Jack Lang (French politician)
Jack Mathieu Émile Lang is a French politician. A member of the Socialist Party, he served as France's Minister of Culture from 1981 to 1986 and 1988 to 1992, as Minister of Education from 1992 to 1993 and 2000 to 2002, he was the Mayor of Blois from 1989 to 2000. He served until 2012 in the National Assembly from the sixth district of Pas-de-Calais. Lang originated the Fête de la Musique, an all day public music festival which occurs yearly on 21 June in France and throughout the world. Jack Lang was born to Roger Lang and Marie-Luce Bouchet in the département of Vosges, his father's family were a secular, well-to-do Jewish family based in Nancy. Roger Lang was the commercial manager of the family business, founded by Jack's grandfather Albert. Roger and Albert were both freemasons. Jack's mother, Marie-Luce Bouchet, a Catholic, was born in 1919 as the daughter of Emile Bouchet, who died in 1926, Berthe Boulanger, a nurse, a freemason. In 1938, Albert and Roger sent their wives to Vichy because of the threat of war with Germany.
After the German invasion, Albert Lang and his wife moved to Brive la Gaillarde in Corrèze. The young Jack and his mother went to stay with his great grandmother in Cholet and subsequently moved to Bordeaux, his father Roger was first mobilized in Luneville, joined his parents and his brother-in-law Luc Bouchet in Brive. Jack and his mother joined them in Brive after the bombing of Bordeaux. Jack Lang's father was sentenced by the court in Brive for failure to report his children as Jews, but was acquitted by the Court of Appeal on the ground that the children's mother was a Catholic. Roger Lang was placed under house arrest. Berthe Bouchet visited the Langs in April 1942 when her daughter was about to give birth to her third child, Marianne. In 1943, Berthe was arrested in Nancy by the Gestapo for acts of resistance, she was deported to Ravensbrück and died in the spring of 1945. Jack Lang studied political science at the Institut d'Études Politiques de Paris, went on to receive a postgraduate degree in public law.
His career focused on a combination of teaching and culture and the arts. He was the founder and producer of Festival du Monde in Nancy, was director of the Nancy University Theatre from 1963 to 1972, director of the Théâtre national de Chaillot from 1972 to 1974. At the same time he was a professor of international law from 1971 to 1981, he married Monique Buczynski in 1961. The couple have two daughters. In 1997, he was President of Jury to the 47th Berlin International Film Festival. Lang entered politics as a Socialist member of the French National Assembly from Paris in 1977, he is best known for having served as Minister of Education. In 1981, while Minister of Culture, he created the Fête de la Musique, a massive celebration of music held on 21 June each year, where many amateur musicians give free open-air performances, he is the president of the Union of the Theatres of Europe. In August 1981, he created the Lang Law, which allows publishers to enforce a minimum sale price for books. Lang was a Member of the European Parliament from 1994 to 1997.
In 2000, he stood unsuccessfully for Mayor of Paris. While he had planned to stand for president in 2007, he decided not to register as a candidate in the Socialist primary for the sake of party unity. In 2007, Lang agreed to become co-chairman of a commission drafting changes to the Constitution that were supported by President Nicolas Sarkozy but opposed by the Socialist Party; this decision provoked strong criticism from his party, leading him to end his role in the party leadership. When Parliament voted on the constitutional changes on 21 July 2008, he voted in favour, becoming the only Socialist deputy so to do. A three-fifths majority was required, the changes passed by a vote of 539 to 357, meaning that Lang's support enabled the bill to pass by a one-vote margin; the Socialist Party denounced Lang for this vote. Lang replied by saying that it "is in nobody's power to strike me from the map of the French political landscape". In late 2009, Sarkozy appointed Lang his special envoy to North Korea, following a similar assignment earlier in the year to Cuba.
Lang travelled to Pyongyang on 9 November 2009 for a self-described "listening mission" aimed at exploring bilateral ties and discussing the North Korean nuclear program, among other things. Lang briefed American officials including Deputy Secretary of State James Steinberg and special envoy Sung Kim, as well as ambassadors of countries involved such as Russia, before the assignment was publicly announced; some critics questioned Lang's qualifications, but Lang said he would be driven by his "intuition" that change was afoot in North Korea. In August 2010, Lang became special adviser on piracy at the United Nations, he was brought in to advise on the prosecution of pirates off the coast of Somalia. In 2012 Lang was chosen as the Socialist Party candidate for the National Assembly in the second district in the Vosges department. A controversial figure in the Socialist Party since his collaboration with Sarkozy, Lang's constituency was abolished during the national reapportionment and he failed to be nominated in several other constituencies before succeeding in the Vosges.
