A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks, which represent ownership claims on businesses. Examples of the latter include shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms. Stock exchanges list shares of common equity as well as other security types, e.g. corporate bonds and convertible bonds. Stocks are categorized in various ways. One way is by the country. For example, Nestlé and Novartis are domiciled in Switzerland, so they may be considered as part of the Swiss stock market, although their stock may be traded on exchanges in other countries, for example, as American depository receipts on U. S. stock markets. As of 2017, the size of the world stock market was about US$79.225 trillion. By country, the largest market was the United States, followed by the United Kingdom; these numbers increased in 2013. As of 2015, there are a total of 60 stock exchanges in the world with a total market capitalization of $69 trillion.
Of these, there are 16 exchanges with a market capitalization of $1 trillion or more, they account for 87% of global market capitalization. Apart from the Australian Securities Exchange, these 16 exchanges are based in one of three continents: North America and Asia. A stock exchange is an exchange where stock brokers and traders can buy and sell shares of stock and other securities. Many large companies have their stocks listed on a stock exchange; this makes the stock more liquid and thus more attractive to many investors. The exchange may act as a guarantor of settlement. Other stocks may be traded "over the counter", that is, through a dealer; some large companies will have their stock listed on more than one exchange in different countries, so as to attract international investors. Stock exchanges may cover other types of securities, such as fixed interest securities or derivatives which are more to be traded OTC. Trade in stock markets means the transfer of a security from a seller to a buyer.
This requires these two parties to agree on a price. Equities confer an ownership interest in a particular company. Participants in the stock market range from small individual stock investors to larger investors, who can be based anywhere in the world, may include banks, insurance companies, pension funds and hedge funds, their buy or sell orders may be executed on their behalf by a stock exchange trader. Some exchanges are physical locations where transactions are carried out on a trading floor, by a method known as open outcry; this method is used in some stock exchanges and commodity exchanges, involves traders shouting bid and offer prices. The other type of stock exchange has a network of computers. An example of such an exchange is the NASDAQ. A potential buyer bids a specific price for a stock, a potential seller asks a specific price for the same stock. Buying or selling at the market means you will accept any ask price or bid price for the stock; when the bid and ask prices match, a sale takes place, on a first-come, first-served basis if there are multiple bidders at a given price.
The purpose of a stock exchange is to facilitate the exchange of securities between buyers and sellers, thus providing a marketplace. The exchanges provide real-time trading information on the listed securities, facilitating price discovery; the New York Stock Exchange is a physical exchange, with a hybrid market for placing orders electronically from any location as well as on the trading floor. Orders executed on the trading floor enter by way of exchange members and flow down to a floor broker, who submits the order electronically to the floor trading post for the Designated Market Maker for that stock to trade the order; the DMM's job is to maintain a two-sided market, making orders to buy and sell the security when there are no other buyers or sellers. If a spread exists, no trade takes place – in this case the DMM may use their own resources to close the difference. Once a trade has been made, the details are reported on the "tape" and sent back to the brokerage firm, which notifies the investor who placed the order.
Computers play an important role for program trading. The NASDAQ is a virtual exchange; the process is similar to the New York Stock Exchange. One or more NASDAQ market makers will always provide a bid and ask price at which they will always purchase or sell'their' stock; the Paris Bourse, now part of Euronext, is an electronic stock exchange. It was automated in the late 1980s. Prior to the 1980s, it consisted of an open outcry exchange. Stockbrokers met on the trading floor of the Palais Brongniart. In 1986, the CATS trading system was introduced, the order matching process was automated. People trading stock will prefer to trade on the most popular exchange since this gives the largest number of potential counter parties and the best price. However, there have always been alternatives such as brokers trying to bring parties together to trade outside the exchange; some third markets that were popular are Instinet, Island and Archipelago. One advantage is that this avoids the commissions
National Bank of Kuwait
The National Bank of Kuwait was incorporated in 1952 as the first local bank and the first shareholding company in Kuwait and the Persian Gulf region. The foundation of National Bank of Kuwait started in 1952 when a prominent Kuwaiti merchant went to the British Bank of the Middle East to open a letter of guarantee for the amount of 10,000 Indian rupees. Much to his surprise, his request was rejected; this well-known merchant was shocked and appalled by the treatment that he had received, news of this was all over town. This incident gave rise to the question and the idea of having a national bank with a mission to serve the national needs as its priority, help the economic growth of the country, look after the savings of its clients. In fact, a meeting was held with the late Amir of Kuwait, Abdullah Al Salem Al Sabah, who congratulated them on the idea and promised them his complete support. An Amiri decree was issued on 19 May 1952 to establish the National Bank of Kuwait, NBK started operating through a small branch on 15 November 1952 within a total space of three shops and a handful of employees relying on traditional and manual banking tools.
