A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new law. In some countries, it is synonymous with a vote on a ballot question; some definitions of'plebiscite' suggest that it is a type of vote to change the constitution or government of a country. However, some other countries define it differently. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In Ireland, the vote to adopt its constitution was called a "plebiscite", but a subsequent vote to amend the constitution is called a'referendum', so is a poll of the electorate on a non-constitutional bill; the word referendum is a general word used for both legislative referrals and initiatives.'Referendum' is the gerundive form of the Latin verb refero "to carry back". As a gerundive is an adjective, not a noun, it cannot be used alone in Latin and must be contained within a context attached to a noun such as Propositum quod referendum est populo, "A proposal which must be carried back to the people".
The addition of the verb sum to a gerundive, denotes the idea of necessity or compulsion, that which "must" be done, rather than that, "fit for" doing. Its use as a noun in English is thus not a grammatical usage of a foreign word, but is rather a freshly coined English noun, which therefore follows English grammatical usage, not Latin grammatical usage; this determines the form of the plural in English, which according to English grammar should be "referendums". The use of "referenda" as a plural form in English is thus insupportable according to the rules of both Latin and English grammar alike; the use of "referenda" as a plural form is posited hypothetically as either a gerund or a gerundive by the Oxford English Dictionary, which rules out such usage in both cases as follows: Referendums is logically preferable as a plural form meaning'ballots on one issue'. The Latin plural gerundive'referenda', meaning'things to be referred' connotes a plurality of issues, it is related to the political agenda, "those matters which must be driven forward", from ago, to drive.
The name and use of the'referendum' is thought to have originated in the Swiss canton of Graubünden as early as the 16th century. The term'plebiscite' has a similar meaning in modern usage, comes from the Latin plebiscita, which meant a decree of the Concilium Plebis, the popular assembly of the Roman Republic. Today, a referendum can often be referred to as a plebiscite, but in some countries the two terms are used differently to refer to votes with differing types of legal consequences. For example, Australia defines'referendum' as a vote to change the constitution, and'plebiscite' as a vote that does not affect the constitution. In contrast, Ireland has only held one plebiscite, the vote to adopt its constitution, every other vote has been called a referendum. Plebiscite has been used to denote a non-binding vote count such as the one held by Nazi Germany to'approve' in retrospect the so-called Anschluss with Austria, the question being not'Do you permit?' but rather'Do you approve?' of that which has most already occurred.
The term referendum covers a variety of different meanings. A referendum can be advisory. In some countries, different names are used for these two types of referendum. Referendums can be further classified by who initiates them: mandatory referendums prescribed by law, voluntary referendums initiated by the legislature or government, referendums initiated by citizens. A deliberative referendum is a referendum designed to improve the deliberative qualities of the campaign preceding the referendum vote, and/or of the act of voting itself. From a political-philosophical perspective, referendums are an expression of direct democracy. However, in the modern world, most referendums need to be understood within the context of representative democracy. Therefore, they tend to be used quite selectively, covering issues such as changes in voting systems, where elected officials may not have the legitimacy or inclination to implement such changes. Since the end of the 18th century, hundreds of national referendums have been organised in the world.
Italy ranked second with 72 national referendums: 67 popular referendums, 3 constitutional referendums, one institutional referendum and one advisory referendum. A referendum offers the electorate a choice of accepting or rejecting a proposal, but not always; some referendums give voters the choice among multiple choices and some use Transferable voting even. In Switzerland, for example, multiple choice referendums are common. Two multiple choice referendums were held in Sweden, in 1957 and in 1980, in which voters were offered three options. In 1977, a referendum held in Australia to determine a new national anthem was held in which voters had four choices. In 1992, New Zealand held a five-option referendum on their electoral system. In 1982, Guam had referendum that used six options, with an additional blank option for anyone wishing to vote for their own seventh option. A multiple choice referendum pose
Andrew Carnegie was a Scottish-American industrialist, business magnate, philanthropist. Carnegie led the expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century and is identified as one of the richest people in history, he became a leading philanthropist in the British Empire. During the last 18 years of his life, he gave away about $350 million to charities and universities – 90 percent of his fortune, his 1889 article proclaiming "The Gospel of Wealth" called on the rich to use their wealth to improve society, stimulated a wave of philanthropy. Carnegie was born in Dunfermline and immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1848. Carnegie started work as a telegrapher, by the 1860s had investments in railroads, railroad sleeping cars and oil derricks, he accumulated further wealth as a bond salesman. He built Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company, which he sold to J. P. Morgan in 1901 for $303,450,000, it became the U. S. Steel Corporation. After selling Carnegie Steel, he surpassed John D. Rockefeller as the richest American for the next couple of years.