Jacques René Chirac is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007. Chirac was Prime Minister of France from 1974 to 1976 and from 1986 to 1988, as well as Mayor of Paris from 1977 to 1995. After completing his degree at Sciences Po, a term at Harvard University, the École nationale d'administration, Chirac began his career as a high-level civil servant, entered politics shortly after. Chirac occupied various senior positions, including Minister of Agriculture and Minister of the Interior. Chirac's internal policies included lower tax rates, the removal of price controls, strong punishment for crime and terrorism, business privatisation. After pursuing these policies in his second term as Prime Minister, he changed his views, he argued for more responsible economic policies, was elected President in the 1995 presidential election with 52.6% of the vote in the second round, beating Socialist Lionel Jospin, after campaigning on a platform of healing the "social rift".
Chirac's economic policies, based on dirigisme, allowing for state-directed investment, stood in opposition to the laissez-faire policies of the United Kingdom under the ministries of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, which Chirac famously described as "Anglo-Saxon ultraliberalism". He is known for his stand against the American-led assault on Iraq, his recognition of the collaborationist French Government's role in deporting Jews, his reduction of the presidential term from 7 years to 5 through a referendum in 2000. At the 2002 French presidential election, he won 82.2% of the vote in the second round against the far-right candidate, Jean-Marie Le Pen. During his second term, however, he had a low approval rating, was considered one of the least popular presidents in modern French history. On 15 December 2011, the Paris court declared Chirac guilty of diverting public funds and abusing public confidence, gave him a two-year suspended prison sentence. Chirac, born in the Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire clinic, is the son of Abel François Marie Chirac, a successful executive for an aircraft company, Marie-Louise Valette, a housewife.
His great grandparents on both sides were peasants, but his two grandfathers were teachers from Sainte-Féréole in Corrèze. According to Chirac, his name "originates from the langue d'oc, that of the troubadours, therefore that of poetry", he is a Roman Catholic. Chirac was an only child, he was educated in Paris at a private school. He attended the Lycée Carnot and the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. After his baccalauréat, he served for three months as a sailor on a coal-transporter. Chirac played rugby union for Brive's youth team, played at university level, he played second row. In 1956, he married Bernadette Chodron de Courcel, with whom he had two daughters: Laurence and Claude. Claude has long worked as a public relations assistant and personal adviser, while Laurence, who suffered from anorexia nervosa in her youth, did not participate in the political activities of her father. Chirac is the grandfather of Martin Rey-Chirac by the relationship of Claude with French judoka Thierry Rey. Jacques and Bernadette Chirac have a foster daughter, Anh Dao Traxel.
Inspired by General Charles de Gaulle, Chirac started to pursue a civil service career in the 1950s. During this period, he joined the French Communist Party, sold copies of L'Humanité, took part in meetings of a communist cell. In 1950, he signed the Soviet-inspired Stockholm Appeal for the abolition of nuclear weapons – which led him to be questioned when he applied for his first visa to the United States. In 1953, after graduating from the Paris Institute of Political Studies, he attended Harvard University's summer school, before entering the ENA, the Grande école National School of Administration, which trains France's top civil servants, in 1957. Chirac trained as a reserve military officer in armoured cavalry at Saumur, where he was ranked first in his year, he volunteered to fight in the Algerian War, using personal connections to be sent despite the reservations of his superiors. His superiors did not want to make him an officer. After leaving the ENA in 1959, he became a civil servant in the Court of Auditors.
In April 1962, Chirac was appointed head of the personal staff of Prime Minister Georges Pompidou. This appointment launched Chirac's political career. Pompidou considered Chirac his protégé, referred to him as "my bulldozer" for his skill at getting things done; the nickname "Le Bulldozer" caught on in French political circles, where it referred to his abrasive manner. As late as the 1988 presidential election, Chirac maintained this reputation. In 1995 an anonymous British diplomat said Chirac "cuts through the crap and comes straight to the point... It's refreshing, although you have to put your seat belt on when you work with him". At Pompidou's suggestion, Chirac ran as a Gaullist for a seat in the National Assembly in 1967, he was elected deputy for a stronghold of the left. This surprising victory in the context of a Gaullist ebb permitted him to enter the government as Minister of Social Affairs. Although Chirac was well-situated in de Gaulle's entourage, being related by marriage to the general's sole companion at the time of the Appeal of 18 June 1940, he was more of a "Pompidolian" than a "Gaullist".
When student and worker unrest rocked France in May 1968, Chirac played a central role in negotiating a truce. As state secr
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Boulevard du Montparnasse
The Boulevard du Montparnasse is a two-way boulevard in Montparnasse, in the 6th, 14th and 15th arrondissements in Paris. The boulevard joins the place place Camille Jullian; the Tour Montparnasse and place du 18 juin 1940 found along it. Cimetière du Montparnasse Gare Montparnasse
François Auguste René Rodin, known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past, he was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-like approach to his work, desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art. Rodin possessed a unique ability to model a complex, turbulent pocketed surface in clay. Many of his most notable sculptures were criticized during his lifetime, they clashed with predominant figurative sculpture traditions, in which works were decorative, formulaic, or thematic. Rodin's most original work departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, celebrated individual character and physicality. Rodin refused to change his style. Successive works brought increasing favor from the artistic community. From the unexpected realism of his first major figure – inspired by his 1875 trip to Italy – to the unconventional memorials whose commissions he sought, Rodin's reputation grew, he became the preeminent French sculptor of his time.
By 1900, he was a world-renowned artist. Wealthy private clients sought Rodin's work after his World's Fair exhibit, he kept company with a variety of high-profile intellectuals and artists, his students included Antoine Bourdelle, Camille Claudel, Constantin Brâncuși, Charles Despiau. He married Rose Beuret, in the last year of both their lives, his sculptures suffered a decline in popularity after his death in 1917, but within a few decades, his legacy solidified. Rodin remains one of the few sculptors known outside the visual arts community. Rodin was born in 1840 into a working-class family in Paris, the second child of Marie Cheffer and Jean-Baptiste Rodin, a police department clerk, he was self-educated, began to draw at age 10. Between ages 14 and 17, he attended the Petite École, a school specializing in art and mathematics where he studied drawing and painting, his drawing teacher Horace Lecoq de Boisbaudran believed in first developing the personality of his students so that they observed with their own eyes and drew from their recollections, Rodin expressed appreciation for his teacher much in life.
It was at Petite École that he met Alphonse Legros. In 1857, Rodin submitted a clay model of a companion to the École des Beaux-Arts in an attempt to win entrance. Entrance requirements were not high at the Grande École, so the rejections were considerable setbacks. Rodin's inability to gain entrance may have been due to the judges' Neoclassical tastes, while Rodin had been schooled in light, 18th-century sculpture, he left the Petite École in 1857 and earned a living as a craftsman and ornamenter for most of the next two decades, producing decorative objects and architectural embellishments. Rodin's sister Maria, two years his senior, died of peritonitis in a convent in 1862, Rodin was anguished with guilt because he had introduced her to an unfaithful suitor, he joined the Catholic order of the Congregation of the Blessed Sacrament. Saint Peter Julian Eymard and head of the congregation, recognized Rodin's talent and sensed his lack of suitability for the order, so he encouraged Rodin to continue with his sculpture.
Rodin returned to work as a decorator. The teacher's attention to detail and his finely rendered musculature of animals in motion influenced Rodin. In 1864, Rodin began to live with a young seamstress named Rose Beuret, with whom he stayed for the rest of his life, with varying commitment; the couple had a son named Auguste-Eugène Beuret. That year, Rodin offered his first sculpture for exhibition and entered the studio of Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, a successful mass producer of objets d'art. Rodin worked as Carrier-Belleuse' chief assistant until 1870, designing roof decorations and staircase and doorway embellishments. With the arrival of the Franco-Prussian War, Rodin was called to serve in the French National Guard, but his service was brief due to his near-sightedness. Decorators' work had dwindled because of the war, yet Rodin needed to support his family, as poverty was a continual difficulty for him until about the age of 30. Carrier-Belleuse soon asked him to join him in Belgium, where they worked on ornamentation for the Brussels Stock Exchange.