Today NBK is one of the largest and most profitable banks in the region. NBK reported net profits of USD 898.7 million for the first nine months of 2018 on the net growth of 14.3% year-on-year. Today, NBK, the largest financial institution in Kuwait with effective market dominance in the commercial banking market, boasts the largest presence in Kuwait with 68 branches, which together with its growing international representation adds up to more than 143 branches worldwide. NBK stands out in terms of its local and international network, which includes branches and representative offices in Geneva, Paris, New York and China, alongside its regional presence in Lebanon, Iraq, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Turkey. Bank Boubyan is 58.6% owned by the Bank. It was established in 2004. NBK PLC is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank with two offices in London and one in Paris which provides retail and corporate banking and trade finance related services.'NBK S. A. L. is 85.5% owned by the Bank and provides retail and private banking and real estate related services through a network of ten branches.
NBK Banque Privee S. A. is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank headquartered in Geneva. In addition to traditional banking services, it provides portfolio management services, family trust and custody services to individuals with high net worth. Credit Bank of Iraq S. A. is 75% owned by the Bank and provides retail and commercial banking services through a network of fourteen branches in Iraq. NBK Investment Management Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank and provides asset management services to Kuwaiti government agencies and high-net-worth customers. National Investors Group Holdings Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Bank and was established as an investment company. NBK Capital Company is 99.9% owned by the Bank and was established in July 2005 as a subsidiary of NBK. NBK Capital focuses on four principal lines of business: Alternative Investments, Asset Management, Brokerage & Research and Investment Banking. Offices in Kuwait, Dubai and Cairo. Al Watany Bank of Egypt S.
A. E. is 98.5% owned by the bank and provides retail and corporate banking and trade finance related services. Watani Financial Brokerage Company provides brokerage services. International Bank of Qatar, the affiliate of NBK in Qatar, is owned 30% owned by the Bank, it is one of the oldest financial institutions in Qatar and celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2006. It has a network of many branches and service centers, ATMs in strategic locations throughout Qatar, it offers a range of corporate and retail banking products and services. This operation was sold early in 2015. Turkish Bank is 30% owned by the Bank. NBK was the first bank in the Middle East to establish an international advisory board, setting a precedent for banks and financial institutions in the region; the Bank’s International Advisory Board, established in 2007, brings together an impressive array of distinguished world figures in the fields of politics and business and the Bankers’ Roundtable has evolved into a significant subgroup in its own right, comprising the banking and financial specialist contingent of the parent Advisory Board.
Company Overview Report On Bloomberg Official website
Kuwaiti cuisine is an infusion of Arabian, Persian and Mediterranean cuisines. A prominent dish in Kuwaiti cuisine is machboos, a rice-based specialty prepared with basmati rice seasoned with spices, chicken or mutton. Seafood is a significant part of the Kuwaiti diet fish. Local favorites are hamour, served grilled, fried, or with biryani rice because of its texture and taste, Zbaidi and sobaity. Kuwait's traditional flatbread is called Iranian khubz, it is a large flatbread baked in a special oven and they top it with sesame seeds. Numerous local bakeries dot the country, the bakers are Iranians. Bread is served with mahyawa fish sauce. There are many other available cuisines due to the international workforce in Kuwait. Biryani, – a common dish, which consists of seasoned rice cooked with chicken or lamb. From the Indian sub-continent. Firga'a - white rice cooked with tomatoes and potatoes and eggplant in the bottom of the pan. Gabout, – stuffed flour dumplings in a thick meat stew. Harees, – wheat cooked with meat mashed topped with cinnamon sugar.
