mill that owned the property wished to expand and the house was threatened with demolition, but preservationists saved it the next year, raising over $1,000 and overcoming a referendum.
The house was moved from the riverfront to its current location on a bluff overlooking downtown Oregon City in 1910. It sat there for twenty-five years, until being restored in 1935-1936 under the auspices of the Civil Works Administration, opened as a museum; the Barclay House was built in 1849 by Portland carpenter and pioneer John L. Morrison, occupied by Dr. Barclay and his family. Barclay died in 1874. Today, the Barclay House contains a gift shop; the McLoughlin House became a National Historic Site in 1941, both homes were added to the National Park System in 2003, becoming part of the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site. The McLoughlin House unit lies on the Oregon National Historic Trail, a part of the National Trails System; the graves of McLoughlin and his wife are on the
Fremont–Winema National Forest
The Fremont–Winema National Forest is a United States National Forest formed from the 2002 merger of the Fremont and Winema National Forests. They cover territory in southern Oregon from the crest of the Cascade Range on the west past the city of Lakeview to the east; the northern end of the forests is bounded by U. S. Route 97 on the west and Oregon Route 31 on the east. To the south, the state border with California forms the boundary of the forests. Klamath Falls is the only city of significant size in the vicinity; the forests are managed by the United States Forest Service, the national forest headquarters are located in Lakeview. The Fremont National Forest was named after John C. Frémont, who explored the area for the United States Army Corps of Engineers in 1843, it is located in western Lake and eastern Klamath counties in Oregon and has a land area of 1,207,039 acres. There are local ranger district offices located in Bly, Lakeview and Silver Lake; the Warner Canyon Ski Area was part of Fremont until a land swap transferred ownership to Lake County.
Founded in 1908, the Fremont National Forest was protected as the Goose Lake Forest Reserve in 1906. The name was soon changed to Fremont National Forest, it absorbed part of Paulina National Forest on July 19, 1915. In 2002, it was administratively combined with the Winema National Forest as the Fremont–Winema National Forests. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated that the extent of old growth in the forest was 549,800 acres, 113,800 acres of which were lodgepole pine forests; the sites of two former uranium mines, the White King and Lucky Lass mines, are within the Fremont National Forest. They are now Superfund sites. Common recreational activities in the Fremont National Forest include hiking, boating, horseback riding, mountain biking, skiing and fishing; the 50-mile Fremont National Recreation Trail runs northwest–southeast between Government Harvey Pass and Cox Pass in the forest. The Winema National Forest is a national forest in Klamath County on the eastern slopes of the Cascades in south-central Oregon and covers 1,045,548 acres.
The forest borders Crater Lake National Park near the crest of the Cascades and stretches eastward into the Klamath Basin. Near the floor of the basin the forest gives way to vast marshes and meadows associated with Upper Klamath Lake and the Williamson River drainage. To the north and east, extensive stands of ponderosa and lodgepole pine grow on deep pumice and ash that blanketed the area during the eruption of Mount Mazama nearly 7,000 years ago. A 1993 Forest Service study estimated. There are local ranger district offices located in Chemult and Klamath Falls; the forest is named after Toby Riddle, a Modoc woman known as "Winema". Founded in 1961, the Winema National Forest was protected as the Cascade Range Forest Reserve from 1893 to 1907, when it became the Cascade National Forest. In 1908, it changed to the Mazama National Forest and Crater Lake National Forest until 1932; the land was part of the Rogue River National Forest from 1932 to 1961, when it was designated the Winema National Forest.
In 2002, it was administratively combined with the Fremont National Forest. The Winema National Forest separately is the third-largest national forest, contained within one county. More than 50 percent of the forest is former Klamath Indian Reservation land; as part of the Indian Termination Policy that began in the 1950s, the United States Congress enacted a few termination acts directed at specific tribes that included the Klamath Tribe. The Klamath Tribe was vulnerable to government termination due to factionalism within the tribe that resulted from cultural assimilation effects of the previous decades. On the date of the act, a roll was taken of the tribe, locking in those eligible for property rights to tribal land. After this process, the collective land was divided among each individual on the roll and a vote was conducted on whether to withdraw from the tribe, those that remained would have their portion put back into a collective of land. Given that estimates suggest seventy percent of tribal members would withdraw, selling their land for commercial use, the government and lumber industry became concerned with how the increase in Klamath Forest timber would saturate the industry.