Carnegie devoted the remainder of his life to large-scale philanthropy, with special emphasis on local libraries, world peace and scientific research. With the fortune he made from business, he built Carnegie Hall in New York, NY, the Peace Palace and founded the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Institution for Science, Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, Carnegie Hero Fund, Carnegie Mellon University, the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, among others. Andrew Carnegie was born to Margaret Morrison Carnegie and William Carnegie in Dunfermline, Scotland in 1835, in a typical weaver's cottage with only one main room, consisting of half the ground floor, shared with the neighboring weaver's family; the main room served as a living room, dining bedroom. He was named after his legal grandfather. In 1836, the family moved to a larger house in Edgar Street, following the demand for more heavy damask, from which his father benefited, he was educated at the Free School in Dunfermline, a gift to the town by the philanthropist Adam Rolland of Gask.
Carnegie's uncle, George Lauder, Sr. a Scottish political leader influenced him as a boy by introducing him to the writings of Robert Burns and historical Scottish heroes such as Robert the Bruce, William Wallace, Rob Roy. Lauder's son named George Lauder, grew up with Carnegie and would become his business partner; when Carnegie was thirteen, his father had fallen on hard times as a handloom weaver. His mother helped support the family by assisting her brother, by selling potted meats at her "sweetie shop", leaving her as the primary breadwinner. Struggling to make ends meet, the Carnegies decided to borrow money from George Lauder, Sr. and move to Allegheny, Pennsylvania, in the United States in 1848 for the prospect of a better life. Carnegie's migration to America would be his second journey outside Dunfermline – the first being an outing to Edinburgh to see Queen Victoria. In September 1848, Carnegie arrived with his family at their new prosperous home. Allegheny was populating in the 1840s, growing from around 10,000 to 21,262 residents.
The city was industrial and produced many products including wool and cotton cloth. The "Made in Allegheny" label used on these and other diversified products was becoming more and more popular. For his father, the promising circumstances still did not provide him any good fortune. Dealers were not interested in selling his product, he himself struggled to sell it on his own; the father and son both received job offers at the same Scottish-owned cotton mill, Anchor Cotton Mills. Carnegie's first job in 1848 was as a bobbin boy, changing spools of thread in a cotton mill 12 hours a day, 6 days a week in a Pittsburgh cotton factory, his starting wage was $1.20 per week. His father quit his position at the cotton mill soon after, returning to his loom and removing him as breadwinner once again, but Carnegie attracted the attention of John Hay, a Scottish manufacturer of bobbins, who offered him a job for $2.00 per week. In his autobiography, Carnegie speaks of his past hardships. Soon after this Mr. John Hay, a fellow Scotch manufacturer of bobbins in Allegheny City, needed a boy, asked whether I would not go into his service.
I went, received two dollars per week. I had to fire the boiler in the cellar of the bobbin factory, it was too much for me. I found myself night after night, sitting up in bed trying the steam gauges, fearing at one time that the steam was too low and that the workers above would complain that they had not power enough, at another time that the steam was too high and that the boiler might burst. In 1849, Carnegie became a telegraph messenger boy in the Pittsburgh Office of the Ohio Telegraph Company, at $2.50 per week following the recommendation of his uncle. He was a hard worker and would memorize all of the locations of Pittsburgh's businesses and the faces of important men, he made many connections this way. He paid close attention to his work, learned to distinguish the differing sounds the incoming telegraph signals produced, he developed the ability to translate signals by ear, withou
Library circulation or library lending comprises the activities around the lending of library books and other material to users of a lending library. A circulation or lending department is one of the key departments of a library; the main public service point is the circulation desk or loans desk found near the main entrance of a library. It provides lending facilities for return of loaned items. Renewal of materials and payment of fines are handled at the circulation desk. Circulation staff may provide basic search and reference services, though more in-depth questions are referred to reference librarians at the library reference desk; the circulation desk is in most cases staffed by library support staff instead of professional librarians. Lending materials to library users Checking in materials returned Monitoring materials for damage and routing them to the appropriate staff for repair or replacement Troubleshooting circulation technology, i.e. library circulation software, printers, etc.
Collecting statistics on library use, i.e. patron transactions, material checkouts, etc. Creation of borrowers pockets, i.e. when using the Browne Issue System Charging and receipting overdue fines. Send out overdue notices to borrower. Operating automated filing and recovery system and technology. Excellent communication and interpersonal skills. Enjoy working with the public. Adapt to new software and equipment. Perform moderate physical work including the ability to carry and lift up to 30 pounds. Bend and stand for long periods of time. Ability to conduct/reconcile financial reports. Communicate via telephone, email. Ability to see and read materials. Assist patrons at the reserve desk. Assist Circulation supervisor with training student employee if it is an academic environment. Maintain the stacks by re-shelving materials in library by call number whether Dewey Decimal system or Library congress system. Resolve issues, such as inappropriate patron conduct, including but not limited to cell phone usages, open drink containers, inappropriate noise levels Public service librarians must look to the law to determine their legal obligations and potential liability relating to privacy of library use.