Jireesh, – a mash of cooked spelt with chicken or lamb and some spices. Machboos, – a dish made with mutton, chicken, or fish accompanied over fragrant rice, cooked in chicken/mutton well spiced broth. Mashkhool, is white rice and at the bottom of the pot, there are rings of onion with turmeric and black pepper. and sometimes potatoes and eggplants is added at the bottom of the pot. Marabyan, a rice cooked with shrimp. Mahyawa – a tangy fish sauce. Maglooba - Rice cooked with meat and potatoes and eggplant. Margoog, – vegetable stew containing squash and eggplant, cooked with thin pieces of rolled out dough. Mumawwash, -- rice can be topped with dry shrimp. Muaddas, Rice can be topped with dry shrimp. Mutabbaq samak, – fish served over rice. Rice is cooked in well-spiced fish stock. Quzi, – Kuwaiti dish consisting of a roasted lamb stuffed with rice, meat and other ingredients. Asida – a dish made up of a cooked wheat flour lump of dough, sometimes with added butter or honey. Balaleet, – sweet saffron noodles served with a savory omelet on top.
Bayth elgitta, – a fried cookie filled with a mixture of ground nuts and tossed in powdered sugar. It was named after the egg of the crowned sandgrouse due to its similar shape. Darabeel, Made from Millet, eggs and sugar, it made into thin Chips and folded on each other and placed between the chips a soft sugar and ground cinnamon. Lugaimat, – fried yeast dumplings soaked in syrup. Gers ogaily, – a traditional cake made with eggs, sugar and saffron. Traditionally served with tea. Zalabia – fried dough soaked in syrup (sugar and saffron, it has a distinctive swirly shape. Ghoriba – brittle cookies made from flour, powdered sugar and cardamom. It's served with Arabic coffee. Khabeesa – sweet dish made of flour and oil. Sab Alqafsha - Similar to Lugaimat but with additional saffron and cardamom syrup. Elba Kuwaiti milk pudding with cardamom. Leben Sharbat Baithan Suleimani tea Arabic coffee Kuwaiti tea Dried lime tea Karak Tea deferent varieties of Arabic tea Arab cuisine Culture of Kuwait Al-Hamad, Sarah, 2015, Cardamom and Lime: Tastes of the Arabian Gulf, Fox Chapel Publishing, ISBN 978-1-5048-0024-2 DiPiazza, Francesca Davis, 2006 Kuwait in Pictures, Twenty-First Century Books, p. 56- 57, ISBN 0-8225-6589-7 Riolo, Amy, 2007, Arabian Delights: Recipes & Princely Entertaining Ideas from the Arabian Peninsula, Capital Books, p. 23- 24, ISBN 1-933102-55-1 O'Shea, Maria, 1999, Marshall Cavendish p. 114- 121, ISBN 0-7614-0871-1
Demographics of Kuwait
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Kuwait. Expatriates account for around 70% of Kuwait's total population, with Kuwaitis constituting 28%–32% of the total population; the government and Kuwaiti citizens consider the proportion of expatriates to be a problem, in 2016 the number of deportations increased. Kuwait consists of six governorates: Hawalli, Farwaniyah, Jahra and Mubarak Al-Kabeer; some Kuwaiti people are foreigners. Kuwait consists of six governorates: Hawalli, Farwaniyah, Jahra and Mubarak Al-Kabeer. Most Kuwaitis live in the governorates of Hawalli and Farwaniyah; the biggest population difficulty in Kuwait involves the Bedoon, a stateless people numbering just over 100,000 who are classed as illegal residents and who are trying to claim Kuwaiti citizenship. Critics argue that these people are Arabs who migrated from Iraq and Saudi Arabia. In 2013, a law was passed to grant citizenship to 4,000 of these people as part of an attempt to resolve the problem.
However, the government has said that only a third of the Bedoon would qualify for possible naturalization as it considers that the rest hold other nationalities, with officials alleging that they have destroyed their documents in order to claim Kuwaiti citizenship. UN estimates Registered births and deaths Structure of the population: Source: UN World Population Prospects The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated. Age structure0–14 years: 25.8% 15–64 years: 72.2% 65 years and over: 2% Population growth rate1.986% Gender ratioat birth: 1.047 male/female under 15 years: 1.04 male/female 15–64 years: 1.79 male/female 65 years and over: 1.65 male/female total population: 1.54 male/female Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 77.09 years male: 75.95 years female: 78.3 years Total fertility rate2.64 children born/woman Nationalitynoun: Kuwaiti adjective: KuwaitiEthnic groups )Kuwaiti 28%, other Arab 27.9%, Asian 37.8%, African 1.9%, other 1.1% LanguagesArabic English spoken widelyReligionsMuslim 99% Christian 1% Other and Unspecified 0.2%Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 94% Religion in Kuwait
Geography of Kuwait
Kuwait is situated in Southwest Asia, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia. A prosperous trade center for many centuries, Kuwait came to greater international prominence in the post-World War II era because of its strategic location at the head of the Persian Gulf and oil revenues. Since 2006, Kuwait has been governed by Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and his designated successor, Nawaf Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, the Prime Minister and Crown Prince. In the postwar period, these men have supported the strengthening of democratic participation in decision making, as provided for in the Constitution. Kuwait is located at the far northwestern corner of the Persian Gulf. Kuwait is 17,820 square kilometres in size. At its most distant points, it is about 200 km north to south, 170 km east to west. Kuwait's area consists of desert; as mentioned, Kuwait borders the Persian Gulf with 195 km of coast. Within its territory are nine islands, two of which and Warbah, are uninhabited but strategically important.
Due to the Iraq-Kuwait war, many people left their homes on islands and have since not returned to their homes. Kuwait's most prominent geographic feature is Kuwait Bay, which indents the shoreline for about forty kilometers, providing natural protection for the port of Kuwait, accounts for nearly one half the country's shoreline. To the south and west, Kuwait shares a long border of 250 kilometers with Saudi Arabia; the boundary between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia was set by the Treaty of Al Uqayr in 1922, which established the Saudi–Kuwaiti neutral zone of 5,700 square kilometers between the two nations. In 1966, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia agreed to divide the neutral zone; the resources in the area, now known as the Divided Zone, are not affected by the agreement. The oil from onshore and offshore fields continues to be shared between the two countries; the third side of the triangle-shaped nation is the 240 kilometers of contested border between Kuwait and Iraq. Although the Iraqi government, which had first asserted a claim to rule Kuwait in 1938, recognized the borders with Kuwait in 1963, it continued to press Kuwait for control over Bubiyan and Warbah islands through the 1960s and 1970s.
In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait and, shortly thereafter, formally incorporated the entire country into Iraq. Under United Nations Security Council Resolution 687, after the restoration of Kuwaiti sovereignty in 1991, a UN commission undertook formal demarcation of the borders on the basis of those agreed to in 1963; the boundary was demarcated in 1992. Recent events from 2008 to the present day have seen the positive advancement of maritime border relations with Iraq with the development of the Khawr Abd Allah Protocols; the non-legally binding KAA Protocols were developed and mediated between the heads of the Kuwaiti and Iraqi navies by Major David Hammond Royal Marines, the British naval lawyer and legal advisor to Combined Task Force 158. This included the production of the KAA Interoperability Admiralty Chart by Major Hammond and, subsequently distributed to both countries, having been produced by the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office. In November 2008, the KAA Protocols were signed at Kuwait Naval Base having been verbally agreed on board HMS Chatham in May 2008.
The signing meeting saw the first formal meeting of the heads of respective navies since before the 1991 Gulf War. Subsequently, the success of the non-legally binding protocols was reported to the US Congress on January 9, 2009 in the Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq Report. Kuwait has an arid climate. Kuwait has a huge temperature difference between summer. Rainfall in the nation varies from 75 to 150 millimeters a year. Actual rainfall has ranged from 120 millimeters a year to as much as 600 millimeters. In summer, average daily high temperatures range from 42 to 48 °C. Mitribah temperatures until mid 2010 were affected by overexposure conditions and the station was fixed; the summers are quite long, punctuated by dramatic dust storms in March and April when northwesterly winds cover the cities in sand. In the late summer, more humid. By the end of October all of the hot weather is over, colder winter weather sets in, dropping temperatures to as low as −6 °C at night. On the other hand, daytime temperature is between 10–17 °C.
In this time, there are strong thunderstorms. Frost occurs when the temperatures drop below 5 °C. Kuwait's winter is colder than in other Persian Gulf countries, such as Bahrain, Qatar or United Arab Emirates. Kuwait experiences colder weather because it is situated farther north, because of cold winds blowing from upper Iraq and Iran. In Kuwait, precipitation occurs from October until April. Area Total: 17,818 km² Land: 17,818 km² Water: 0 km²Area—comparative Slightly smaller than the US state of New Jersey, Fiji Land boundaries Total: 475 km Border countries: Iraq 254 km, Saudi Arabia 221 kmCoastline 499 km Maritime claims Territorial sea: 12 nmi Elevation extremes Lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m Highest point: Mutla Ridge 306 m Natural resources Petroleum, shrimp, natural gas Land
Education in Kuwait
The State of Kuwait, located at the head of the Persian Gulf, supports an educational policy that seeks to provide opportunity to all children, irrespective of their social class, including children with special needs. Kuwait was ranked 63rd on the Human Development Index report for 2011 by the United Nations Development Programme, placing Kuwait above the regional average; the education system in Kuwait has celebrated several achievements. As a percentage of GDP, at 3.9 percent, it remains well below the OECD average. In 2005, the literacy rate of Kuwait was 94 percent. Kuwait is striving to improve the quality of its education for all ages; the Ministry of Education is making efforts to incorporate women into the educated workforce through various programs. The Kuwaiti government offers scholarships to students who are accepted in universities in the United States, the United Kingdom and other foreign academic institutions. Kuwait is a small country situated in the Persian Gulf, it is one of the high-income countries with a GDP per capita of above $24,000.
Oil exports account for nearly half of Kuwait’s national income and about 80% of government revenues. Between 1975 and 1985, the proportion of all working nationals employed in the public sector, including oil, rose from 76 percent to 92 percent; the government of Kuwait is now looking for alternative ways to stimulate employment and the generation of income. With this in mind, it is keen to improve the skills of its labor force. At the beginning of the 20th century, there was no formal educational system in place in Kuwait at all. There were a few Quranic schools, known as Al-Katatib, funded by the wealthy private citizens of Kuwait, that taught reading and basic arithmetic. In 1911, the Al Mubarakiyya School was established as one of Kuwait’s modern educational institutions, it was founded by merchants to train their clerks in commerce and letter-writing skills. In 1921, the Al-Ahmedia school was established, which offered English courses, soon thereafter, an all-girls school was founded that provided education in Arabic, home economics and Islamic Studies.
The government became involved in providing formal education in 1936, by 1945 there were 17 schools in Kuwait. With the increase in oil production and hence state revenues after World War II, the government began investing huge sums of money into social services, including education. By 1960, there were 45,000 students enrolled in Kuwait's educational system, including 18,000 girls. In 1965, following the constitution that made education a fundamental right of a citizen, education was made compulsory for children aged between 6 and 14. Since the early 21st century, the Ministry of Education has sought to prepare a general, long-term education strategy, focusing on educational teaching for the years up to 2025; this effort aims to align teaching methodologies with the current needs of an globalised world. The World Bank is conducting an analytical study to explore the various policy options needed to implement this new strategy. A National Conference for the Development of Education was held in Kuwait in February 2008, in order to discuss this national strategy further.
Other multilateral organizations, such as the OECD, are working towards improving the business environment in Kuwait and providing training for women to promote female entrepreneurship within the country. The population of Kuwait has grown in recent times, more than doubling between 1985 and 2005. Kuwaitis now make up about a third of the country’s population, expatriates the rest; the school-aged population of both Kuwaitis and non-Kuwaitis represented 24 percent of the total population in 2005. There were 716,000 people aged between 4 and 21 years old in Kuwait that year, of which 426,000 were Kuwaitis and about 290,000, non–Kuwaitis. There are more males than females in every age group of the school-age population; the proportion of non-Kuwaitis is higher among the 18- to 21-year-olds. In 2007, the female enrollment at primary and secondary level was 97 and 91 percent and for males, the corresponding figures were 99 and 90 percent. At the same time, a burgeoning young population is posing a burden on the job market, with rising numbers of young people unemployed.
"The Government is looking at wider economic reform, including moving some of the 95 per cent of Kuwaitis who work in the state sector to the private sector", in order to increase job opportunities for the new entrants. The general education system consists of four levels: kindergarten, or nursery, primary and secondary. Schooling at primary and intermediate level is compulsory for all students aged 6 – 14. All the levels of state education, including higher education, are free. There are two main ministries involved in the development of the education sector: the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher of Education. There are about 1,145 schools in Kuwait, at all levels from kindergarten to secondary. Out of this total, 664 are public and 481 are private schools. There are 6 districts in Kuwait. Two-thirds of all students were in public schools during the year ending 2006. Most Kuwaitis study in public schools with Arabic curriculum; the private schools are split about between Arabic medium schools, which follow Kuwait’s national