Mondorf-les-Bains is a commune and town in south-eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Remich. Mondorf-les-Bains is a spa town, has the only casino in Luxembourg; as of 2005, the town of Mondorf-les-Bains, which lies in the south-east of the commune, has a population of 2,812. Other towns within the commune include Ellange; the area was first inhabited by the Celts. The Romans, who arrived in 65 BC, built the Castel on Celtic foundations to protect the road from Metz to Trier, it was one of Charlemagne's nieces, behind the village's name. In the 9th century, she donated all her possessions including the little village to Echternach Abbey; the village was subsequently called Muomendorph. Over the centuries, Mondorf was attacked, burnt down and rebuilt. St Michael's Church from 1065 was rebuilt on four occasions, the last time in 1764, it was in the 1840s that the thermal waters were uncovered as a result of deep drilling for salt which had become taxed under the Dutch. Karl Gotthelf Kind, who had found salt in Germany and hoped to do the same in Mondorf, discovered the waters after drilling to a record depth of 736 metres.
Despite their mineral properties, the waters were not suitable for salt a brownish colour caused by the rich iron content which emerged after distilling. The local notary, J.-P. Ledure, saw other opportunities for the waters and was successful in finding support for setting up the "Société des Bains de Mondorf"; the architect Charles Eydt was commissioned to build the thermal establishment, inaugurated on 20 June 1847. As a result of the spa's success, the village prospered as rich French guests came to stay in the luxurious hotels which sprang up in the vicinity; the flow of visitors from France was however halted in 1871 when the Germans occupied Alsace and Lorraine. Despite acquiring the name of Mondorf-les-Bains on 28 August 1878, the spa had been undergoing a significant decline since 1871. Only after the State took over the facilities on 21 April 1886 were its fortunes improved. Minister of State Paul Eyschen was successful in reviving interest, encouraging visitors to come from Belgium.
In the early 20th century, the State invested in the resort adding a pavilion for the original source, a banqueting hall and a reading room as well as the Orangerie and the country’s first indoor swimming pool. The park was enlarged. A railway to Thionville was opened in 1903 and, in 1913, the Marie-Adelaïde Source, named after the grand duchess was added after drilling to a depth of 464 metres. After a quiet period during the First World War, a new spa centre designed by architect Paul Wigreux was opened in 1926. In the 1930s, the hotels were occupied not by visitors interested in the waters but by émigrés from Nazi Germany. At the same time it was visited by Polish pianist Arthur Rubinstein. During the Second World War, well-to-do Nazis enjoyed relaxing at "Staatsbad-Mondorf", far away from the bombing and fighting. In 1945, Mondorf's Palace Hotel became Camp Ashcan, a prisoner-of-war camp for senior Nazi dignitaries who awaited trial at Nuremberg. During the allied occupation, that lasted until september 1945, there was no permission to transit in the town from 7 pm to 7 am.
The spa continued to prosper in the second half of the 20th century with an outdoor swimming pool, a new thermal centre, the Casino 2000 which opened in 1983. The spa welcomes thousands of visitors a year with its richly mineralized waters at 24 °C. Set in a park of 36 ha, its facilities are among the most modern in Europe; the waters are suitable for the treatment of liver and respiratory ailments. In addition to a equipped fitness pavilion, there are massage booths, saunas and outdoor swimming pools, Turkish baths and whirlpools. Treatments from algae wraps and lava-stone therapy to lymphatic drainage and ayurvedic rituals are said to be relaxing. St Michael's Church is one of the country's finest Rococo buildings. Inside the church, the fresco and pulpit are of special interest. Now a listed building, the church was built from 1764 to 1766 on the initiative of Nic Ungeschick, with the support of the abbey of Echternach; the Louis XV furniture was created by the local sculptor Jean-Pierre Decker who lived and worked in Mondorf.
The organ on the balcony with musical emblems, the confessionals and the altars blend harmoniously with the frescos designed by Weiser from Bohemia. The original St Michael was destroyed and rebuilt on several occasions; the major contributor to Mondorf's economy is Casino 2000 as a hotel, gaming centre and business venue. Other contributors are the town's restaurants, its tourists and crafts interests as well as agriculture and viticulture; the Domaine Thermal attracts visitors to the spa as well as those interested in its hotel and restaurants and its conference facilities. Mondorf is part of a twinning network including: Bad Homburg, Germany Cabourg, France Chur, Switzerland Mayrhofen, Austria Terracina, Italy Spa, Belgium Jūrmala, Latvia Bad Tölz, Germany Hinterzarten, Germany John Grün, the strongest man in the world Auguste Liesch, liberal politician and writer Andy Schleck, professional road racing cyclist Fränk Schleck, professional road racing cyclist Media related to Mondorf-les-Bains at Wikimedia Commons
Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors during the high Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zoll
Communes of Luxembourg
Luxembourg's 102 Communes conform to LAU Level 2 and are the country's lowest administrative divisions. Communes rank below cantons in Luxembourg's hierarchy of administrative subdivisions. Communes are re-arranged, being merged or divided as demanded by demographic change over time. Unlike the cantons, which have remained unchanged since their creation, the identity of the communes has not become ingrained within the geographical sensations of the average Luxembourger; the cantons are responsible for the ceremonial and statistical aspects of government, while the communes provide local government services. The municipal system was adopted when Luxembourg was annexed into the French département of Forêts in 1795. Despite ownership passing to the Netherlands, this system was maintained until it was introduced upon independence in 1843; the province of Luxembourg, which now constitutes part of Belgium, was part of Luxembourg prior to 1839 when it possessed a low degree of sovereignty. Due to Luxembourg's incorporation into the main country by its occupying powers, the modern municipal system in Luxembourg is less than two centuries old.
Luxembourg has three official languages: French and the national language Luxembourgish. Some government websites offer English versions The communes have no legislative control over matters relating to the national interest, which reside with the Chamber of Deputies. Below this level, they have wide-ranging powers; the communes provide public education, maintain the local road network and other infrastructure, ensure basic public health, provide most social security. Communes have discretionary powers for comprehensive health care within their borders, land-use planning, funds for cultural activities, provision of care to the elderly, providing a sufficient supply of water and electricity. There are 102 communes in the 12 cantons; the 12 communes with city status are Diekirch, Dudelange, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Remich, Rumelange and Wiltz. Since the country's creation in 1839, eight communes have changed their name and thirty-nine communes have been merged, resulting in the 102 communes that exist today.
These defunct communes are listed in the table below. The municipal system was created during the French occupation to mirror the systems employed in the rest of the French Republic; these were overhauled in 1823, but the system itself was retained until independence, granted under the 1839 Treaty of London. The law regulating their creation and organisation dates to 24 February 1843, enshrined in the Luxembourgian constitution promulgated on 17 October 1868. Upon independence, there were 120 communes. A series of mergers and partitions between 1849 and 1891 increased this number to 130. Most of these were brought about by asymmetrical population growth, as population growth in the south caused the balance of population in the country to shift. For instance, some of the communes born in that era include Rumelange and Walferdange. In the pattern of Nordstad and Schieren were separated from Ettelbruck. Since the end of the First World War, during which Luxembourg was occupied by Germany, the number of communes has dropped steadily.
In 1920, Luxembourg City was expanded. Another wave of mergers took place in the 1970s when sparsely-populated areas in the north and west of the country were merged to form Lac de la Haute-Sûre, Wincrange. 2006 saw the creation of Kiischpelt and Tandel from four smaller communes, further reducing them to just 116. 2012 saw the creation of Käerjeng, Vallée de l'Ernz and Parc Hosingen from smaller communes, the merger of Clervaux, Esch-sur-Sûre and Schengen into adjacent ones. Eschweiler was merged into Wiltz in 2015. Following the mergers of Boevange-sur-Attert and Tuntange into the new commune of Helperknapp, the merger of Septfontaines and Hobschied into the new commune of Habscht, the merger of Rosport and Mompach into Rosport-Mompach in 2018, there are now only 102 communes. Category:Lists of communes of Luxembourg Statec. Recueil de statistiques par commune 2003. Luxembourg City: Statec. ISBN 2-87988-053-X. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2006-07-18. / "Archives of Mémorial A".
Service central de législation. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2006-07-18
Remich is a commune with town status in south-eastern Luxembourg with a population of 3,645 inhabitants as of 2018. It is the capital of the canton of Remich. Remich lies on the left bank of the Moselle river, which forms part of the border between Luxembourg and Germany; the commune is the smallest in Luxembourg by surface area. The Moselle valley is dominated by wine-making and many small wine-making towns, of which Remich is one of the most picturesque and frequented by tourists. In the 5th century, after the withdrawal of Roman troops, the Roman settlement of "Remacum" turned into "Remich". In the 8th century the King of the Franks, Pepin the Short ceded his crown estate "Hof Remich" to the Benedictine St. Maximin's Abbey in Trier and to Prüm Abbey. In 882, the Normans destroyed the settlement. Fragments of the medieval town fortifications from 952, such as the St. Nicolas gate, are still visible today; the town gate, it is dedicated to the patron saint of fishermen and sailors, is registered as a national monument today, as is the decanal church, whose rectangular tower is a former defensive tower from the 12th century.
In 1687 the town's fortifications were demolished by the army of Louis XIV. There are still guild symbols on some of the houses today. In 1866 the first bridge was built over the Moselle. After its destruction in World War II it was replaced first with a wooden construction in 1958 with the bridge that still stands today. Since its canalisation in 1964, it has been possible for boats to sail on the Moselle all year round. Remich annually holds a three-day-long celebration for Carnival. Remich is notable for two special events in addition to its Fuesend Karneval parades; the first of these is the Stréimännchen, the burning of a male effigy from the Remich bridge that crosses the Moselle River separating the Grand Duchy from Germany. The Stréimännchen symbolizes the burning away of winter; the other special event at the Remich Fuesend celebrations is the Buergbrennen or bonfire that closes the celebration. The communal council is composed as detailed below; the results are those of the most recent communal elections on 8 October 2017.
NB: The "Change" column refers to a party's number of seats gained/lost since the 2011 communal elections. Jacques Sitz Henri Kox Jeannot Belling Fernand Kons Jean-Auguste Neyen Joseph-Chrétien Gretsch Willibrorde Macher Mary Alfred Moes, American Roman Catholic nun, was born in Remich. Media related to Remich at Wikimedia Commons Website of the town of Remich
Dalheim is a commune and town in south-eastern Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Remich, part of the district of Grevenmacher; as of 2005, the town of Dalheim, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 1,232. Other towns within the commune include Welfrange; the church in Dalheim, built in 1743, is a Catholic church dedicated to Saints Paul. It is situated on the "Péiteschbierg" high above the village center, it is distinguished by its unique frescoes from the second half of the 18th century and statues of the two patron saints situated outside the church. However, in 2017, the statue of St Paul was decapitated and the head placed outside the front door of the presbytery. There has been press speculation that this incident occurred in order to intimidate the resident priest, Fr Jean-Marie Belanga. Both statues were removed shortly after the incident by the local administration for repairs. Fr Belanga, stopped from preaching by the Archdiocese due to complaints about the conservative and Catholic nature of his homilies, was subsequently removed from his position as parish priest in the village and told to leave Luxembourg.
Fr Belanga was the first priest of African origin to serve as the parish priest of Dalheim. To the south of today's village of Dalheim, is evidence of a Roman settlement named Ricciacum, located on the highest point of a gentle slope facing south-west. Ricciacum had impressive public buildings; some of these monuments can still be visited today. Media related to Dalheim at Wikimedia Commons Commune of Dalheim official website Dalheim-Online: the towns of Dalheim and Filsdorf Webpage of Firefighters of Dalheim and Welfrange
Luxembourgish, Letzeburgesch, or Luxembourgian is a West Germanic language, spoken in Luxembourg. About 390,000 people speak Luxembourgish worldwide. A variety of the Moselle Franconian dialect group, Luxembourgish has similarities with other varieties of High German and the wider group of West Germanic languages; the status of Luxembourgish as an official language in Luxembourg and the existence there of a regulatory body, has removed Luxembourgish, at least in part, from the domain of Standard German, its traditional Dachsprache. Luxembourgish belongs to the West Central German group of High German languages and is the primary example of a Moselle Franconian language. Luxembourgish is the national language of Luxembourg and one of three administrative languages, alongside French and German. In Luxembourg, 50.9% of citizens can speak Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken in the Arelerland region of Belgium and in small parts of Lorraine in France. In the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken.
The language is spoken by a few descendants of Luxembourg immigrants in the United States and Canada. Additionally, in the German Eifel and Hunsrück regions, similar local Moselle Franconian dialects of German are spoken. Other Moselle Franconian dialects are spoken by ethnic Germans long settled in Transylvania, Romania. Moselle Franconian dialects outside the Luxembourg state border tend to have far fewer French loan words, these remain from the French Revolution. There are several distinct dialect forms of Luxembourgish including Areler, Kliärrwer, Stater, Veiner and Weelzer. Further small vocabulary differences may be seen between small villages. Increasing mobility of the population and the dissemination of the language through mass media such as radio and television are leading to a gradual standardisation towards a "Standard Luxembourgish" through the process of koineization. There is no distinct geographic boundary between the use of Luxembourgish and the use of other related High German dialects.
Spoken Luxembourgish is hard to understand for speakers of German who are not familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects. However, they can read the language to some degree. For those Germans familiar with Moselle Franconian dialects, it is easy to understand and speak Luxembourgish as far as the everyday vocabulary is concerned. However, the large number of French loanwords in Luxembourgish may hamper communication about certain topics, or with certain speakers. There is no intelligibility between Luxembourgish and French or any of the Romance dialects spoken in the adjacent parts of Belgium and France. Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, President of the Christian Social People's Party of Luxembourg 1995–2003, was active in promoting the language beyond Luxembourg's borders. A number of proposals for standardising the orthography of Luxembourgish can be documented, going back to the middle of the 19th century. There was no recognised system, until the adoption of the "OLO" on 5 June 1946; this orthography provided a system for speakers of all varieties of Luxembourgish to transcribe words the way they pronounced them, rather than imposing a single, standard spelling for the words of the language.
The rules explicitly rejected certain elements of German orthography. New principles were adopted for the spelling of French loanwords. Fiireje, rééjelen, shwèzt, veinejer bültê, âprê, ssistém This proposed orthography, so different from existing "foreign" standards that people were familiar with, did not enjoy widespread approval. A more successful standard emerged from the work of the committee of specialists charged with the task of creating the Luxemburger Wörterbuch, published in 5 volumes between 1950 and 1977; the orthographic conventions adopted in this decades-long project, set out in Bruch, provided the basis of the standard orthography that became official on 10 October 1975. Modifications to this standard were proposed by the Conseil permanent de la langue luxembourgeoise and adopted in the spelling reform of 30 July 1999. A detailed explanation of current practice for Luxembourgish can be found in Lulling; the Luxembourgish alphabet consists of the 26 Latin letters plus three letters with diacritics: "é", "ä", "ë".
In loanwords from French and Standard German, other diacritics are preserved: French: Boîte, Enquête, Piqûre, etc. German: blöd, Bühn, etc. Like many other varieties of Western High German, Luxembourgish has a rule of final n-deletion in certain contexts; the effects of this rule are indicated in writing, therefore must be taken into account when spelling words and morphemes ending in ⟨n⟩ or ⟨nn⟩. For example: wann ech ginn "when I go", but wa mer ginn "when we go" fënnefandrësseg "thirty-five", but fënnefavéierzeg "forty-five"; the consonant inventory of Luxembourgish is quite similar to that of Standard German. /p͡f/ occurs only in loanwords from Standard German. Just as among many native German-speakers, it tends to be simplified to word-initia