Formwork is temporary or permanent molds into which concrete or similar materials are poured. In the context of concrete construction, the falsework supports the shuttering molds. Formwork comes in several types: Traditional timber formwork; the formwork is built on site out of moisture-resistant particleboard. It is easy to produce but time-consuming for larger structures, the plywood facing has a short lifespan, it is still used extensively where the labour costs are lower than the costs for procuring reusable formwork. It is the most flexible type of formwork, so where other systems are in use, complicated sections may use it. Engineered Formwork System; this formwork is built out of prefabricated modules with a metal frame and covered on the application side with material having the wanted surface structure. The two major advantages of formwork systems, compared to traditional timber formwork, are speed of construction and lower life-cycle costs. Re-usable plastic formwork; these interlocking and modular systems are used to build variable, but simple, concrete structures.
The panels are lightweight and robust. They are suited for similar structure projects and low-cost, mass housing schemes. To get an added layer of protection against destructive weather, galvanized roofs will help by eliminating the risk of corrosion and rust; these types of modular enclosures can have load-bearing roofs to maximize space by stacking on top of one another. They can either be mounted on an existing roof, or constructed without a floor and lifted onto existing enclosures using a crane. Permanent Insulated Formwork; this formwork is assembled on site out of insulating concrete forms. The formwork stays in place after the concrete has cured, may provide advantages in terms of speed, superior thermal and acoustic insulation, space to run utilities within the EPS layer, integrated furring strip for cladding finishes. Stay-In-Place structural formwork systems; this formwork is assembled on site out of prefabricated fiber-reinforced plastic forms. These are in the shape of hollow tubes, are used for columns and piers.
The formwork stays in place after the concrete has cured and acts as axial and shear reinforcement, as well as serving to confine the concrete and prevent against environmental effects, such as corrosion and freeze-thaw cycles. Flexible formwork. In contrast to the rigid moulds described above, flexible formwork is a system that uses lightweight, high strength sheets of fabric to take advantage of the fluidity of concrete and create optimised, architecturally interesting, building forms. Using flexible formwork it is possible to cast optimised structures that use less concrete than an equivalent strength prismatic section, thereby offering the potential for significant embodied energy savings in new concrete structures; some of the earliest examples of concrete slabs were built by Roman engineers. Because concrete is quite strong in resisting compressive loads, but has poor tensile or torsional strength, these early structures consisted of arches and domes; the most notable concrete structure from this period is the Pantheon in Rome.
To mould this structure, temporary scaffolding and formwork or falsework was built in the future shape of the structure. These building techniques were not isolated to pouring concrete, but were and are used in masonry; because of the complexity and the limited production capacity of the building material, concrete’s rise as a favored building material did not occur until the invention of Portland cement and reinforced concrete. Similar to the traditional method, but stringers and joist are replaced with engineered wood beams and supports are replaced with adjustable metal props; this makes this method more reusable. On the dawn of the rival of concrete in slab structures, building techniques for the temporary structures were derived again from masonry and carpentry; the traditional slab formwork technique consists of supports out of lumber or young tree trunks, that support rows of stringers assembled 3 to 6 feet or 1 to 2 metres apart, depending on thickness of slab. Between these stringers, joists are positioned 12 inches, 30 centimeters apart upon which boards or plywood are placed.
