Anglet is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. Anglet lies in the traditional province of Labourd of the Northern Basque Country while its inhabitants have traditionally spoken Gascon; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Angloyes. Anglet commune is part of the urban area of Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz located south-west of the city and part of the Basque province of Labourd; the commune is 10% covered with pine forests, including those of Pignada and Chiberta. The sandy coast starts 200 km north at the Pointe de Grave on the shore of the estuary of the Gironde and ends in Anglet, it is punctuated by numerous seawalls cutting the shore. At Anglet the outline of the public maritime domain has been updated and a coastal reserve forty metres wide has been observed since 1978. With its many bays and inlets this area is a laboratory for monitoring techniques for studying coastal erosion; the Anglet coast has 11 beaches from north to south: Beach of la Barre.
The French Basque Coast designates the part of the Aquitaine coast between the Chambre d'Amour cave at Anglet and the Spanish border. Anglet has an airport Aéroport de Biarritz-Anglet-Bayonne some 2 kilometres south of the town accessible from the D810 road, it has flights to destinations across France as well as Europe. Anglet is served by the A63 autoroute, the D810 road from Bayonne to Anglet town, the D260 road from Bayonne to the northern part of the commune and continuing south-west towards Biarritz. During the winter season of 2013/2014 the A1, A2, C, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 14, N Chronoplus bus routes operated by the Transdev agglomeration de Bayonne serve Anglet connecting it to other communes in the metropolitan area: Bayonne, Bidart, Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, Tarnos; the Adour flows into the Atlantic Ocean between Anglet on the left bank and Tarnos on the right bank. The commune is traversed by the following tributaries of the Adour: the Sarraoute the Artigou the Camoudiet the Horc the Prade the Gaoube the Houillassat the Gaoubole the Hourclat the Larraoudille the Bon the Adour de Gripp the May d'Escaret the Arrimoula the Adour de Lesponne the Serris The origin of the name Anglet is Roman from the Latin angulus, "Land shaped like a wedge" or "low terrain or depression".
This last hypothesis was confirmed by Jean-Baptiste Orpustan who indicated that the official name and the basque name derived from two distinct strains of the same origin: angellu, a diminutive of Angulu, cited by L. Michelena who affirmed that "low terrain" applies to "all the sandy beach-front in the commune"; the Basque name of the commune is Angelu and the Gascon name is Anglet. The inhabitants are known as Anglòi in Angeluar in Basque; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque ToponymyOrigins: Cartulary: Cartulary of Bayonne or Livre d'Or Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Chapter: Titles of the Chapter of Bayonne Saint-Claire: Titles of the Abbey of Sainte-Claire of Bayonne Based on discoveries made, the oldest land in Anglet dates back to prehistory and Mousterian culture.
Various flint tools characteristic of the Mousterian period have been discovered. The use of splinters on both faces to make sharp points allows working on skins and making axes with wooden handles. Around Anglet, including the Tower of Lannes and Sutar, open air locations high above low swampy parts were preferred as in other parts of Basque Country; the prefecture of the Aquitaine region, considering the knowledge elements of the archaeological heritage of the commune identified in the archaeological database of the Regional Directorate of Cultural Affairs of Aquitaine issued an order for the following sites: Brindos, Cote 50, La Ballastière of Micoteau, Hondritz referenced as having Paleolithic occupation. The sites in the Rue du Colombier and the Tower of Lannes are referenced to as prehistoric sites of refuge which refers to occupation in proto-historic times. During the Roman era, Bayonne served as a castrum for a cohort large enough for a rampart to be built surrounding an area somewhat excessive for an Army, but no remains indicate that there was a cit
Angaïs is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Angaïsaises. Angaïs is located in the urban area of Pau 6 km south of Ousse. Access to the commune is by the D38 road from Ousse in the north-west passing through the town and continuing south to Baudreix; the D215 comes from near Assat in the west passing through the town and continuing south-east to Beuste. The D938 passes through the south-western corner of the commune and the D839 from Boeil-Bezing forms the southern border of the commune; the north-east of the commune is forested for about 25% of the total land area with the rest of the commune outside the town area farmland. Bus route 835 of the Interurban Network of Pyrenees Atlantiques from Bénéjacq to Pau services the commune; the Lagoin river flows through the centre of the commune from south-east to north-west continuing to join the Gave de Pau near Pau. The commune name in béarnais is Angais.
Brigitte Jobbe-Duval indicated. She mentioned that the people were nicknamed éleveurs de mules; the breeding of these animals had been one of the most productive industries of the Nay plain and of the commune of Angaïs. The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Homages: Homages of Béarn Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Assat: Fors de Béarn Census: Census of Béarn Navarrenx: Notaries of Navarrenx Paul Raymond noted on opage 6 of his 1863 dictionary that the commune once had a Lay Abbey, vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. In 1385 there were 4 fires in the commune and it depended on the bailiwick of Pau. On 2 February 1617 Louis de Colom, lay abbot of Angaïs and a trustee of Béarn, made an important speech which united the Catholics and Protestants of Béarn to resist the king's wishes, to oppose the execution of any act that may lead to political annexation of Béarn to France.
In the same year the First Huguenot Rebellion occurred. The Barony of Angaïs was created in 1656 by Louis XIV and consisted of Beuste and Sendets. Isaac de Navailles appears to have been the first Baron, Henri de Navailles-Labatut was Baron of Angaïs in the mid-19th century; the Uzerte of Angaïs refers to a local phenomenon of plague, documented in 1789. The inhabitants of Angaïs stated that every year the plague was transported by clear water - which rose above the village on the plain on the upper side of the wooded area - in April and June, it caused fatal diseases in animals. The poisoned water harmed plants, such as maize, flax and vegetables in gardens. List of Successive Mayors The commune is part of six inter-communal structures: the Community of communes of Pays de Nay; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-Iraty. The Château of Angaïs is registered as an historical monument; the Parish Church of Notre-Dame is registered as an historical monument. Inside the church the Altar and Retable in the south side chapel are registered as historical objects; the Chemin Henri-IV borders the commune in the north-east. It is a walking trail that connects the Château of Franqueville to Bizanos near Pau at the Lake of Lourdes, it alternates forest trails with dirt roads and offers walkers panoramic views of the Pyrenees, the foothills, the plains. About 35 kilometres long, the route can be divided up between the various roads, it is possible to go on foot, on horseback, or by bicycle but motor vehicles are forbidden. The commune has a primary school. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Angaïs on Lion1906 Angais on the 1750 Cassini Map Angaïs on the INSEE website INSEE
Anos is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anosiens or Anosiennes Anos is located some 15 km north-east of Pau and 10 km south-east of Auriac. Access to the commune is by road D39 from Morlaas in the south passing north through the commune and the village and continuing north to join the D834 just north of Astis. Several other country roads pass through the commune; the Lau river forms the western border of the commune with the eastern shore of the Lake of Saint-Amour forming the part just west of the village. The Lau flows north to join the Luy de France which forms the eastern border of the commune; the commune name in Béarnais is Anòs. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval indicates that Anos could be of Gallic origin being the name of the property owner Andus plus the suffix -ossu with a proposed meaning of "Domain of Andus"; the name Anos was mentioned in 1243 in the Titles of Ossau and in the Cassini map in 1750).
Paul Raymond noted on page 6 of the 1863 dictionary that in the 14th century Anos belonged to the community of Preachers of Morlaàs. The commune was part of the archdeaconry of Vic-Bihl which depended on the diocese of Lescar of which Lembeye was the capital. List of Successive Mayors Anos is part of five inter-communal structures: The Community of communes of Pays de Morlaàs. In 2009 the commune had 193 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Anos is part of the Urban area of Pau; the Maison Tachoères farmhouse is registered as an historical monument. Other Houses and Farms are registered as historical monuments; the Parish Church of Saint-Laurent is registered as an historical monument.
An artificial lake called Lake Saint-Armou or Lake of Anos is on the border between the two communes. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Anos on Lion1906 Anos on Google Maps Anos on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Anos on the 1750 Cassini Map Anos on the INSEE website INSEE
Ance Féas is a commune in the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, southwestern France. The municipality was established on 1 January 2017 by merger of the former communes of Féas and Ance. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Aramits is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aramitsiennes. Aramits is located in part of the Barétous valley, the westernmost of the three main valleys of Béarn crossing the Pyrenees, it is located 3 km north of Arette. Access is by the D919 road from Ance in the north-east to the village continuing to Lanne-en-Baretous in the south-west. There are the minor roads D659 from the village north to join the D159 on the northern border and the D133 which goes south from the village to Arette. Bus route 848 of the Inter-urban network of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, which connects La Pierre Saint-Martin to Oloron-Sainte-Marie, has a stop in Aramits. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is bisected from south-west to north-east by: Le Vert a tributary of the Gave d'Oloron which gathers many tributaries of its own in the commune including the Aurone, the Lancy, the Littos, the Talou Gros, by the arrècs of Bugalaran, Bitole and Labaigt.
The tributaries of the Joos: the Arriou de Sulu and the Bouhatéko erreka flow through the commune. The commune name in béarnais is Aràmits. For Brigitte Jobbé-Duval, the origin of the name is from the Basque aran and -itz giving "place of valleys" or "confluence", it would indicate that the inhabitants were once nicknamed grenouilles - a name for the inhabitants of wetlands). The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Ossau: Titles of the Ossau Valley Luntz: Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Aspe: Titles of the Aspe Valley Census: Census of Béarn Cour Majour: Regulations of the Cour Majour Military: Military Inspection of Béarn Paul Raymond on page 7 of his 1863 dictionary that Aramits is the former capital of the Barétous valley and that there were two Lay Abbeys, vassals of the Viscounts of Béarn: The Abadie-Susan and Abadie-Jusan.
He further noted that in 1385 there were 52 fires at Aramits and it depended on the bailiwick of Oloron. Shortly before, the priest of Aramits played the role of mediator in conflicts between the Navarrese and the Bearnese which gave birth to the treaty called the Junta de Roncal, leading to the yearly tribute of the three cows paid by Aramits to Isaba. In 1790, the Canton of Aramits included Esquiule. On 13 March 2000 Aramits was hit by an earthquake of magnitude 4.2. List of Successive Mayors Aramits is part of five inter-communal structures: The Community of communes of the Barétous Valley. In 2009 the commune had 677 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The economy of the town is oriented toward agriculture and livestock.
It is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. The Parish church of Saint-Vincent is registered as an historical monument, it was a former Lay Abbey with the remains of a portal from the 17th century but the old church was demolished in 1880. The new Romanesque-Byzantine style church was built from 1884 to 1886; the Sommet de Souek is 623 metres high The Soum d'Unars is 604 metres The Barrat de Sottou is 556 metres. The commune has a primary school. Rugby Union: the Entente Aramits plays in Fédérale 2. Pierre Capdevielle played there from 1985 to 1994. Henri d'Aramitz lived in the commune, he was the son of Charles Aramitz and a sergeant in the company of musketeers, the inspiration for Aramis in the novels The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After and The Vicomte de Bragelonne by Alexandre Dumas. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Aramits Official web site Aramits on Lion1906 Aramits on Google Maps Aramits on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aramits on the 1750 Cassini Map Aramits on the INSEE website INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine