Bowing is the act of lowering the torso and head as a social gesture in direction to another person or symbol. It is most prominent in Asian cultures but it is typical of nobility and aristocracy in many countries and distinctively in Europe, it is used in religious contexts, as a form of worship or veneration. Sometimes the gesture may be limited to lowering the head such as in Indonesia, in many cultures several degrees of the lowness of the bow are distinguished and regarded as appropriate for different circumstances, it is prominent in India, Laos, China and Japan where it may be executed standing or kneeling. Some bows are performed by two or more people while others are unequal - the person bowed to either does not bow in return or performs a less low bow in response. A nod of the head may be regarded as the minimal form of bow. In European cultures — aside from bows done by performers on stage such as at the curtain call — bowing is traditionally an male practice, females instead perform a related gesture called a "curtsey" or "curtsy."
The depth of the bow was related to the difference in degree of respect or gratitude. In Early Modern European courtly circles, males were expected to "bow and scrape". "Scraping" refers to the drawing back of the right leg as one bows, such that the right foot scrapes the floor or earth. While executing such a bow, the man's right hand is pressed horizontally across the abdomen while the left is held out from the body. Social bowing is all but extinct, except in some formal settings, though hand-kissing of women by men, which of necessity includes a bow, lingers on in some cultures. In the British and other Commonwealth courts lawyers and clerks are expected to perform a cursory bow of the head only to the judge when entering or leaving a law court, in session. Similar gestures are made to the Speaker of the House of Commons when entering or leaving the chamber of the House of Commons in session, to the monarch by her staff. Members of the Royal Family of the various Commonwealth Realms are either bowed or curtsied to, depending on the gender of the subject.
Australians are expected to bow to the Governor-General of Australia, the spouse of the Governor-General and state Governors and Lieutenant-Governors. Bows are the traditional greeting in East Asia in Japan, Korea and Vietnam. In China, Vietnam, shaking hands or a slight bow have become more popular than a full bow. However, bowing is not reserved only for greetings. Bowing is a gesture of respect. Different bows are used for apologies and gratitude. Basic bows originate at the waist and are performed with the back straight and the hands at the sides or clasped in front, with the eyes down. Bows can be divided into three main types: informal and formal. Informal bows are made at about more formal bows at about thirty degrees. Formal bows are deeper. In extreme cases a kneeling bow is performed, which may be so deep that the forehead touches the floor. There is an complex etiquette surrounding bowing, including the length and depth of bow, the appropriate response. For example, if the other person maintains his or her bow for longer than expected, it is polite to bow again, upon which one may receive another bow in return leading to an exchange of progressively lighter bows.
Bows are a required and expected part of any apology or expression of thanks in East Asia Japan and Korea. Bows of apology tend to be last longer than other types of bow, they occur with frequency during the apology at about 45-50 degrees with the head lowered and lasting for at least the count of three but sometimes longer. The depth and duration of the bow increases with the sincerity of the apology and the severity of the offense. Bows of thanks follow the same pattern. Bows of apology are performed at press conferences by high-ranking members of a company that has performed some misdeed, such as producing faulty parts that resulted in a death; the bows are invariably performed standing behind a table. Bows are used in greeting, both when meeting and when departing. Bows automatically accompany the greeting phrases, but are no longer used among the immediate family unless addressing a family member after or in anticipation of a long absence or separation. Bows replace speaking under certain circumstances.
For example, when encountering again a person to whom one has spoken that day, a silent bow replaces such phrases as "hello" or "hi." When addressing a subordinate, a manager, supervisor, or other leader only nods the head while the subordinate bends forward from the waist. When dealing with non-East Asians, many East Asians will shake hands. Since many non-East Asians are familiar with the custom of bowing, this leads to an awkward combined bow and handshake. Bows may be performed before or after shaking hands; when bowing in proximity to another, as necessitated when combining bowing and shaking hands, people turn to one side to avoid bumping heads. The kowtow is the highest sign of reverence in Han Chinese cultu
Bow and arrow
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device and long-shafted projectiles. Archery is the practice, or skill of using bows to shoot arrows. A person who shoots arrows with a bow is called an archer. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer, one who makes arrows is a fletcher, one who manufactures metal arrowheads is an arrowsmith; the use of bows and arrows by humans for hunting predates recorded history and was common to many prehistoric cultures. They were important weapons of war from ancient history until the early modern period, where they were rendered obsolete by the development of the more powerful and accurate firearms, were dropped from warfare. Today and arrows are used for hunting and sports. A bow consists of a semi-rigid but elastic arc with a high-tensile bowstring joining the ends of the two limbs of the bow. An arrow is a projectile with a pointed tip and a long shaft with stabilizer fins towards the back, with a narrow notch at the end to contact the bowstring.
To load an arrow for shooting, the archer places an arrow across the middle of the bow with the bowstring in the arrow's nock. To shoot, the archer pulls back the arrow and the bowstring, which in turn flexes the bow limbs, storing elastic energy. While maintaining the draw, the archer sights along the arrow to aim it; the archer releases the arrow, allowing the limbs' stored potential energy to convert into kinetic energy, transmitted via the bowstring to the arrow, propelling it to fly forward with high velocity. A container or bag for additional arrows for quick reloading is called a quiver; when not in use, bows are kept unstrung, meaning one or both ends of the bowstring are detached from the bow. This removes all residual tension on the bow, can help prevent it from losing strength or elasticity over time. For many bow designs, this lets it straighten out more reducing the space needed to store the bow. Returning the bowstring to its ready-to-use position is called stringing the bow; the bow and arrow appears around the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic.
After the end of the last glacial period, use of the bow seems to have spread to every inhabited region, except for Australasia and most of Oceania. The earliest definite remains of bow and arrow are from Europe. Possible fragments from Germany were found at Mannheim-Vogelstang dated 17,500-18,000 years ago, at Stellmoor dated 11,000 years ago. Azilian points found in Grotte du Bichon, alongside the remains of both a bear and a hunter, with flint fragments found in the bear's third vertebra, suggest the use of arrows at 13,500 years ago. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana County, obsidian bladelets found embedded in a skull and within the thoracic cavity of another skeleton, suggest the use of stone-tipped arrows as weapons about 10,000 years ago. Microliths discovered on the south coast of Africa suggest that projectile weapons of some sort may be at least 71,000 years old; the oldest extant bows in one piece are the elm Holmegaard bows from Denmark which were dated to 9,000 BCE. Several bows from Holmegaard, date 8,000 years ago.
High-performance wooden bows are made following the Holmegaard design. The Stellmoor bow fragments from northern Germany were dated to about 8,000 BCE, but they were destroyed in Hamburg during the Second World War, before carbon 14 dating was available; the bow was an important weapon for both hunting and warfare from prehistoric times until the widespread use of gunpowder in the 16th century. Organised warfare with bows ended in the mid 17th century in Europe, but it persisted into the early 19th century in Eastern cultures and in hunting and tribal warfare in the New World. In the Canadian Arctic bows were made until the end of the 20th century for hunting caribou, for instance at Igloolik; the bow has more been used as a weapon of tribal warfare in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The British upper class led a revival of archery from the late 18th century. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, under the patronage of George Prince of Wales.
The basic elements of a bow are a pair of curved elastic limbs, traditionally made from wood, joined by a riser. Both ends of the limbs are connected by a string known as the bow string. By pulling the string backwards the archer exerts compressive force on the string-facing section, or belly, of the limbs as well as placing the outer section, or back, under tension. While the string is held, this stores the energy released in putting the arrow to flight; the force required to hold the string stationary at full draw is used to express the power of a bow, is known as its draw weight, or weight. Other things being equal, a higher draw weight means a more powerful bow, able to project heavier arrows at the same velocity or the same arrow at a greater velocity; the various parts of the bow can be subdivided into further sections. The topmost limb is known as the upper limb. At the tip of each limb is a nock, used to attach the bowstring to the limbs; the riser is divided into the grip, held by the archer, as well as the arrow rest and the bow window.
The arrow rest is a small ledge or extension above the grip which the arrow rests upon while being aimed. The bow window is that part of the
A ribbon or riband is a thin band of material cloth but plastic or sometimes metal, used as decorative binding and tying. Cloth ribbons are made of natural materials such as silk, velvet and jute and of synthetic materials, such as polyester and polypropylene. Ribbon is used for innumerable useful and symbolic purposes. Cultures around the world use ribbon in their hair, around the body, as ornamentation on non-human animals and packaging; some popular fabrics used to make ribbons are satin, sheer, silk and grosgrain. The word ribbon comes from Middle English ribban or riban from Old French ruban, of Germanic origin. Along with that of tapes and other smallwares, the manufacture of cloth ribbons forms a special department of the textile industries; the essential feature of a ribbon loom is the simultaneous weaving in one loom frame of two or more webs, going up to as many as forty narrow fabrics in modern looms. To affect the conjoined throwing of all the shuttles and the various other movements of the loom, the automatic action of the power-loom is necessary, it is a remarkable fact that the self-acting ribbon loom was known and extensively used more than a century before the famous invention of Cartwright.
A loom in which several narrow webs could be woven at one time is mentioned as having been working in Dantzig towards the end of the 16th century. Similar looms were at work in Leiden in 1620, where their use gave rise to so much discontent and rioting on the part of the weavers that the states-general had to prohibit their use; the prohibition was renewed at various intervals throughout the century, in the same interval the use of the ribbon loom was interdicted in most of the principal industrial centres of Europe. In 1676, under the name of the Dutch loom or engine loom, it was brought to London, although its introduction there caused some disturbance, it does not appear to have been prohibited. In 1745, John Kay, the inventor of the fly-shuttle, conjointly with Joseph Stell, a patent for improvements in the ribbon loom. Since that period, it has benefited by the inventions applied to weaving machinery generally. Ribbon-weaving is known to have been established near St. Etienne as early as the 11th century, that town has remained the headquarters of the industry in Europe.
During the Huguenot troubles, ribbon-weavers from St. Etienne settled at Basel, there, established an industry which in modern times has rivalled that of the original seat of the trade. In the late 19th century a Frenchman known as C. M. Offray— himself from St. Etienne— moved his ribbon business to the United States and set up a company called "C. M. Offray & Sons, Inc" which went on to become a huge manufacturer of ribbons in North America. In Germany, Krefeld is the centre of the ribbon industry. In England. Coventry is the most important seat of ribbon-making, prosecuted at Norwich and Leicester. While satin and other sorts of ribbon have always been used in lingerie, the usage of ribbon in the garment industry, while subject to fashion trends, saw an upsurge in the mid to late 90's; this upsurge led to increased ribbon manufacturing as well as new and improved manufacturing techniques. Due to more competitive production rates, as well as past experience in this field, companies in the Far East – those in China – secured themselves to be the major ribbon suppliers in the world and improved both the quality and the variety of their merchandise to match those of their established European and North American competitors.
Presently, the North American continent remains the largest importer of ribbon and ribbon derivative products. However, due to outsourcing of production of garments by North American garment manufacturers, countries in Asia and South America have started to contribute to the change of the statistical figures of ribbon imports. Inspired by European silk ribbons obtained through trade, Great Lakes and Prairie Native American tribes created art form of appliqué ribbon work. Typewriters and dot matrix printers use a plastic ribbon to hold the ink. Pieces of ribbon are used as symbols of support or awareness for various social causes and are called "awareness ribbons". Ribbons are used such as in a ribbon cutting ceremony. Award ribbon Card printer Dye-sublimation printer Ribbon bar Ribbon cable This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Ribbons". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23. Cambridge University Press. P. 283
The bow tie is a type of necktie. A modern bow tie is tied using a common shoelace knot, called the bow knot for that reason, it consists of a ribbon of fabric tied around the collar of a shirt in a symmetrical manner so that the two opposite ends form loops. There are three types of bow ties: the pre-tied, the clip on, the self tie. Pre-tied bow ties are ties in which the distinctive bow is sewn onto a band that goes around the neck and clips to secure; some "clip-ons" dispense with the band altogether. The traditional bow tie, consisting of a strip of cloth which the wearer has to tie by hand, is known as a "self-tie," "tie-it-yourself," or "freestyle" bow tie. Bow ties may be made of any fabric material, but most are made from silk, cotton, or a mixture of fabrics; some fabrics are much less common for bow ties than for ordinary four-in-hand neckties. The bow tie originated among Croatian mercenaries during the Thirty Years' War of the 17th century: the Croat mercenaries used a scarf around the neck to hold together the opening of their shirts.
This was soon adopted by the upper classes in France a leader in fashion, flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is uncertain whether the cravat evolved into the bow tie and four-in-hand necktie, or whether the cravat gave rise to the bow tie, which in turn led to the four-in-hand necktie; the most traditional bow ties are of a fixed length and are made for a specific size neck. Sizes can vary between 14 and 19 inches as with a comparable shirt collar. Fixed-length bow ties are preferred when worn with the most formal wing-collar shirts, so as not to expose the buckle or clasp of an adjustable bow tie. Adjustable bow ties are the standard when the tie is to be worn with a less formal, lie-down collar shirts which obscure the neckband of the tie. "One-size-fits-all" adjustable bow ties are a invention that help to moderate production costs. To its devotees, the bow tie suggests iconoclasm of an Old World sort, a fusty adherence to a contrarian point of view; the bow tie hints at intellectualism, real or feigned, sometimes suggests technical acumen because it is so hard to tie.
Bow ties are worn by magicians, country doctors and professors and by people hoping to look like the above. But most of all, wearing a bow tie is a way of broadcasting an aggressive lack of concern for what other people think. - Warren St John in The New York Times Popular perception tends to associate bow tie wearers with particular professions, such as architects, finance receipt collectors, university professors, teachers and politicians. Pediatricians wear bow ties since infants cannot grab them the way they could grab a four-in-hand necktie. Bow ties do not droop into places where they would get soiled or where they could, whether accidentally or deliberately, strangle the wearer. Clowns sometimes use an oversize bow tie for its comic effect. Classical musicians traditionally perform in white tie or black tie ensembles, of which both designs are bow ties. Bow ties are associated with weddings because of their universal inclusion in traditional formal attire. Bow ties, or slight variations thereof, have made their way into women's wear business attire.
The 1980s saw professional women in law and the corporate world, donning conservative tailored suits, with a rise of 6 million units in sales. These were worn with buttoned-up blouses, some with pleats up the front like tuxedo shirts, accessorized with bow ties that were fuller than the standard bow ties worn by their male counterparts, but consisting of the same fabrics and patterns as men's ties. Russell Smith, style columnist for Toronto's The Globe and Mail, records mixed opinions of bow tie wearers, he observed that bow ties were experiencing a potential comeback among men, though "the class conscious man recoils at the idea" of pre-tied bow ties and "eft-wingers"... "recoil at what they perceive to be a symbol of political conservatism." He argues that, that anachronism is the point, that bow tie wearers are making a public statement that they disdain changing fashion. Such people may not be economic conservatives, he argues, but they are social conservatives. In Smith's view, the bow tie is "the embodiment of propriety," an indicator of fastidiousness, "an instant sign of nerddom in Hollywood movies," but "not the mark of a ladies' man" and "not sexy."
To this image he attributes the association of the bow tie with newspaper editors, high-school principals, bachelor English teachers. Most men, only wear bow ties with formal dress; the four-in-hand necktie is still more prominent in contemporary Western society, it being seen the most at business meetings, formal functions and sometimes at home. However, the bow tie is making a comeback at fun-formal events such as dinners, cocktail parties, nights out on the town. Bow ties are worn with suits by those trying to convey a more dressed-up, formal image, whether in business or social venues. Bow ties are still popular with men of all ages in the American South, having never gone out of fashion there. Traditional opinion remains that it is inappropriate to wear anything other than a bow tie with a dinner jacket. Bow ties are sometimes worn as an alternative to ascot ties and four-in-hand neckties when wearing morning dress; the dress code of "black tie" requires a black bow tie. Most military mess dress uniforms incorporate a bow tie.
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Bow is a hamlet contiguous with Stanford in the Vale in Oxfordshire, England. Media related to Bow, Oxfordshire at Wikimedia Commons
Bow is an unincorporated community in Cumberland County, United States. It lies along Route 90 southeast of the city of the county seat of Cumberland County, its elevation is 607 feet
In rowing, the "bow" or sometimes "bows" of a boat is the forward part of the hull, the point, most forward when the vessel is underway. The other end of the boat is called the stern; the rower closest to the bow of the boat is known as "bow". When the boat has more than one rower, the rower closest to the bow of the boat is known as "bow". In coxless boats, bow is the person who keeps an eye on the water behind himself or herself to avoid accidents; the rower at the opposite end of the boat is referred to as stroke. Bow side refers to the starboard side of the boat, on the right hand side of a cox facing forwards but on the left-hand side of a rower facing backwards; the usage derives from the tradition of having the bow rower's oar be on the starboard or right side of the boat. In Cornish pilot gigs, the bow rower's oar is on the port left side and therefore bow side refers to the port side of the boat