The potential liability or punishment for librarians, who fail to protect confidentiality of individual library use, is a matter of state law without record of prosecution or civil suit. Remedies for individuals who information has been deliberately shared with or unknowingly collected by third parties vary and are sometimes unclear. Established December 1, 1967, the Office for Intellectual Freedom is charged with implementing American Library Association policies; those policies concerning the concept of intellectual freedom as embodied in the Library Bill of Rights, the Association’s basic policy on free access to libraries and library materials. The American Library Association affirms that all libraries are forums for information and ideas, that the following basic policies should guide their services. I. Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation.
II. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues. Materials should not be removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval. III. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment. IV. Libraries should cooperate with all persons and groups concerned with resisting abridgment of free expression and free access to ideas. V. A person’s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, background, or views. VI. Libraries which make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms available to the public they serve should make such facilities available on an equitable basis, regardless of the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use. Adopted June 19, 1939, by the ALA Council. Interlibrary loan Library reference desk Code of ethics of the American Library Association. American Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/advocacy/proethics/codeofethics/codeethics Federal libraries and intellectual freedom..
Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/iftoolkits/ifmanual/fifthedition/federallibraries Library bill of rights. American Library Association. Retrieved from: http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill Montana: front desk circulation assistant 10070726.. Plus Media Solutions US Official News. Retrieved from LexisNexis Academic. Https://www.lexisnexis.com/hottopics/lnacademic/? Weingand, D. E.. Customer service excellence: a concise guide for librarians. American Library Association
Boulder is the home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Boulder County, United States. It is the state's 11th most populous municipality; the city is 25 miles northwest of Denver. The population of the City of Boulder was 97,385 people at the 2010 U. S. Census, while the population of the Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area was 294,567. Boulder is known for its association with American frontier history and for being the home of the main campus of the University of Colorado, the state's largest university; the city receives high rankings in art, well-being, quality of life, education. Boulder City was a part of the Nebraska Territory until February 28, 1861, when the Territory of Colorado was created by the US Congress, it developed as a supply base for miners going into the mountains. Residents of Boulder City provided these miners with equipment, agricultural products and drinking establishments. On November 7, 1861, legislation was passed making way for the state university to be located in Boulder, on September 20, 1875, the first cornerstone was laid for the first building on the CU campus.
The university opened on September 5, 1877. Boulder adopted an anti-saloon ordinance in 1907. Statewide prohibition started in Colorado in 1916 and ended with the repeal of national prohibition in 1933; as of the 2010 census, there were 97,385 people, 41,302 households, 16,694 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,942.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 43,479 housing units at an average density of 1,760.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.0% White, 0.9% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.2% some other race, 2.6% from two or more races. 8.7% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 41,302 households, out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were headed by married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 59.6% were non-families. 35.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.1% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.16, the average family size was 2.84. Boulder's population is younger than the national average due to the presence of university students; the median age at the 2010 census was 28.7 years compared to the U. S. median of 37.2 years. In Boulder, 13.9% of the residents were younger than the age of 18, 29.1% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there were 106.2 males. In 2011 the estimated median household income in Boulder was $57,112, the median family income was $113,681. Male full-time workers had a median income of $71,993 versus $47,574 for females; the per capita income for the city was $37,600. 24.8% of the population and 7.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 17.4% of those under the age of 18 and 6.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Boulder housing tends to be priced higher than surrounding areas.
For the 2nd quarter of 2006, the median single-family home in Boulder sold for $548,000 and the median attached dwelling sold for $262,000. According to the National Association of Realtors, during the same period the median value of one-family homes nationwide was $227,500; the median price of a home exceeded $1 million in July 2016. The city of Boulder is in Boulder Valley. West of the city are slabs of sedimentary stone tilted up on the foothills, known as the Flatirons; the Flatirons are a recognized symbol of Boulder. The primary water flow through the city is Boulder Creek; the creek was named well ahead of the city's founding, for all of the large granite boulders that have cascaded into the creek over the eons. It is from Boulder Creek. Boulder Creek has significant water flow, derived from snow melt and minor springs west of the city; the creek is a tributary of the South Platte River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.7 square miles. 24.7 square miles of it is land and 1.0 square mile of it is water.