The stringers and joists are 4 by 4 inch or 4 by 6 inch lumber. The most common imperial plywood thickness is ¾ inch and the most common metric thickness is 18 mm. Similar to the traditional method, but stringers and joist are replaced with aluminium forming systems or steel beams and supports are replaced with metal props; this makes this method more systematic and reusable. Aluminum beams are fabricated as telescoping units which allows them to span supports that are located at varying distances apart. Telescoping aluminium beams can be used and reused in the construction of structures of varying size; these systems consist of prefabricated steel or aluminum beams and formwork modules. Modules are no larger than 3 to 6 feet or 1 to 2 metres in size; the beams and formwork are set by hand and pinned, clipped, or screwed together. The advantages of a modular system are: does not require a crane to place the formwork, speed of construction with unskilled labor, formw
Guy Chevrette served as Parti Québécois leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly of Quebec, from 1987 to 1989. He was the MNA for the riding of Joliette-Montcalm from 1976 to 1981 and Joliette from 1981 to 2002; when former Premier Pierre-Marc Johnson quit politics in 1987 after losing the 1985 election, Chevrette became Leader of the Opposition. In 1988, the PQ elected a new leader, Jacques Parizeau, however Parizeau was not sitting in the National Assembly since he had resigned in 1984. In the 1989 election, Parizeau replaced Chevrette as Leader of the Opposition. After the PQ won the 1994 election, Chevrette served in various ministerial posts in the cabinet in the governments of Parizeau, Lucien Bouchard and Bernard Landry, he resigned and quit politics in 2002. In 2003, he founded a lobbying firm with longtime chief of staff Pierre Chateauvert. In 2005, he was appointed executive officer of the Quebec Forest Council, a private association defending the forestry industry. Politics of Quebec List of Quebec general elections List of Quebec leaders of the Opposition Timeline of Quebec history "Biography".
Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec
Quebec Autoroute 15
Autoroute 15 is a highway in western Quebec, Canada. It was, until the extension of Autoroute 25 was opened in 2011, the only constructed north-south autoroute to go out of Montreal on both sides. A-15 begins at the end of Interstate 87 at the United States border at Saint-Bernard-de-Lacolle and extends via Montreal to Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts with an eventual continuation beyond Mont-Tremblant; the total length of A-15 is 164 km, including a short concurrency with Autoroute 40 that connects the two main sections. This is one of the few autoroutes in Quebec; the southern section of A-15 connects the south shore suburbs of Montreal and is the primary trade corridor route between Montreal and New York City linking Quebec Autoroute 15 to Interstate 87 at the Canada-United States border at the Champlain-St. Bernard de Lacolle Border Crossing; this was the former Route 9, connected with US 9 on the western shore of Lake Champlain. In Brossard, it joins up with A-20 across the Champlain Bridge into Montreal.
The A-10 splits off immediately after crossing the bridge to head into downtown Montreal at the Bonaventure Expressway and the A-20 splits off shortly after at the Turcot Interchange, leaving the A-15 to continue northward as Autoroute Décarie until the Décarie Interchange with the A-40 at the point where it turns from the Trans-Canada into the Metropolitan Expressway. The route is connected to Autoroute 30 in Candiac, completed to Autoroute 20 in 2012 providing a quicker access to the south shore of Montreal, to southern communities located alongside Autoroute 15 and to the Canada–US border in Lacolle, it will give a quicker access from there to areas west of Montreal and Ottawa and Gatineau. The Décarie Autoroute is a sunken highway between the northbound and southbound lanes of Decarie Boulevard from the Metropolitan Autoroute at its northern end to Monkland Avenue and the Villa Maria Metro station at its southern end, it was built on a wide expanse of vacant land, donated to the city by the Décarie estate on the condition that only a streetcar line be established.
The decommissioning of the streetcar system in 1959 left the right-of-way as an obvious choice for a highway, so the Décarie Autoroute was dug there. South of Queen Mary Road, were a significant number of houses that were demolished. In order to avoid demolishing the Notre-Dame-de-Grâce church, the highway makes a slight westerly jog below Côte-Saint-Luc Road and runs through a short tunnel, before emerging between Addington and Botrel Streets and running down to Sherbrooke Street and Saint Jacques Street, where it spectacularly goes from below-ground to well above ground as it intersects with Autoroutes 20 and 720 in the infamous Turcot Interchange. Following the conversion from streetcar line to highway, the Décarie Estate unsuccessfully sued the city but was unable to prevail because they did not document their case well enough for the sympathetic court. Decarie Boulevard itself continues. Between Monkland Avenue and A 40, Decarie Boulevard serves as sort of a service road on both sides of the autoroute.
After its concurrency with A-40, the northern section of A-15 is the main freeway route to the Laurentians, or Laurentides, until it downgrades to Route 117. It links up to the northern suburbs of Montreal, as well as provides a connection to the A-440, A-640 and the A-50 in Mirabel; the first section from A-40 to Saint-Jérôme was opened in 1958 as a toll road, although the tolls were removed in 1985. This section was the first to be designed as an autoroute in the province, it was named Autoroute Montréal-Laurentides during the 1960s. Over the next years, it was extended north to Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts as a new connection to touristic and skiing destinations in the Laurentides including in Saint-Sauveur, Sainte-Adèle, Mont-Gabriel and Estérel. In the future, it is possible that the A-15 may continue farther north, past Mont-Tremblant, as Route 117 is an at-grade expressway with a freeway bypass of Saint-Jovite completed, the name Autoroute des Laurentides is recognized on the freeway bypass.
This section is numbered separately from the southern section. The northern route is part of the Trans-Canada Highway. Exit numbering resets at the two interchanges with Autoroute 40 in Montréal. On June 18, 2000, the southern portion of the Boulevard du Souvenir overpass in Laval, under reconstruction, collapsed into the roadway, killing one and injuring two when cars were crushed underneath the structure. Sixteen beams weighing about 70 tonnes each fell; the contractor was faulted for shoddy work. The arched concrete beams were unsecured and tipped over like dominoes, many of them breaking into pieces; the expressway has seen flooding. On July 14, 1987, a sudden torrential downpour caused by an HP supercell thunderstorm dumped over 100 millimetres of rain in just over one hour across the city; the Décarie Expressway, below-grade, was flooded a
Laval is a Canadian city in southwestern Quebec, north of Montreal. It forms its own administrative region of Quebec, it is the largest suburb of Montreal, the third largest municipality in the province of Quebec, the thirteenth largest city in Canada with a population of 422,993 in 2016. Laval is geographically separated from the mainland to the north by the Rivière des Mille Îles, from the Island of Montreal to the south by the Rivière des Prairies. Laval occupies all of Île Jésus as well as the Îles Laval. Laval constitutes the 13th region of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec as well as a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality and census division with geographical code 65, it constitutes the judicial district of Laval. The first European Settlers in Laval were Jesuits in 1636. Agriculture first appeared in Laval in 1670. In 1675, François de Montmorency-Laval gained control of the seigneury. In 1702 a parish municipality was founded, dedicated to Saint-François de Sales.
Beginning in 1845, after nearly 200 years of a rural nature, additional municipalities were created. The only built-up area on the island, Sainte-Rose, was incorporated as a village in 1850, remained as the main community for the remainder of the century. With the dawn of the 20th century came urbanization. Laval-des-Rapides became Laval's first city in 1912, followed by L'Abord-à-Plouffe being granted village status three years later. Laval-sur-le-Lac was founded in the same year on its tourist-based economy from Montrealers. Laval began to grow throughout the following years, due to its proximity to Montreal that made it an ideal suburb. To deal with problems caused by urbanization, amalgamations occurred; the amalgamation turned out to be so successful for the municipalities involved that the Quebec government decided to amalgamate the whole island into a single city of Laval in 1965. Laval was named after the first owner of Île Jésus, François de Montmorency-Laval, the first Roman Catholic Bishop of Quebec.
At the time, Laval had a population of 170,000. Laval became a Regional County Municipality in 1980. Prior to that, it was the County of Laval; the 14 municipalities, which existed prior to the incorporation of the amalgamated City of Laval on 6 August 1965, were: The island has developed over time, with most of the urban area in the central region and along the south and west river banks. Laval is bordered on the south by Montreal across the Rivière des Prairies, on the north by Les Moulins Regional County Municipality and by Thérèse-De Blainville Regional County Municipality and on the west by Deux-Montagnes Regional County Municipality across the Rivière des Mille Îles. According to the 2011 Census of Canada, the population of Laval was an estimated 401,553, an 8.9 percent increase from the earlier census in 2006. Women constitute 51.5% of the total population. Children under 14 years of age total 17.3%, while those of retirement age number 15.6% resulting in a median age of 40.9 years. Laval is linguistically diverse.
