Borah Peak is the highest mountain in the U. S. state of Idaho and one of the most prominent peaks in the contiguous states. It is located in the central section of the Lost River Range, within the Challis National Forest in eastern Custer County; the mountain was nameless until it was discovered to be higher than Hyndman Peak regarded as the state's highest point. In February 1934, the U. S. Geological Survey named it for William Borah, the prominent senior U. S. Senator from Idaho, who had served for nearly 27 years at the time and was dean of the Senate. An outspoken isolationist, the "Lion of Idaho" ran for president two years in 1936, but did not win the Republican nomination, died in office in 1940; the 1983 Borah Peak earthquake occurred on Friday, October 28, at 8:06:09 MDT in the Lost River Range at Borah Peak in central Idaho, United States, measuring 6.9 on the moment magnitude scale. Mount Borah rose the Lost River Valley in that vicinity dropped about 8 feet; the peak was scarred on the western side, the mark is still visible.
Two children in Challis were the only fatalities of the quake, struck by falling masonry while walking to elementary school. The normal route involves ascending 5,262 vertical feet from the trailhead to the summit in just over 3.5 miles. This route on the southwest ridge, the most popular route, is a strenuous hike for the most part until one reaches a Class 4 arête just before the main summit crest; this point is known as Chickenout Ridge as many people will abort the attempt once they see the hazards up close. In the cooler seasons this crossing involves a traverse over snow, with steeply slanting slopes on either side. An ice axe, the ability to use it, is recommended for this section when icy. Borah Peak's north face is one of Idaho's only year-round snow climbs and provides a much greater challenge than the normal route; the face features a number of grade II class 5 routes on mixed terrain. Three climbers have died on Borah Peak. Two climbers ascending the northwest ridge in 1977 were killed in an avalanche.
Another climber in 1987 lost his life on a glissade during descent. List of mountains of Idaho List of U. S. states by elevation Borah Peak Detailed Guide & Trip Report from Mountainouswords.com Mount Borah Climbing Guide - photos of the normal route Borah Peak Trip Report Faulting information: http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/12/11/664.abstract
Mount Frissell, 2,454 feet, located on the border of southwest Massachusetts and northwest Connecticut, is a prominent peak of the Taconic Range. The peak and northern part of the mountain are located within Massachusetts, while the southern slope of Mount Frissell is located within Connecticut and rises to the highest elevation within that state, 2,379 feet; the high-point marker for Connecticut is on the border with Massachusetts at 42.049633°N 73.483042°W / 42.049633. Bear Mountain, located 1.3 miles to the east, is the highest mountain summit in Connecticut. Most hikers reach the state high point by a rather short route starting high up in the col between Mt. Frissell and Bear Mountain, at an elevation of around 1,800 feet; the mountain is located within the towns of Mount Washington and Salisbury, Connecticut. The south side of Mount Frissell drains into Riga Lake and South Pond into Wachocostinook Brook, Salmon Creek, the Housatonic River, Long Island Sound; the northwest side drains into Ashley Hill Brook, thence Bash Bish Brook, the Roeliff Jansen Kill, the Hudson River, Upper New York Bay.
The northeast side drains into Sages Ravine, thence into Schenob Brook, the Hubbard Brook, the Housatonic River, Long Island Sound. Mount Frissell is bordered by Round Mountain to the southeast, Mount Ashley to the north, Brace Mountain to the west. Mount Frissell is traversed by the Mount Frissell Trail which connects with the South Taconic Trail to the west and the Appalachian Trail to the east. Outline of Connecticut Index of Connecticut-related articles List of U. S. states by elevation Mountain peaks of North America Mountain peaks of the United States "Mount Frissell". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-11-28. "Mount Frissell". ListsOfJohn.com. "Mount Frissell". SummitPost.org. Mount Frissell on Peakery.com
A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Benton is a census-designated place in Mono County, United States. It is located 3 miles east-northeast of the community of Benton Hot Springs and 32 miles north of the community of Bishop, at an elevation of 5387 feet; the population was 280 at the 2010 census, up from 196 reported at 2000 by Mono County. Benton is in area codes 442 and 760 and ZIP code 93512, it is known as Benton Hot Springs because of the hot springs it features. Benton was once a small mining town with up to 5,000 inhabitants. Many of the original buildings still remain, but the town has never died; the 160 acre Benton Paiute reservation is in the vicinity with about 50 full-time residents. Benton is one of the oldest existing towns in Mono County. Benton was founded by the western Indians; as the nearby towns of Bodie and Aurora grew in size and population, Benton soon became a checkpoint for travelers on the way south in 1852. Gold was discovered in the hills of Benton in 1862, its population grew. After hitting the initial strike of gold, not much more was found, but Benton's profits were soon from silver.