The act was amended to put commercial sales into the hands of the Forest Service, who implemented a sustainable-yield policy in regards to the former Klamath Forest. In the end, seventy-seven percent of the tribe voted to withdraw, shrinking the reservation down from 762,000 acres to 145,000 acres. Two purchases by the US government - the first in 1963 of about 500,000 acres and the second in 1973 of about 135,000 acres - were combined with portions of three other national forests to form the Winema National Forest. Members of the Klamath tribe reserve specific rights of hunting, fishing and gathering of forest materials on former reservation land within the Winema National Forest. There are over 300 species of fish that occur in this region. There are about 925 species of documented vascular plants in the Fremont National Forest; the vascular plants provide food and habitat for mammals, fish and mankind. Management to ensure that all native species maintain healthy populations is a focus of the Forest Service.
There are rare species of plants found in the forest. Game animals include elk and mule deer. There are several types of trout in the
Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments. The word has its origins in the Italian language, in which it means either "loose gravel" or "stone made by cemented gravel". A breccia may have a variety of different origins, as indicated by the named types including sedimentary breccia, tectonic breccia, igneous breccia, impact breccia, hydrothermal breccia. Sedimentary breccia is a type of clastic sedimentary rock, made of angular to subangular, randomly oriented clasts of other sedimentary rocks. A conglomerate, by contrast, is a sedimentary rock composed of rounded fragments or clasts of pre-existing rocks. Both breccia and conglomerate are composed of fragments averaging greater than 2 millimetres in size; the angular shape of the fragments indicates that the material has not been transported far from its source. Sedimentary breccia consists of angular, poorly sorted, immature fragments of rocks in a finer grained groundmass which are produced by mass wasting.
It is lithified scree. Thick sequences of sedimentary breccia are formed next to fault scarps in grabens. Breccia may occur along a buried stream channel where it indicates accumulation along a juvenile or flowing stream. Sedimentary breccia may be formed by submarine debris flows. Turbidites occur as fine-grained peripheral deposits to sedimentary breccia flows. In a karst terrain, a collapse breccia may form due to collapse of rock into a sinkhole or in cave development. Fault breccia results from the grinding action of two fault blocks. Subsequent cementation of these broken fragments may occur by means of the introduction of mineral matter in groundwater. Igneous clastic rocks can be divided into two classes: Broken, fragmental rocks associated with volcanic eruptions, both of the lava and pyroclastic type. Volcanic pyroclastic rocks are formed by explosive eruption of lava and any rocks which are entrained within the eruptive column; this may include rocks plucked off the wall of the magma conduit, or physically picked up by the ensuing pyroclastic surge.
Lavas rhyolite and dacite flows, tend to form clastic volcanic rocks by a process known as autobrecciation. This occurs when the thick, nearly solid lava breaks up into blocks and these blocks are reincorporated into the lava flow again and mixed in with the remaining liquid magma; the resulting breccia is uniform in rock chemical composition. Lavas may pick up rock fragments if flowing over unconsolidated rubble on the flanks of a volcano, these form volcanic breccias called pillow breccias. Within the volcanic conduits of explosive volcanoes the volcanic breccia environment merges into the intrusive breccia environment. There the upwelling lava tends to solidify during quiescent intervals only to be shattered by ensuing eruptions. Clastic rocks are commonly found in shallow subvolcanic intrusions such as porphyry stocks and kimberlite pipes, where they are transitional with volcanic breccias. Intrusive rocks can become brecciated in appearance by multiple stages of intrusion if fresh magma is intruded into consolidated or solidified magma.
This may be seen in many granite intrusions where aplite veins form a late-stage stockwork through earlier phases of the granite mass. When intense, the rock may appear as a chaotic breccia. Clastic rocks in mafic and ultramafic intrusions have been found and form via several processes: Consumption and melt-mingling with wall rocks, where the felsic wall rocks are softened and invaded by the hotter ultramafic intrusion. Impact breccias are thought to be diagnostic of an impact event such as an asteroid or comet striking the Earth and are found at impact craters. Impact breccia, a type of impactite, forms during the process of impact cratering when large meteorites or comets impact with the Earth or other rocky planets or asteroids. Breccia of this type may be present on or beneath the floor of the crater, in the rim, or in the ejecta expelled beyond the crater. Impact breccia may be identified by its occurrence in or around a known impact crater, and/or an association with other products of impact cratering such as shatter cones, impact glass, shocked minerals, chemical and isotopic evidence of contamination with extraterrestrial material.
An example of an impact breccia is the Neugrund breccia, formed in the Neugrund impact. Hydrothermal breccias form at shallow crustal levels between 150 and 350 °C, when seismic or volcanic activity causes a void to open along a fault deep underground; the void draws in hot water, as pressure in the cavity drops, the water violently boils. In addition, the sudden opening of a cavity causes rock at the sides of the fault to destabilise and implode inwards, the broken rock gets caught up in a churning mixture of rock and boiling water. Rock fragments collide with each other and the sides of the void, the angular fragments become more rounded. Volatile gases are lost to the steam phase in particular carbon dioxide; as a result, the chemistry of the fluids changes an