Auradou is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Lot-et-Garonne department INSEE statistics
The Gallic Empire or the Gallic Roman Empire are names used in modern historiography for a breakaway part of the Roman Empire that functioned de facto as a separate state from 260 to 274. It originated during the Crisis of the Third Century, when a series of Roman military leaders and aristocrats declared themselves emperors and took control of Gaul and adjacent provinces without attempting to conquer Italy or otherwise seize the central Roman administrative apparatus, it was established by Postumus in 260 in the wake of barbarian invasions and instability in Rome, at its height included the territories of Germania, Gaul and Hispania. After Postumus' assassination in 268 it lost much of its territory, but continued under a number of emperors and usurpers, it was retaken by Roman emperor Aurelian after the Battle of Châlons in 274. The Roman Crisis of the Third Century continued as the Emperor Valerian was defeated and captured by the Sassanid Empire of Persia in the Battle of Edessa, together with a large part of the Roman field army in the east.
This left his son Gallienus in shaky control. Shortly thereafter, the Palmyrene Empire, which came to encompass Egypt, Syria and Arabia Petraea broke away; the governors in Pannonia staged unsuccessful local revolts. The Emperor left for the Danube to attend to their disruption; this left Postumus, governor of Germania Superior and Inferior, in charge at the Rhine border. An exceptional administrator, Postumus had ably protected Germania Inferior against an invasion led by the Franks in the summer of 260. In fact, Postumus defeated the Frankish forces at Empel so decisively, that there would be no further Germanic raids for 10 years; this all would have combined to make Postumus one of the most powerful men in the western reaches of the Roman empire. The imperial heir Saloninus and the praetorian prefect Silvanus remained at Colonia Agrippina, to keep the young heir out of danger and also as a check on Postumus' ambitions. Before long, Postumus besieged Colonia Agrippina and put the young heir and his guardian to death, making his revolt official.
Postumus is thought to have established his capital here or at Augusta Treverorum, with Lugdunum becoming an important city in the empire. The Gallic Empire had its own praetorian guard, two annually elected consuls and its own senate. According to the numismatic evidence, Postumus himself held the office of consul five times. Postumus fended off a military incursion by Gallienus in 263, was never challenged by him again. However, in early 268 he was challenged by Laelianus one of his commanders, declared emperor at Mogontiacum by his Legio XXII Primigenia. Postumus retook Mogontiacum and Laelianus was killed. Postumus himself, was overthrown and killed by his own troops because he did not allow them to sack the city. After the death of Postumus, the Gallic Empire began to decline; the Roman Emperor, Claudius Gothicus, re-established Roman authority in Gallia Narbonensis and parts of Gallia Aquitania, there is some evidence that the provinces of Hispania, which did not recognize the subsequent Gallic Emperors, may have realigned with Rome then.
Marius was instated as Emperor upon Postumus' death, but died shortly after. Subsequently, Victorinus came to power, being recognized as Emperor in northern Gaul and Britannia, but not in Hispania. Victorinus spent most of his reign dealing with insurgencies and attempting to recover the Gaulish territories taken by Claudius Gothicus, he was assassinated in 271, but his mother Victoria took control of his troops and used her power to influence the selection of his successor. With Victoria's support, Tetricus was made Emperor, was recognized in Britannia and the parts of Gaul still controlled by the Empire. Tetricus fought off Germanic barbarians who had begun ravaging Gaul after the death of Victorinus, was able to re-take Gallia Aquitania and western Gallia Narbonensis while the Roman Emperor, was engaging Queen Zenobia's Palmyrene Empire in the east, he established the imperial court at Trier, in 273 he elevated his son named Tetricus, to the rank of Caesar. The following year the younger Tetricus was made co-consul, but the Empire grew weak from internal strife, including a mutiny led by the usurper Faustinus.
By that time Aurelian had made plans to reconquer the west. He moved into Gaul and defeated Tetricus at the Battle of Châlons in 274; this detail may be propaganda, but either way, Aurelian was victorious, the Gallic Empire was ended. In contrast with his propaganda after the recent defeat of Zenobia, Aurelian did not present his recapture of Gaul as a victory over a foreign enemy, indeed many officials who had served in the army and administration of the Gallic Empire continued their careers—including Tetricus, appointed to an administrative post in Italy; the Gallic Empire was symptomatic of the fragmentation of power during the third-century crisis. It has been taken to represent autonomous trends in the western provinces, including proto-feudalistic tendencies among the Gaulish land-owning class whose support has sometimes been thought to have underpinned the strength of the Gallic Empire, an interplay between the strength of Roman institutions and the growing salience of provincial concerns.
Baleyssagues is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Lot-et-Garonne department INSEE statistics
Lot-et-Garonne is a department in the southwest of France named after the Lot and Garonne rivers. Lot-et-Garonne is one of the original eighty-three departments created on March 4, 1790, as a result of the French Revolution, it was created from part of the province of Gascony. Several of the original southeastern cantons in the arrondissements of Agen and Villeneuve-sur-Lot were separated from it in 1808 to become a part of the newly created department of Tarn-et-Garonne. Lot-et-Garonne is part of the current region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine and is surrounded by the departments of Lot, Tarn-et-Garonne, Landes and Dordogne; the north of the department is composed of limestone hills. Between Lot and Garonne, there is a plateau carved by many valleys. In the west of the department, the Landes forest is planted in sand. It's composed of maritime pines. Between the forest and Agen, there is the Albret, a hilly country. Food-processing and pharmaceuticals are all major industries of the department; the inhabitants of the department are called Lot-et-Garonnais.
Cantons of the Lot-et-Garonne department Communes of the Lot-et-Garonne department Arrondissements of the Lot-et-Garonne department Roman Catholic Diocese of Agen Prefecture website General Council website Lot-et-Garonne at Curlie Chamber of Commerce and Industry website
Andiran is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Lot-et-Garonne department INSEE statistics
Bazens is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in southwestern France. Communes of the Lot-et-Garonne department INSEE statistics
A barbarian is a human, perceived to be either uncivilized or primitive. The designation is applied as generalization based on a popular stereotype. Alternatively, they may instead be romanticised as noble savages. In idiomatic or figurative usage, a "barbarian" may be an individual reference to a brutal, cruel and insensitive person; the term originates from the Greek: βάρβαρος. In Ancient Greece, the Greeks used the term towards those who did not speak Greek and follow classical Greek customs. In Ancient Rome, the Romans used the term towards tribal non-Romans such as the Germanics, Gauls, Thracians, Berbers and Sarmatians. In the early modern period and sometimes the Byzantine Greeks used it for the Turks, in a pejorative manner; the Ancient Greek name βάρβαρος, "barbarian", was an antonym for πολίτης, "citizen". The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek, pa-pa-ro, written in Linear B syllabic script; the Greeks used the term barbarian for all non-Greek-speaking peoples, including the Egyptians, Persians and Phoenicians, emphasizing their otherness.
According to Greek writers, this was because the language they spoke sounded to Greeks like gibberish represented by the sounds "bar..bar... However, in various occasions, the term was used by Greeks the Athenians, to deride other Greek tribes and states but fellow Athenians, in a pejorative and politically motivated manner. Of course, the term carried a cultural dimension to its dual meaning; the verb βαρβαρίζω in ancient Greek meant to behave or talk like a barbarian, or to hold with the barbarians. Plato rejected the Greek–barbarian dichotomy as a logical absurdity on just such grounds: dividing the world into Greeks and non-Greeks told one nothing about the second group, yet Plato used the term barbarian in his seventh letter. In Homer's works, the term appeared only once, in the form βαρβαρόφωνος, used of the Carians fighting for Troy during the Trojan War. In general, the concept of barbaros did not figure in archaic literature before the 5th century BC, it has been suggested that the "barbarophonoi" in the Iliad signifies not those who spoke a non-Greek language but those who spoke Greek badly.
A change occurred in the connotations of the word after the Greco-Persian Wars in the first half of the 5th century BC. Here a hasty coalition of Greeks defeated the vast Persian Empire. Indeed, in the Greek of this period'barbarian' is used expressly to refer to Persians, who were enemies of the Greeks in this war; the Romans used the term barbarus for uncivilised people, opposite to Greek or Roman, in fact, it became a common term to refer to all foreigners among Romans after Augustus age, including the Germanic peoples, Gauls and Carthaginians. The Greek term barbaros was the etymological source for many words meaning "barbarian", including English barbarian, first recorded in 16th century Middle English. A word barbara- is found in the Sanskrit of ancient India, with the primary meaning of "stammering" implying someone with an unfamiliar language; the Greek word barbaros is related to Sanskrit barbaras. This Indo-European root is found in Latin balbus for "stammering" and Czech blblati "to stammer".
In Aramaic, Old Persian and Arabic context, the root refers to "babble confusedly". It appears as barbary or in Old French barbarie, itself derived from the Arabic Barbar, an ancient Arabic term for the North African inhabitants west of Egypt; the Arabic word might be from Greek barbaria. The Oxford English Dictionary defines five meanings of the noun barbarian, including an obsolete Barbary usage. 1. Etymologically, A foreigner, one whose language and customs differ from the speaker's. 2. Hist. a. One not a Greek. B. One living outside the pale of the Roman Empire and its civilization, applied to the northern nations that overthrew them. C. One outside the pale of Christian civilization. D. With the Italians of the Renaissance: One of a nation outside of Italy. 3. A rude, uncivilized person. B. Sometimes distinguished from savage. C. Applied by the Chinese contemptuously to foreigners. 4. An uncultured person, or one who has no sympathy with literary culture. †5. A native of Barbary. Obs. †b. Barbary pirates & A Barbary horse.
Obs. The OED barbarous entry summarizes the semantic history. "The sense-development in ancient times was'foreign, non-Hellenic,' later'outlandish, brutal'. Greek attitudes towards "barbarians" developed in parallel with the growth of chattel slavery - in Athens. Although the enslavement of Greeks for non-payment of debts continued in most Greek states, Athens banned this practice under Solon in the early 6th century BC. Under the Athenian democracy established ca. 50