Rodin planned to stay in Belgium a few months. It was a pivotal time in his life, he had acquired skill and experience as a craftsman, but no one had yet seen his art, which sat in his workshop since he could not afford castings. His relationship with Carrier-Belleuse had deteriorated, but he found other employment in Brussels, displaying some works at salons, his companion Rose soon joined him there. Having saved enough money to travel, Rodin visited Italy for two months in 1875, where he was drawn to the work of Donatello and Michelangelo, their work had a profound effect on his artistic direction. Rodin said, "It is Michelangelo who has freed me from academic sculpture." Returning to Belgium, he began work on The Age of Bronze, a life-size male figure whose realism brought Rodin attention but led to accusations of sculptural cheating—its realism and scale was such that critics alleged he had cast the work from a living model. Much of Rodin's work was explicitly larger or smaller than life, in part to demonstrate the folly of such acc
6th arrondissement of Paris
The 6th arrondissement of Paris is one of the 20 arrondissements of the capital city of France. In spoken French, this arrondissement is referred to as sixième; the arrondissement, called Luxembourg, is situated on the left bank of the River Seine. It includes world-famous educational institutions such as the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts and the Académie française, the seat of the French Senate as well as a concentration of some of Paris's most famous monuments such as Saint-Germain Abbey and square, St. Sulpice Church and square, the Pont des Arts, the Jardin du Luxembourg; this central arrondissement, which includes the historic districts of Saint-Germain-des-Prés and Luxembourg, has played a major role throughout Paris history and is well known for its café culture and the revolutionary intellectualism and literature it has hosted. With its world-famous cityscape rooted intellectual tradition, prestigious history, beautiful architecture, central location, the arrondissement has long been home to French intelligentsia.
It is a major locale for art galleries, fashion stores and one of the most fashionable districts of Paris as well as Paris' most expensive area. The arrondissement is one of France's richest district in terms of average income, it is part of Paris Ouest alongside the 7th, 8th, 16th arrondissements, Neuilly, but has a much more bohemian and intellectual reputation than the others; the current 6th arrondissement, dominated by the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés—founded in the 6th century—was the heart of the Catholic Church power in Paris for centuries, hosting many religious institutions. In 1612, Queen Marie de Médicis bought an estate in the district and commissioned architect Salomon de Brosse to transform it into the outstanding Luxembourg Palace surrounded by extensive royal gardens; the new Palace turned the neighborhood into a fashionable district for French nobility. Since the 1950s, the arrondissement, with its many higher education institutions, world-famous cafés and publishing houses has been the home of much of the major post-war intellectual and literary movements and some of most influential in history such as surrealism and modern feminism.
The land area of the arrondissement is 2.154 km². Académie française French Senate Jardin du Luxembourg Medici Fountain Pont des Arts Pont Neuf Pont Saint-Michel Saint-Germain-des-Prés Quarter and former abbey Latin Quarter Saint-Sulpice church Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe Théâtre du Vieux-Colombier Café de Flore Les Deux Magots Polidor Hôtel de Chimay Hôtel Lutetia Café Procope Fondation Jean Dubuffet Maison d'Auguste Comte Monnaie de Paris Musée d'Anatomie Delmas-Orfila-Rouvière Musée Edouard Branly Musée Hébert Musée – Librairie du Compagnonnage Musée de Minéralogie Musée Zadkine École nationale des ponts et chaussées École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts École des hautes études en sciences sociales Pantheon-Assas University Lycée Montaigne Lycée Saint-Louis Lycée Stanislas Lycée Fénelon Institut Catholique de Paris Cherche-Midi prison Hôtel de Condé Hôtel de Bourbon-Condé Comédie-Française Arcade du Pont-Neuf The arrondissement attained its peak population in 1911 when the population density reached nearly 50,000 inhabitants per km².
In 1999, the population was 44,919 inhabitants. Toei Animation Europe has its head office in the arrondissement; the company, which opened in 2004, serves France, Italy and the United Kingdom. The 6th and 7th arrondissements are the most expensive districts of Paris, the most expensive parts of the 6th arrondissement being Saint-Germain-des-Prés quarter, the River side districts and the areas nearby the Luxembourg Garden. 6th arrondissement travel guide from Wikivoyage
Toward an Architecture
Vers une architecture translated into English as Toward an Architecture but known as Towards a New Architecture after the 1927 translation by Frederick Etchells, is a collection of essays written by Le Corbusier, advocating for and exploring the concept of modern architecture. The book has had a lasting effect on the architectural profession, serving as the manifesto for a generation of architects, a subject of hatred for others, unquestionably a critical piece of architectural theory; the architectural historian Reyner Banham wrote that its influence was "beyond that of any other architectural work published in this century to date", that unparalleled influence has continued, into the 21st century. The polemical book contains seven essays, all but one of which were published in the magazine L'Esprit nouveau beginning in 1921; each essay dismisses the contemporary trends of eclecticism and art deco, replacing them with architecture, meant to be more than a stylistic experiment. This new mode of living derived from a new spirit defining the industrial age, demanding a rebirth of architecture based on function and a new aesthetic based on pure form.
The authorship of the book was complex. Le Corbusier co-owned L'Esprit Nouveau with fellow purist painter Amédée Ozenfant, they co-signed many of the original essays as "Le Corbusier-Saugnier," and Ozenfant had been a close friend of Corbusier. Ozenfant denied having written the book, claiming that the essays were based on conversations the two had had together about theories written by Auguste Perret and Adolf Loos; as the book became more known, their fight became more heated. Ozenfant began to claim not only more credit for authorship, but that Le Corbusier had purposefully excluded him by dedicating the original edition to Ozenfant; the English translation of the book has been a source of controversy with regard to its change of style and specific alterations to the text. The alterations have generated criticism and required correction as some of them began to define architectural language. A new translation was released in 2007, meant to be truer to Le Corbusier's intention. Toward an Architecture consists of seven essays, three of which are further subdivided into three sections.
Before each section, Le Corbusier placed aphoristic arguments, all of which appear in a list at the front of the book, as a sort of rhetorical aid. Le Corbusier rearranged the essays from chronological sequence of their original publication in L'Espirit Nouveau to focus on architects and clients, academic ideas and practical ones. Le Corbusier did this because the book targeted architects and professors, rather than the wealthy clientele who received L'Espirit Nouveau. Le Corbusier begins the book with a fierce assertion: architecture is disconnected and lost in the past. On the other hand, he says, engineers have begun to embrace new technologies and build simple, effective structures that serve their purpose and are honest in construction. In order for architects to regain relevance, they must embrace the new artistic ideal; this artistic-spiritual element derives from a new way of life, manifested in architecture, which can stir a mind both rationally and in a way that a pretty building cannot..
Our eyes are constructed to enable us to see forms in light. Primary forms are beautiful forms because they can be appreciated. Architects today no longer achieve these simple forms. Working by calculation, engineers employ geometrical forms, satisfying our eyes by their geometry and our understanding by their mathematics. A mass is enveloped in its surface, a surface, divided up according to the directing and generating lines of the mass. Architects today are afraid of geometrical constituents of surfaces; the great problems of modern construction must have a geometrical solution. Forced to work in accordance with the strict needs of determined conditions, engineers make use of form-generating and form-defining elements, they create limpid and moving plastic facts.. The plan is the generator. Without plan, you have lack of order and wilfulness; the plan holds in itself the essence of sensation. The great problems of tomorrow, dictated by collective necessities, put the question of'plan' in a new form.
Modern life demands, is waiting for, a new kind of plan, both for the house and for the city. Le Corbusier argues from historical evidence that great architecture of the past has been guided by the use of what came to be known in English as "Regulating Lines." These lines, starting at significant areas of the main volumes, could be used to rationalize the placement of features in buildings. Le Corbusier lists off several structures he claims used this, including a speculative ancient temple form, Notre-Dame de Paris, the Capitol in Rome, the Petit Trianon, lastly, his prewar neoclassical work in Paris and some more contemporary modern buildings. In each case, he attempts to show how the lines augment the fine proportions and add a rational sense of coherence to the buildings. In this way, the order, the function, the volume of the space are drawn into one architectural moment. Le Corbusier argues that this method aids in formalizing the intuitive sense of aesthetics and integrating human proportions as well.
Le Corbusier claims in the text that no architects trained in the Beaux-arts technique use regulating lines, because of contradictory training, but most of the Grand Prix architects did use them if they were supplementing the basic techniques. The section, the most influential, it carries the