The 2011 census found that French was the only mother tongue of 60.8% of the population, was spoken most at home by 65.2% of residents. The next most common mother tongues were English, Italian, Spanish, Creoles and Portuguese; the city's longtime mayor, Gilles Vaillancourt, resigned on 9 November 2012, following allegations of corruption made against him in hearings of the provincial Charbonneau Commission. City councillor Basile Angelopoulos served as acting mayor until Alexandre Duplessis was selected in a council vote on 23 November. Duplessis, in turn, stepped down after just seven months in office after facing allegations of being implicated in a prostitution investigation. Past mayors have been: Jean-Noël Lavoie, 1965 Jacques Tétreault, 1965–1973 Lucien Paiement, 1973–1981 Claude Lefebvre, 1981–1989 Gilles Vaillancourt, 1989–2012 Alexandre Duplessis, 2012–2013 Martine Beaugrand, 2013 Marc Demers, 2013–presentOn 3 June 2013, the provincial government of Pauline Marois placed the city under trusteeship due to the ongoing corruption scandal affecting the city.
Florent Gagné, a former head of the Sûreté du Québec, will serve as the city's head trustee, with responsibility for reviewing and approving or rejecting all decisions made by city council. Municipal Affairs Minister Sylvain Gaudreault said that Laval's Mayor Alexandre Duplessis and his council will continue to serve, but council decisions must be approved by the trustees. Duplessis, in turn, resigned as mayor on 28 June 2013, after being implicated in a separate prostitution allegation. On a white-yellow background, the emblem of Laval illustrates the modernism of a city in full expansion; the sign of the city symbolizes the "L" of Laval. The colours have a significant meaning: Dark red represents the affluence and represents here the great economic potential of Laval. Blue symbolizes the installation of a human city; the "L" of Laval is made of cubes. The letters of the Laval signature are related one to the other to point out the merger of the 14 municipalities of Jesus island in 1965; the logo has existed since the flag since the 1990s.
Le Devoir is a French-language newspaper published in Montreal and distributed in Quebec and throughout Canada. It was founded by journalist and nationalist Henri Bourassa in 1910. Le Devoir is one of few independent large-circulation newspapers in Quebec in a market dominated by the media conglomerate Quebecor. Le Devoir was considered Canada's francophone newspaper of record, although in the 21st century it has been challenged for that title by the increased status of competitor La Presse. Henri Bourassa, a young and promising Liberal Party MP from Montreal, rose to national prominence in 1899 when he resigned his seat in Parliament in protest at the Liberal government's decision to send troops to support the British in the South African War of 1899–1902. Bourassa was opposed to all Canadian participation in British wars and would go on to become a key figure in fighting for an independent Canadian foreign policy, he is considered both a forebear of French Canadian nationalists as well as a Canadian nationalist more generally.
He was an early promoter of the bicultural Anglo-French conception of Canada, an impassioned advocate for the political and cultural equality of all French Canadians within Confederation, wherever they may reside. In 1910 he founded Le Devoir as an outlet for his anti-imperialist Ligue nationaliste and to fight for the rights of French Canadians within Confederation. In its maiden edition, published January 10, 1910, Bourassa explained the name and mission of the newspaper thus: "To ensure the triumph of ideas over appetites, of the public good over partisan interests, there is but one means: awake in the people, above all in the ruling classes, a sense of public duty in all its forms: religious duty, national duty, civic duty."Bourassa headed the newspaper until August 3, 1932, when he was replaced by Georges Pelletier. After the death of Pelletier in early 1947, the role of editor-in-chief would pass to Gérard Filion, ex-editor of La Terre de chez nous, under whose reign the paper would publish controversial critiques of Maurice Duplessis's government in Quebec by journalists and figures such as André Laurendeau.
Claude Ryan, a federalist, took the helm in 1964, followed by Jean-Louis Roy in 1980 and Benoit Lauzière in 1986. In 1990 the paper got its first woman editor-in-chief when Lise Bissonnette succeeded Lauzière establishing the paper's sovereigntist orientation following the federalist years of Ryan and his successors, she would continue on in her post until 1998, with the current editor-in-chief, Bernard Descôteaux, taking over the following year. While the paper has in recent times becomes associated with the Quebec nationalist movement, it is important to note that Bourassa himself was in fact opposed to the notion of a separate territorial entity for the majority French-speaking province, believing instead in an Anglo-French conception of Canada in which French-speaking Canadians would see their culture recognized as equal and protected and encouraged from coast to coast. Instances of this view can be found in both his campaign for Franco-Ontarian rights as well as his ardent opposition to controversial priest and historian Lionel Groulx in the 1920s following Groulx's musing on the possibility and desirability of a separate Quebec state.