Unlike other mining towns, Benton was able to provide enough for the town to thrive and flourish for 50 years. Although most mining activity occurred between 1862 and 1890, the town never collapsed; the Carson and Colorado Railroad reached Benton in 1883. Benton lies along U. S. Route 6, outside of Bishop, en route to remote areas of Nevada; the terrain is described as high desert at an elevation of 5,377 feet above sea level. Although Benton is a small town, it is surrounded by other small towns and cities including Mammoth Lakes, Death Valley, Lee Vining, June Lake, Tom's Place, Crowley Lake, Convict Lake; the Nevada state line is about 6 miles northeast of Benton. US Route 6 crosses this border climbs over 7,150 ft. Montgomery Pass at the northern end of the White Mountains. Benton has excellent views of 13,141 ft. Boundary Peak, Nevada's highest, 13,441 ft. Montgomery Peak just inside California. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 28.5 square miles, 99.93% of it land, 0.07% of it water.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Benton had a population of 280. The population density was 9.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Benton was 199 White,0 African American, 37 Native American, 1 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 15 from other races, 5 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 38 persons; the Census reported that 280 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 122 households, out of which 29 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 59 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 9 had a female householder with no husband present, 7 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 14 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 1 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 40 households were made up of individuals and 10 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30. There were 75 families; the population was spread out with 54 people under the age of 18, 10 people aged 18 to 24, 58 people aged 25 to 44, 123 people aged 45 to 64, 35 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 48.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.6 males. There were 159 housing units at an average density of 5.6 per square mile, of which 86 were owner-occupied, 36 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 191 people lived in 89 people lived in rental housing units. Benton is in the Eastern Sierra Unified School District. An elementary school, Edna Beaman Elementary, is located in town. There was a high school, closed at the end of the 2011-2012 school year; the hot springs are one of the major attractions in Benton, as well as fine bed and breakfast rooms and overnight soaking tubs. With the abandonment of travelers' services at nearby Montgomery Pass, it offers the only lodging and gas station services within a 30-mile radius. There are several old mines in the surrounding hills that have been a source of interest to tourists as well as the hiking and mountain biking trails in the area. Many of the original buildings from the old mine town still exist and are open to exploration, including the cemetery.
Benton is a departure point for hiking to Nevada high point Boundary Peak via a 2WD road to Queen Mine at 9,200 ft or a 4WD extension to Kennedy Saddle at 9,900 ft
Inyo National Forest
Inyo National Forest is a United States National Forest covering parts of the eastern Sierra Nevada of California and the White Mountains of California and Nevada. The forest hosts several superlatives, including Mount Whitney, the highest point in the contiguous United States; the forest, encompassing much of Owens Valley, was established by Theodore Roosevelt as a way of sectioning off land to accommodate the Los Angeles Aqueduct project in 1907, making the Inyo National Forest one of the least wooded forests in the United States' system. The forest covers 1,903,381 acres and includes nine designated wilderness areas which protect over 800,000 acres. Most of the forest is in California, it stretches from the eastern side of Yosemite to south of Sequoia National Park. Geographically it is split in one on each side of the Long Valley Caldera and Owens Valley; the John Muir Wilderness is a part of the Inyo National Forest and abuts Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park along the crest of the Sierra.
The northern part of the Inyo National Forest is preserved as a part of the Ansel Adams Wilderness area, which borders Yosemite National Park. Together, the wilderness areas and parks form one contiguous area of protected wilderness of more than 1.5 million acres. The Inyo National Forest was named after Inyo County, California, in which much of the forest resides; the name "Inyo" comes from a Native American word meaning "dwelling place of the great spirit". The forest spans parts of Inyo, Tulare and Madera counties in California, Esmeralda and Mineral counties in Nevada; the forest's headquarters are in Bishop, with ranger district offices in Bishop, Lee Vining, Lone Pine, Mammoth Lakes. The forest was established on May 25, 1907. On July 1, 1945 land from the former Mono National Forest was added. There are nine wilderness areas lying within Inyo NF that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; some of these extend into other National Forests, as indicated: Ansel Adams Wilderness Boundary Peak Wilderness Golden Trout Wilderness Hoover Wilderness Inyo Mountains Wilderness John Muir Wilderness Owens River Headwaters Wilderness South Sierra Wilderness White Mountains Wilderness The Inyo National Forest contains the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest, which protects specimens of Great Basin bristlecone pines.
One of these bristlecone pines is "Methuselah", the second oldest known non-clonal living tree on earth at more than 4,839 years old. The forest harbors an estimated 238,000 acres of old-growth forests; the most abundant trees in these forests are Jeffrey pine. Inyo National Forest was the site for Ride the High Country starring Randolph Scott and Joel McCrea, Nevada Smith starring Steve McQueen, Will Penny starring Charlton Heston, Joe Kidd and High Plains Drifter starring Clint Eastwood, as well as the sci-fi film Star Trek: Insurrection. Inyo National Forest served as the filming location for the second half of the second episode in the BBC's Walking with Monsters documentary series, set in early Permian Germany. Popular within Inyo National Forest are: Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest Convict Lake June Lake Lake Sabrina Lone Pine Mammoth Lakes Mono Lake Mono-Inyo Craters Mount Whitney Tioga Lake Tioga Pass Westgard Pass Devils Postpile National Monument Mono Lake Owens Valley Sierra Nevada White Mountains Inyo National Forest - U.