The 40th parallel runs through Boulder and can be recognized as Baseline Road today. Boulder lies in a wide basin beneath Flagstaff Mountain just a few miles east of the continental divide and about 25 miles northwest of Denver. Arapahoe Glacier provides water for the city, along with Boulder Creek, which flows through the center of the city. Denver International Airport is located 45 miles southeast of Boulder. Boulder has a temperate climate typical for much of the state and receives many sunny or sunny days each year. Under the Köppen climate classification, the city has a semi-arid climate. Winter conditions range from mild to the occasional bitterly cold, with highs averaging in the mid to upper 40s °F. There are 4.6 nights annually when the temperature reaches 0 °F. Because of orographic lift, the mountains to the west dry out the air passing over the Front Range shielding the city from precipitation in winter, though heavy falls may occur. Snowfall averages 88 inches per season, but snow depth is shallow.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A municipal bond known as a Muni Bond, is a bond issued by a local government or territory, or one of their agencies. It is used to finance public projects such as roads, schools and seaports, infrastructure-related repairs; the term municipal bond is used in the United States, which has the largest market of such trade-able securities in the world. As of 2011, the municipal bond market was valued at $3.7 trillion. Potential issuers of municipal bonds include states, counties, redevelopment agencies, special-purpose districts, school districts, public utility districts, publicly owned airports and seaports, other governmental entities at or below the state level having more than a de minimis amount of one of the three sovereign powers: the power of taxation, the power of eminent domain or the police power. Municipal bonds secured by specified revenues. In the United States, interest income received by holders of municipal bonds is excludable from gross income for federal income tax purposes under Section 103 of the Internal Revenue Code, may be exempt from state income tax as well, depending on the applicable state income tax laws.
The state and local exemption was the subject of recent litigation in Department of Revenue of Kentucky v. Davis, 553 U. S. 328. Unlike new issue stocks that are brought to market with price restrictions until the deal is sold, most municipal bonds are free to trade at any time once they are purchased by the investor. Professional traders trade and re-trade the same bonds several times a week. A feature of this market is a larger proportion of smaller retail investors compared to other sectors of the U. S. securities markets. Some municipal bonds with higher risk credits, are issued subject to transfer restrictions. Outside the United States, many other countries in the world issue similar bonds, sometimes called local authority bonds or other names; the key defining feature of such bonds is that they are issued by a public-use entity at a lower level of government than the sovereign. Such bonds follow similar market patterns as U. S. bonds. That said, the U. S. municipal bond market is unique for its size, liquidity and tax structure and bankruptcy protection afforded by the U.
S. Constitution. Municipal debt predates corporate debt by several centuries—the early Renaissance Italian city-states borrowed money from major banking families. Borrowing by American cities dates to the nineteenth century, records of U. S. municipal bonds indicate use around the early 1800s. The first recorded municipal bond was a general obligation bond issued by the City of New York for a canal in 1812. During the 1840s, many U. S. cities were in debt, by 1843 cities had $25 million in outstanding debt. In the ensuing decades, rapid urban development demonstrated a correspondingly explosive growth in municipal debt; the debt was used to finance a growing system of free public education. Years after the Civil War, significant local debt was issued to build railroads. Railroads were private corporations and these bonds were similar to today's industrial revenue bonds. Construction costs in 1873 for one of the largest transcontinental railroads, the Northern Pacific, closed down access to new capital.
Around the same time, the largest bank of the country of the time, owned by the same investor as that of Northern Pacific, collapsed. Smaller firms followed suit as well as the stock market; the 1873 panic and years of depression that followed put an abrupt but temporary halt to the rapid growth of municipal debt. Responding to widespread defaults that jolted the municipal bond market of the day, new state statutes were passed that restricted the issuance of local debt. Several states wrote these restrictions into their constitutions. Railroad bonds and their legality were challenged, this gave rise to the market-wide demand that an opinion of qualified bond counsel accompany each new issue; when the U. S. economy began to move forward once again, municipal debt continued its momentum, maintained well into the early part of the twentieth century. The Great Depression of the 1930s halted growth, although defaults were not as severe as in the 1870s. Leading up to World War II, many American resources were devoted to the military, prewar municipal debt burst into a new period of rapid growth for an ever-increasing variety of uses.
Today, in addition to the 50 states and their local governments, the District of Columbia and U. S. territories and possessions do issue municipal bonds. Another important category of municipal bond issuers which includes authorities and special districts has grown in number and variety in recent years; the two most prominent early authorities were the Port of New York Authority, formed in 1921 and renamed Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in 1972, the Triborough Bridge Authority, formed in 1933. The debt issues of these two authorities are exempt from federal and local governments taxes. Municipal bonds provide tax exemption from federal taxes and many state and local taxes, depending on the laws of each state. Municipal securities consist of long-term issues. Short-term notes are used by an issuer to raise money for a variety of reasons: in anticipation of future revenues such as tax
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC