A fire hydrant called a fireplug, fire pump, jockey pump, or pump, is a connection point by which firefighters can tap into a water supply. It is a component of active fire protection; the user attaches a hose to the fire hydrant opens a valve on the hydrant to provide a powerful flow of water, on the order of 350 kPa. This user can attach this hose to a fire engine, which can use a powerful pump to boost the water pressure and split it into multiple streams. One may connect the hose with a threaded connection, instantaneous "quick connector" or a Storz connector. A user should take care not to open or close a fire hydrant too as this can cause a water hammer, which can damage nearby pipes and equipment; the water inside a charged hose line causes it to be heavy and high water pressure causes it to be stiff and unable to make a tight turn while pressurized. When a fire hydrant is unobstructed, this is not a problem, as there is enough room to adequately position the hose. Most fire hydrant valves are not designed to throttle the water flow.
The valving arrangement of most dry-barrel hydrants is for the drain valve to be open at anything other than full operation. Usage at partial-opening can result in considerable flow directly into the soil surrounding the hydrant, over time, can cause severe scouring. Gate or butterfly valves can be installed directly onto the hydrant orifices to control individual outputs and allow for changing equipment connections without turning off the flow to other orifices; these valves can be up to 12 inches in diameter to accommodate the large central "steamer" orifices on many US hydrants. It is good practice to install valves on all orifices before using a hydrant as the protective caps are unreliable and can cause major injury if they fail; when operating a hydrant, a firefighter wears appropriate personal protective equipment, such as gloves and a helmet with face shield worn. High-pressure water coursing through a aging and corroding hydrant could cause a failure, injuring the firefighter operating the hydrant or bystanders.
In most jurisdictions it is illegal to park a car within a certain distance of a fire hydrant. In North America the distances are 3 to 5 m or 10 to 15 ft indicated by yellow or red paint on the curb; the rationale behind these laws is that hydrants need to be accessible in an emergency. To prevent casual use or misuse, the hydrant requires special tools to be opened a large wrench with a pentagonal socket. Vandals sometimes cause monetary loss by wasting water; such vandalism can reduce municipal water pressure and impair firefighters' efforts to extinguish fires. Sometimes those seeking to play in the water remove the caps and open the valve, providing residents a place to play and cool off in summer. However, this is discouraged as residents have been struck by passing automobiles while playing in the street in the water spray. In spite of this, some US communities provide low flow sprinkler heads to enable residents to use the hydrants to cool off during hot weather, while gaining some control on water usage.
Most fire hydrants in Australia are protected by a silver-coloured cover with a red top, secured to the ground with bolts to protect the hydrant from vandalism and unauthorized use. The cover must be removed before use. In most areas of the United States, contractors who need temporary water may purchase permits to use hydrants; the permit will require a hydrant meter, a gate valve and sometimes a clapper valve to prevent back-flow into the hydrant. Additionally, residents who wish to use the hydrant to fill their in-ground swimming pool are permitted to do so, provided they pay for the water and agree to allow firefighters to draft from their pool in the case of an emergency. Municipal services, such as street sweepers and tank trucks, may be allowed to use hydrants to fill their water tanks. Sewer maintenance trucks need water to flush out sewerage lines, fill their tanks on site from a hydrant. If necessary, the municipal workers will use a meter. Since fire hydrants are one of the most accessible parts of a water distribution system, they are used for attaching pressure gauges or loggers or monitor system water pressure.
Automatic flushing devices are attached to hydrants to maintain chlorination levels in areas of low usage. Hydrants are used as an easy above-ground access point by leak detection devices to locate leaks from the sound they make. Fire hydrants may be used to supply water to riot control vehicles; these vehicles use a high pressure water cannon to discourage rioting. In areas subject to freezing temperatures, at most, only a portion of the hydrant is above ground; the valve is connected by a riser to the above-ground portion. A valve rod extends from the valve up through a seal at the top of the hydrant, where it can be operated with the proper wrench; this design is known as a "dry barrel" hydrant, in that the barrel, or vertical body of the hydrant, is dry. A drain valve underground opens when the water valve is closed. In warm areas, hydrants are used with one or more valves in the above-ground portion. Unlike with cold-weather hydrants, it is possible to turn the water supply off to each port.
This style is known as a "wet barrel" hydr
La Salle Military Academy
The La Salle Military Academy was a Catholic school with middle school/junior high school and high school divisions located in Oakdale, New York. It closed in 2001, the school's extensive campus is now owned by St. John's University located in nearby Jamaica Queens; the school was founded by the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, or "Christian Brothers". The school was founded in Westchester, New York in 1883 as Westchester Institute. Soon thereafter, the school relocated to Clason Point in the Bronx, New York, was renamed Clason Point Military Academy. In 1926, the school purchased the estate of Frederick Gilbert Bourne, of the Singer sewing machine company, which featured a 110-room mansion, Indian Neck Hall, overlooking Great South Bay, Long Island; the school had extensive boarding facilities and attracted many sons of the wealthiest Catholic families in the northeastern United States. It attracted a strong international contingent from Latin America. For many years LSMA was considered one of the top preparatory schools on the East Coast.
It was accredited by the Middle States Association of Schools. Its academics were held in the highest regard and although LSMA did not require its students to take Regents exams, they never found this to be a problem. LSMA's reputation was such that its grads were admitted to the best colleges. Graduating classes were 100% college-bound. Another academic benefit of not being a Regents program was that the faculty were not bound by a rigid curriculum, which widened the school's latitudes when it came to classes; this benefited the day-to-day education. For example, in English classes students would read books that would never have been permitted in a Public School setting. Honors-track students were able to take college-level courses. LSMA offered some advanced Math and History classes, as well as Marine Biology; the Christian Brothers administered the academic program, while the military program was run by the United States Army in close coordination with the Christian Brothers. La Salle was rated in the top ten military high schools in the country.
As a "Junior ROTC Honor School with Distinction," the school could make nominations to the service academies. The school maintained this status until it closed its doors in 2001. Another benefit of this status was that the Army assigned active duty personnel to conduct Military training; this was led by a command-rank officer, who served as the school's SAI. The rest of the team was made up of NCO's. For many of these Army personnel, LSMA was their last stop before retirement; the most distinguishing feature of LSMA was its magnificent campus. In the Sixties and Seventies the campus was 200-plus acres, though classes may remember the campus being smaller. Older alumni may remember that the golf course adjacent to the campus had once been part of the campus in the 1920s and 1930s; the Bourne Mansion housed the school's Finance offices. The old servants' quarters on the upper floors housed the Christian Brothers on the Second Floor, the Third Floor was converted to student housing, it had sitting rooms for students to visit with parents and sometimes girlfriends as well.
The ornate old ballroom of the mansion was converted into the school chapel during the La Salle years. In the summer of 1976, Br. Roger Chingas led a group of students in dismantling an Opus One pipe organ, about to be destroyed in a church in Albany NY. Br Roger oversaw the restoration of the pipe organ piece by piece in the Chapel where it remains today. For a period of time, the chapel was converted into a catering facility by the Lessings. Today it has been reverted to its original purpose. There was an abundance of school lore about the old mansion. For instance, there was a long-abandoned swimming pool in the basement. School legend had it. According to legend, Commodore Bourne was distraught over his son's drowning and sold the mansion to the Christian Brothers for $1 with the agreement that his son's portrait would never be moved from the mansion's main parlor room, the swimming pool would never be used again. Other school legends pertained to secret passages inside the Mansion. Legend had it that there was a tunnel that ran from the "Esplanade," a raised brick veranda on the south side of the Mansion, to the Horse Stables, 1/2 mile East of the mansion.
The Esplanade provided a scenic view of the Great South Bay beyond. Cadet parades of the several-hundred-strong Cadet Corps were reviewed from this vantage point. Sometimes the cadets wore "Full Dress" uniforms with brass buttons and breastplates, gold brocade, medals. During much of the school's existence, LSMA uniforms were made and tailored by Brooks Brothers in Manhattan. Another vestige of the old estate was the Boat House, alongside a boat basin that emptied into the Great South Bay. During most of the Academy's history, it housed the theater where plays and shows were produced by the cadets, however in 1983, the Boat House was given an upgrade and was converted to a cafe style game facility at the same time that Centennial
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a dense solid, it is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, "stucco" refers to a coating for the outside of a building and "plaster" to a coating for interiors. However, other European languages, notably including Italian, do not have the same distinction; this has led to English using "stucco" for interior decorative plasterwork in relief. The difference in nomenclature between stucco and mortar is based more on use than composition; until the latter part of the nineteenth century, it was common that plaster, used inside a building, stucco, used outside, would consist of the same primary materials: lime and sand. Animal or plant fibers were added for additional strength. In the latter nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve the durability of stucco.
At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster. Traditional stucco is made of lime and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water. Lime is added to increase the workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the structural properties of the stucco; this is done with what is considered a one-coat stucco system, as opposed to the traditional three-coat method. Lime stucco is a hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty; the lime itself is white. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a limited degree because of the slight water solubility of lime. Portland cement stucco is hard and brittle and can crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable, its color was gray, from the innate color of most Portland cement, but white Portland cement is used. Today's stucco manufacturers offer a wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.
Other materials such as stone and glass chips are sometimes "dashed" onto the finish coat before drying, with the finished product known as "rock dash", "pebble dash", or as roughcast if the stones are incorporated directly into the stucco, used from the early 20th through the early 21st Century. As a building material, stucco is a durable and weather-resistant wall covering, it was traditionally used as both an interior and exterior finish applied in one or two thin layers directly over a solid masonry, brick, or stone surface. The finish coat contained an integral color and was textured for appearance. With the introduction and development of heavy timber and light wood-framed construction methods, stucco was adapted for this new use by adding a reinforcement lattice, or lath, attached to and spanning between the structural supports and by increasing the thickness and number of layers of the total system; the lath added support for the wet tensile strength to the brittle, cured stucco. The traditional application of stucco and lath occurs in three coats — the scratch coat, the brown coat and the finish coat.
The two base coats of plaster are either hand-applied or machine sprayed. The finish coat can be floated to a sand finish or sprayed; the lath material was strips of wood installed horizontally on the wall, with spaces between, that would support the wet plaster until it cured. This lath and plaster technique became used. In exterior wall applications, the lath is installed over a weather-resistant asphalt-impregnated felt or paper sheet that protects the framing from the moisture that can pass through the porous stucco. Following World War II, the introduction of metal wire mesh, or netting, replaced the use of wood lath. Galvanizing the wire made it corrosion resistant and suitable for exterior wall applications. At the beginning of the 21st century, this "traditional" method of wire mesh lath and three coats of exterior plaster is still used. In some parts of the United States, stucco is the predominant exterior for both residential and commercial construction. Stucco has been used as a sculptural and artistic material.
Stucco relief was used in the architectural decoration schemes of many ancient cultures. Examples of Egyptian and Etruscan stucco reliefs remain extant. In the art of Mesopotamia and ancient Persian art there was a widespread tradition of figurative and ornamental internal stucco reliefs, which continued into Islamic art, for example in Abbasid Samarra, now using geometrical and plant-based ornament; as the arabesque reached its full maturity, carved stucco remained a common medium for decoration and calligraphic inscriptions. Indian architecture used stucco as a material for sculpture in an architectural context, it is rare in the countryside. In Roman art of the late Republic and early Empire, stucco was used extensively for the decoration of vaults. Though marble was the preferred sculptural medium in most regards, stucco was better for use in vaults because it was lighter and better suited to adapt to the curvature of the ceiling
Alfred Harral Hopkins was an American architect, an "estate architect" who specialized in country houses and in model farms in an invented "vernacular" style suited to the American elite. He was a member of the American Institute of Architects. Hopkins was born in New York, his parents were Alfred Hopkins, a captain in the United States Navy, Mary Elizabeth Penfield. They soon moved to Ohio. Hopkins married Adelaide Spenlove on June 30, 1915 in England. Following their marriage and his bride settled in New York City and had two sons—Alfred Spenlove Hopkins and Peter Harrel Theodore Hopkins. Hopkins studied at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris followed by several years in Rome completing his knowledge architecture in the early 1890s. By 1898, he was practicing as an architect. Early in his career, Hopkins specialized in the design of farming complexes for the American capitalist during the Gilded Age. By 1900, he was designing a new farm group for Frederick W. Vanderbilt in Hyde Park, New York in association with Edward Burnett, an agricultural specialist who earlier developed and managed the farming operations for other members of the Vanderbilt family.
Hopkins and Burnett maintained an office at 11 East 24th Street in New York City. Together they designed some of the country's most extraordinary farms, including Foxhollow, the Tracy Dows estate in Rhinebeck, New York, a farm for Harry J. Fisher in Greenwich, Connecticut, their collaboration, though not documented during this time resulted in several other farm projects associated with Hopkins New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts. Their work Hopkins architectural style, established the standard for farm architecture and influenced an entire generation of architects. In 1913, he severed his association with Burnett and established himself as Alfred Hopkins & Associates located in the Architects Building at 101 Park Avenue in New York City. Hopkins continued specializing in gentlemen's farms establishing himself as the "dean of farm group architecture," due in no small part to the success of his Modern Farm Buildings, first published in 1913 and two subsequent editions. Hopkins farm groups appeared in Westchester County, New York, the Hudson River Valley, northern New Jersey, Illinois.
He designed no fewer than fifteen farm groups on Long Island, including the farm at Laurelton Hall for Louis Comfort Tiffany. An article on farm groupings published in Architectural Record in 1915 notes that Hopkins was called upon to design the farm groups on estates where the residences were the work of other architects, such as Bertram Goodhue, John Russell Pope and Charles A. Platt. Hopkins was among the contributors to Stables and Farm Buildings: A Special Number of the Architectural Review produced by the staff of Architectural Review in 1902, his Modern Farm Buildings served to publicize his practical and picturesque esthetic, in common with all architects' publications since the sixteenth century, to attract clients. Hopkins' book went into a third edition. Hopkins laid out his farm buildings around paved courts or grassed paddocks, keeping rooflines and eaves low to blend with the landscape, separating the necessary farming functions, he preferred to remove hay storage from its traditional loft over the stables to eliminate dust infiltration and ammonia pollution.
Open-sided sheds housed farm vehicles. The spatial routes of cows and horses were kept separate. Farmhands' quarters were integrated with the buildings. An outstanding late survival of Hopkins' Cotswolds-inspired vernacular manner is the stable court at Hartwood, near Pittsburgh; the same year he published a brochure distributed among architects, Two Cotswolds Villages, describing the vernacular architecture and stone-tiled roofs of two picturesque English villages: Bibury and Castle Combe, Wiltshire. Hopkins is less known for his Prisons and Prison Building, where rational planning met other ends, in a progressive and humane program based on the classification of prisoners and their segregation by groups in small units, his practical experience was founded on his work at Westchester County Penitentiary, Berks County Prison, his proposed designs for a federal prison to be built at Lewisburg, Lewisburg Federal Penitentiary, completed in 1934. Hopkins was among the architects who published plans for inexpensive carpenter-built housing in Carpentry and Building.
And his small book Planning for sunshine and fresh air: Being sundry discourses & excursions in the pleasant art of building homes, set forth in a manner and upon a theory... how best to effect their proper economies appeared in 1931. He published The Fundamentals of Good Bank Building. After an interim following his death, an architectural firm was founded in 1954 by six associates from his office, as La Pierre, Litchfield & Partners. Hyde Park Farms, Hyde Park, New York, farm group for Frederick W. Vanderbilt, 1901. Elawa Farm, Lake Forest, Neo-Georgian farm complex for A. Watson Armour, 1917, built as a weekend house Armour, an heir of the Armour and Company meatpacking fortune, lived on Lake Shore Drive in Chicago; the projected main house, designed by David Adler in neo-Georgian style, to which the farm group was expressly suited, was never built. Low eaved
Reinforced concrete is a composite material in which concrete's low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is though not steel reinforcing bars and is embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may be permanently stressed, so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. For a strong and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least: High relative strength High toleration of tensile strain Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, similar factors Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing temperatures.
Durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress for example. François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete as a technique for constructing building structures. In 1853, Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four-story house at 72 rue Charles Michels in the suburbs of Paris. Coignet's descriptions of reinforcing concrete suggests that he did not do it for means of adding strength to the concrete but for keeping walls in monolithic construction from overturning. In 1854, English builder William B. Wilkinson reinforced the concrete roof and floors in the two-storey house he was constructing, his positioning of the reinforcement demonstrated that, unlike his predecessors, he had knowledge of tensile stresses. Joseph Monier was a French gardener of the nineteenth century, a pioneer in the development of structural and reinforced concrete when dissatified with existing materials available for making durable flowerpots, he was granted a patent for reinforced flowerpots by means of mixing a wire mesh to a mortar shell.
In 1877, Monier was granted another patent for a more advanced technique of reinforcing concrete columns and girders with iron rods placed in a grid pattern. Though Monier undoubtedly knew reinforcing concrete would improve its inner cohesion, it is less known if he knew how much reinforcing improved concrete's tensile strength. Before 1877 the use of concrete construction, though dating back to the Roman Empire, having been reintroduced in the early 1800s, was not yet a proven scientific technology. American New Yorker Thaddeus Hyatt published a report titled An Account of Some Experiments with Portland-Cement-Concrete Combined with Iron as a Building Material, with Reference to Economy of Metal in Construction and for Security against Fire in the Making of Roofs and Walking Surfaces where he reported his experiments on the behavior of reinforced concrete, his work played a major role in the evolution of concrete construction as a proven and studied science. Without Hyatt's work, more dangerous trial and error methods would have been depended on for the advancement in the technology.
Ernest L. Ransome was an English-born engineer and early innovator of the reinforced concrete techniques in the end of the 19th century. With the knowledge of reinforced concrete developed during the previous 50 years, Ransome innovated nearly all styles and techniques of the previous known inventors of reinforced concrete. Ransome's key innovation was to twist the reinforcing steel bar improving bonding with the concrete. Gaining increasing fame from his concrete constructed buildings, Ransome was able to build two of the first reinforced concrete bridges in North America. One of the first concrete buildings constructed in the United States, was a private home, designed by William Ward in 1871; the home was designed to be fireproof for his wife. G. A. Wayss was a pioneer of the iron and steel concrete construction. In 1879, Wayss bought the German rights to Monier's patents and in 1884, he started the first commercial use for reinforced concrete in his firm Wayss & Freytag. Up until the 1890s, Wayss and his firm contributed to the advancement of Monier's system of reinforcing and established it as a well-developed scientific technology.
One of the first skyscrapers made with reinforced concrete was the 16-story Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, constructed in 1904. The first reinforced concrete building in Southern California was the Laughlin Annex in Downtown Los Angeles, constructed in 1905. In 1906, 16 building permits were issued for reinforced concrete buildings in the City of Los Angeles, including the Temple Auditorium and 8-story Hayward Hotel. On April 18, 1906 a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck San Francisco. The strong ground shaking and subsequent fire killed thousands; the use of reinforced concrete after the earthquake was promoted within the U. S. construction industry due to its non-combustibility and perceived superior seismic performance relative to masonry. In 1906, a partial collapse of the Bixby Hotel in Long Beach killed 10 workers during construction when shoring was removed prematurely; this event spurred a scrutiny of concrete erection practices and building inspections. The structure was constructed of reinforced concrete frames with hollow clay tile ribbed flooring and hollow clay
Frederick Gilbert Bourne
Frederick Gilbert "Commodore" Bourne was an American businessman. He served as the 5th President of the Singer Manufacturing Company between 1889 and 1905, he made the business "perhaps the first modern multinational industrial enterprise of any nationality". Bourne expanded global production as well as international sales of the Singer sewing machine. Bourne was revolutionary to the sewing machine industry, he used the "installment plan" to make sewing machines a household item. Bourne is remembered "among the most important innovators in building vertically integrated firms". In 1902 Frederick Bourne hired architect Ernest Flagg to build a small hunting lodge on the St. Lawrence River; this hunting lodge was based on a book written by Sir Walter Scott in 1826 called Woodstock. This book describes an elegant castle with secret passageways, a dungeon; this castle is open for public tours. A sailing enthusiast, Bourne served as a Commodore of the New York Yacht Club, he was a member of the famous Jekyll Island Club on Jekyll Island, Georgia.
Bourne owned many boats that he used in New York City and at his summer home in the Thousand Islands. Bourne maintained an apartment at The Dakota on West 72nd Street, next to Central Park in New York City, he owned a 1,000-acre country estate named Indian Neck Hall in Oakdale on Long Island, he acquired Dark Island in the Thousand Islands in the St. Lawrence River, where he built a magnificent castle, he and his wife, Emma Sparks Keeler, had twelve children: Frederick Gilbert Bourne Jr. Arthur Keeler Bourne, married Edith Hollins. Married Alberta M. Bourne, with whom he had three children. Louisa D Bourne -. May Miller Bourne, married Ralph B. Strassburger, a Pennsylvania businessman and prominent thoroughbred racehorse owner and breeder who owned Haras des Monceaux Thoroughbred horse farm at Lisieux in Lower Normandy, France. Marion Bourne, married Robert George Elbert. Alfred Severin Bourne, married Hattie Louise Barnes. Helen Bourne. Died aged 2. Florence Bourne, married Anson Wales Hard, divorced 7 children.
George Gault Bourne, married Nancy Atterbury Potter. Marjorie Bourne, married Alexander Dallas Thayer. Kenneth Bourne. Howard Davidson Bourne, died aged 25. Cast of Characters: Singer Presidents at Singermemories.com Frederick Gilbert Bourne profile at the official Singer Castle website Normandy Farm, Pennsylvania
A windmill is a structure that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills were used to mill grain, pump water, or both. There are windmills; the majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater. Windmills first appeared in Persia in the 9th century AD, were independently invented in Europe; the windwheel of the Greek engineer Hero of Alexandria in the first century is the earliest known instance of using a wind-driven wheel to power a machine. Another early example of a wind-driven wheel was the prayer wheel, used in Tibet and China since the fourth century; the first practical windmills had sails. According to Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, these panemone windmills were invented in eastern Persia, or Khorasan, as recorded by the Persian geographer Estakhri in the ninth century. The authenticity of an earlier anecdote of a windmill involving the second caliph Umar is questioned on the grounds that it appears in a tenth-century document.
Made of six to 12 sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were quite different from the European vertical windmills. Windmills were in widespread use across the Middle East and Central Asia, spread to China and India from there. A similar type of horizontal windmill with rectangular blades, used for irrigation, can be found in thirteenth-century China, introduced by the travels of Yelü Chucai to Turkestan in 1219. Horizontal windmills were built, in small numbers, in Europe during the 18th and nineteenth centuries, for example Fowler's Mill at Battersea in London, Hooper's Mill at Margate in Kent; these early modern examples seem not to have been directly influenced by the horizontal windmills of the Middle and Far East, but to have been independent inventions by engineers influenced by the Industrial Revolution. Due to a lack of evidence, debate occurs among historians as to whether or not Middle Eastern horizontal windmills triggered the original development of European windmills.
In northwestern Europe, the horizontal-axis or vertical windmill is believed to date from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in the triangle of northern France, eastern England and Flanders. The earliest certain reference to a windmill in Europe dates from 1185, in the former village of Weedley in Yorkshire, located at the southern tip of the Wold overlooking the Humber Estuary. A number of earlier, but less dated, twelfth-century European sources referring to windmills have been found; these earliest mills were used to grind cereals. The evidence at present is that the earliest type of European windmill was the post mill, so named because of the large upright post on which the mill's main structure is balanced. By mounting the body this way, the mill is able to rotate to face the wind direction; the body contains all the milling machinery. The first post mills were of the sunken type, where the post was buried in an earth mound to support it. A wooden support was developed called the trestle.
This was covered over or surrounded by a roundhouse to protect the trestle from the weather and to provide storage space. This type of windmill was the most common in Europe until the nineteenth century, when more powerful tower and smock mills replaced them. In a hollow-post mill, the post on which the body is mounted is hollowed out, to accommodate the drive shaft; this makes it possible to drive machinery below or outside the body while still being able to rotate the body into the wind. Hollow-post mills driving scoop wheels were used in the Netherlands to drain wetlands from the fourteenth century onwards. By the end of the thirteenth century, the masonry tower mill, on which only the cap is rotated rather than the whole body of the mill, had been introduced; the spread of tower mills came with a growing economy that called for larger and more stable sources of power, though they were more expensive to build. In contrast to the post mill, only the cap of the tower mill needs to be turned into the wind, so the main structure can be made much taller, allowing the sails to be made longer, which enables them to provide useful work in low winds.
The cap can be turned into the wind either by winches or gearing inside the cap or from a winch on the tail pole outside the mill. A method of keeping the cap and sails into the wind automatically is by using a fantail, a small windmill mounted at right angles to the sails, at the rear of the windmill; these are fitted to tail poles of post mills and are common in Great Britain and English-speaking countries of the former British Empire and Germany but rare in other places. Around some parts of the Mediterranean Sea, tower mills with fixed caps were built because the wind's direction varied little most of the time; the smock mill is a development of the tower mill, where the masonry tower is replaced by a wooden framework, called the "smock", thatched, boarded or covered by other materials, such as slate, sheet metal, or tar paper. The smock is of octagonal plan, though there are examples with different numbers of sides; the lighter weight than tower mills make smock mills practical as drainage mills, which had t