This said, the history of Le Devoir would become characterized by varying phases of French Canadian and Québécois nationalism, opening its pages in the troubled 1930s to Groulx and his followers, yet seeing a federalist at its helm in 1964 in the form of Claude Ryan, who in 1978 would go on to become leader of the federalist Quebec Liberal Party. Ideologically, Le Devoir has been a chief voice against military intervention and in favour of pacifism and social democracy, opposing conscription in World War II and endorsing, under federalist Ryan's tenure, the election of René Lévesque's new socialist-inspired Parti Québécois in the 1976 election, despite its platform centred on Québécois nationalism. Once considered a reformist paper, it has been associated less with ideas that challenge the status quo of Quebec's economic and cultural issues. Le Devoir began as several other businesses besides the newspaper; these ventures included a general printer and publishing house, a bookstore, a travel agency.
Trips were organized to coincide with Catholic congresses around the world, as well as for "pilgrimages", allowing Quebecois to visit the French diaspora across North America. Such trips included Acadia and Louisiana; the purpose of the travel venture was, said Napoleon Lafortune, to "extend the'work' of the newspaper to defend the French language and the Catholic faith, but by other means." The unusual service lasted from 1924 to 1947, though it ended at the start of World War II when international civilian travel became difficult. Le Devoir has a low circulation of about 34,000 on weekdays and 58,000 on Saturdays, its financial situation has been precarious, recent years are no exception: in 2002, it had revenues of $14,376,530, with a meager profit of $13,524, while the previous year it had made a small loss. The newspaper's slogan is "Fais ce que dois". "Le Devoir" means "the duty" in French. In 1993, following a redesign by Lucie Lacava, a Montreal-based design consultant, the Society for News Design awarded Le Devoir Best of Show award for "Overall Design Excellence" and in 1994 the same group awarded it its Gold award in the Feature Design category.
In September 2011, the National Film Board of Canada and Le Devoir announced that they will be jointly hosting three interactiv
An overpass is a bridge, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway. An overpass and underpass together form a grade separation. Stack interchanges are made up of many overpasses; the world's first railroad flyover was constructed in 1843 by the London and Croydon Railway at Norwood Junction railway station to carry its atmospheric railway vehicles over the Brighton Main Line. The first flyover in India was opened on 14 April 1965 at Kemps Corner in Mumbai; the 48-foot-long bridge was constructed in about seven months by Shirish Patel at a cost of ₹17.5 lakh. In North American usage, a flyover is a high-level overpass, built above main overpass lanes, or a bridge built over what had been an at-grade intersection. Traffic engineers refer to the latter as a grade separation. A flyover may be an extra ramp added to an existing interchange, either replacing an existing cloverleaf loop with a higher, faster ramp that bears left, but may be built as a right or left exit. A cloverleaf or partial cloverleaf contains some 270 degree loops, which can slow traffic and can be difficult to construct with multiple lanes.
Where all such turns are replaced with flyovers only 90 degree turns are needed, there may be four or more distinct levels of traffic. Depending upon design, traffic may flow in all directions near open road speeds. For more examples see Freeway interchange. A pedestrian overpass allows pedestrians safe crossing over busy roads without impacting traffic. Railway overpasses are used to replace level crossings as a safer alternative. Using overpasses allows for unobstructed rail traffic to flow without conflicting with vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Rapid transit systems use complete grade separation of their rights of way to avoid traffic interference with frequent and reliable service. Railroads use balloon loops and flying junctions instead of flat junctions, as a way to reverse direction and to avoid trains conflicting with those on other tracks. Footbridge Skyway Stack interchange Viaduct Wildlife crossing Overpass at Encyclopædia Britannica
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is