S. Forest Service Inyo National Forest map - U. S. Forest Service
Mount Elbert is the highest summit of the Rocky Mountains of North America and the highest point in the U. S. state of the entire Mississippi River drainage basin. The ultra-prominent 14,440-foot fourteener is the highest peak in the Sawatch Range and the second-highest summit in the contiguous United States after Mount Whitney. Mount Elbert is located in San Isabel National Forest, 12.1 miles southwest of the City of Leadville in Lake County, Colorado. The mountain was named in honor of a Colorado statesman, Samuel Hitt Elbert, active in the formative period of the state and Governor of the Territory of Colorado from 1873 to 1874. Henry W. Stuckle of the Hayden Survey was the first to record an ascent of the peak, in 1874; the easiest and most popular climbing routes are categorized as Class 1 to 2 or A+ in mountaineering parlance. Mount Elbert is therefore referred to as the "gentle giant" that tops all others in the Rocky Mountains. Mount Elbert is visible to the southwest of Leadville snow-capped in the summer.
Many other fourteeners surround Elbert in all directions, it is close to central Colorado's Collegiate Peaks. The neighboring Mount Massive, to the north, is the second-highest peak in the Rocky Mountains and the third-highest in the contiguous United States, La Plata Peak, to the south, is the fifth-highest in the Rockies; the community of Twin Lakes lies at the base of Mount Elbert, Denver is about 130 miles to the east, Vail is 50 miles to the north, Aspen is 40 miles to the west. Leadville, about 16 miles to the northeast, is the nearest large town. Elbert's parent peak is Mount Whitney in California. Including Alaska and Hawaii, Mount Elbert is the fourteenth-highest mountain in the United States. Weather conditions change and afternoon thunderstorms are common in the summertime. An electrical storm on the mountain's summit was considered remarkable enough to be reported in the July 1894 issue of Science. Mount Elbert is part of the Sawatch Range, an uplift of the Laramide Orogeny which separated from the Mosquito Range to the east around 28 million years ago.
The tops of this range were glaciated, leaving behind characteristic summit features and other such clues. For example, the base of Elbert on the eastern side exhibits large igneous and metamorphic rocks deposited when the glaciers receded, which lie on a lateral moraine. Further up the eastern side there is a large cirque with a small tarn. There are lakes to both the north and south and Twin Lakes respectively. Mount Elbert is composed of quartzite. However, the summit ridge consists of metamorphic basement rock, Pre-Cambrian in origin and about 1.7 billion years old. There are various igneous intrusions including pegmatite, as well as bands of gneiss and schist. Unlike mountains of similar altitude elsewhere, Elbert lacks both a permanent snowpack and a prominent north-facing cirque, which can be attributed to its position among other mountains of similar height, causing it to receive small quantities of precipitation. Mount Elbert was named by miners in honor of Samuel Hitt Elbert, the governor of the then-Territory of Colorado, because he brokered a treaty in September 1873 with the Ute tribe that opened up more than 3,000,000 acres of reservation land to mining and railroad activity.
The first recorded ascent of the peak was by H. W. Stuckle in 1874, surveying the mountain as part of the Hayden Survey. Measured as 14,433 feet in height, Mount Elbert's elevation was adjusted to 14,440 feet following a re-evaluation of mapped elevations, which sparked protests; the actual change was made in 1988 as a result of the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. A matter of some contention arose after the Great Depression over the heights of Elbert and its neighbor Mount Massive, which differ in elevation by only 12 feet; this led to an ongoing dispute that came to a head with the Mount Massive supporters building large piles of stones on the summit to boost its height, only to have the Mount Elbert proponents demolish them. The effort was unsuccessful and Mount Elbert has remained the highest peak in Colorado; the first motorized ascent of Elbert occurred in 1949, when a Jeep was driven to the summit to judge suitability for skiing development. The summit of Mount Elbert is an alpine environment, featuring plants such as Phacelia sericea, Hymenoxys grandiflora, Geum rossii.
Noted are Carex atrata var. pullata, Salix desertorum, Platanthera hyperborea, Thalictrum fendleri, Aquilegia canadensis, Chenopodium album, Gentiana detonsa var. hallii, Bigelovia parryi. Below treeline the mountain is forested, with the lower slopes covered with a mixture of lodgepole pine, spruce and fir; some of the fauna reported on the climb to the summit include black bears, mule deer and pocket gophers. Elk, grouse and bighorn sheep are present in the area during the summer. There are three main routes which ascend the mountain, all of which gain over 4,100 feet of elevation; the standard route ascends the peak from the east, starting from the Colorado Trail just north of Twin Lakes. The 4.6 miles long North Elbert Trail begins close to the Elbert Creek Campground, gains about 4,500 feet. The trail is open to equestrians, mountain bikers and hunte