South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Abitibi Consolidated Inc. was a Canadian pulp and paper company based in Montreal, Quebec. Abitibi-Consolidated was formed from the merger of Abitibi-Price Inc. and Stone Consolidated Corp. on May 29, 1997. A network of 19 paper mills, 20 sawmills, 4 remanufacturing facilities and 2 engineered wood facilities, located in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom, supplied publishers, building products distributors and housing manufacturers in over 70 countries, it had 12,500 employees. A global leader in newsprint, commercial printing papers and wood products, the Company saw combined revenues of $4.85 billion in 2006. Number one in Canada in terms of total certified woodlands, Abitibi-Consolidated was one of the largest recyclers of newspapers and magazines, serving 21 metropolitan areas in North America and the United Kingdom. In addition, the Company had significant hydroelectric generating assets in eastern Canada, which provided a cost advantage for the associated production facilities and was an extension into the energy sector.
Price Brothers & Company Limited was a lumber firm from Quebec founded in 1820 as William Price Company by William Price. Following the death of Price Sr sons William Evan Price and Evans John Price took over and the firm became Price Brothers and Company Limited. In 1910 the company became Price Brothers Limited as Sir William Price took control of the family firm, after he died in 1924 Sir William's sons John Herbert and Arthur Clifford Price assumed control. In the 1930s the family firm lost the firm was sold. Price Brothers and Company was renamed Price Limited in 1966 and was acquired by Abitibi Power and Paper Co. and became Abitibi-Price in 1974. When Abitibi-Price became Abitibi-Consolidated in 1997, the Price name disappeared. Abitibi Pulp and Paper Co. Ltd. was founded in 1912 at Iroquois Falls, Ontario on the Abitibi River by Frank Harris Anson. The following February, the company name was changed to Abitibi Power and Paper Co. Ltd. to reflect the power generation business it created through the need to build a dam to generate electricity for its mill.
The company expanded to other locations in Ontario where it built dams and operated hydro electric power stations. Wherever the company built a mill, a new town sprang up around it and it built radio stations such as CFCH in Iroquois Falls to serve these remote new communities; the company acquired other small lumber operations and grew to become a major force in the North American newsprint business but the Great Depression forced the company to file for bankruptcy protection on September 10, 1932. A Royal commission was held to enquire into the company's affairs, with its report issued in March 1941, it remained under the control of the Court-appointed Receiver until 1946, the longest such receivership in Canadian history. Emerging from bankruptcy, the company prospered in the post-World War II industrial boom and in 1965 changed its name to the Abitibi Paper Company Ltd. In 1974, Abitibi purchased a controlling interest in the Price Brothers & Company Limited which had extensive operations in the Province of Quebec and whose vast forestry business dated back to the William Price Company established in Quebec City in 1820.
The merger of Abitibi and the Price Brothers made it the world's biggest newsprint producer. In 1979, the corporate name was changed to Abitibi-Price Inc. and in 1981 it was taken over by Olympia and York Developments Ltd. In 1982, Abitibi-Price bought out the Hilroy companies, whose founder, Roy Hill, had been a member of the Abitibi board of directors and had died in 1978. With the purchase of Hilroy, Abitibi-Price became the premiere vertically-integrated supplier of office stationery in the Canadian market; the collapse of Olympia and York in 1992 resulted in the consortium of banks being forced to take control of Abitibi-Price Inc. for a short time until they sold it through a public share issue in 1994. The share issue entailed the divestment and sale of Hilroy to the Mead Corporation; the Bathurst Power and Paper Company Ltd. built a mill in Bathurst, New Brunswick in 1914. Majority control of the company was obtained in the late 1930s by Arthur J. Nesbitt and his partner Peter A. T. Thomson through their holding company, Power Corporation of Canada.
In the early 1960s, Power Corporation bought the Consolidated Paper Company. When Paul Desmarais acquired control of Power Corporation in 1968, the two companies were merged to become Consolidated-Bathurst Inc, which, in 1989, was sold to Stone Container Corporation of Chicago, Illinois who renamed it Stone Consolidated Inc. In 2000, Abitibi-Consolidated acquired a majority shareholding in Canadian integrated forest products company Donohue Inc. On January 29, 2007, Bowater and Abitibi-Consolidated announced they would be merging to create AbitibiBowater; the merger created the third largest pulp and paper company in North America, the eighth largest in the world. Following the merger, Abitibi-Consolidated was rated B1, B+ and B+ by Moody's, Standard & Poor's and Fitch Ratings respectively. Company web site Yahoo profile
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
Greenville, South Carolina
Greenville is the largest city in and the seat of Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. The city's mayor is Knox H. White, in that position since December 1995. With an estimated population of 68,219 as of 2017, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the population of the surrounding area was 400,492 as of 2010, making it the third-largest urban area in South Carolina as well as the fastest growing. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the MSA had a population of 895,923 in 2017, making it the largest in South Carolina and the third largest in the Carolinas. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area, a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate". According to United States Census Bureau, the CSA had a population of 1,459,766 as of 2017, making it the largest CSA in the state. Greenville is located halfway between Atlanta and Charlotte, North Carolina, along Interstate 85, its metropolitan area includes Interstates 185 and 385.
Greenville has gained recognition in various national publications such as CNN Money, which ranked Greenville as one of the "Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the U. S." Bloomberg named Greenville the Third Strongest Job Market for 2010. Greenville earned the No. 3 slot by Condé Nast Traveler's "Best Small Cities in the U. S." in 2017. Greenville was the fourth fastest-growing city in the United States between 2015 and 2016, according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the land of present-day Greenville was once the hunting ground of the Cherokee, forbidden to colonists. A wealthy settler from Virginia named Richard Pearis arrived in South Carolina around 1754 and established relations with the Cherokee. Pearis had a child with a Cherokee woman and received about 100,000 acres from the Cherokee around 1770. Pearis established a plantation on the Reedy River called the Great Plains in present-day downtown Greenville; the American Revolution divided the South Carolina country between the Patriots. Pearis supported the Loyalists and together with their allies.
The Patriots retaliated by jailing him in Charleston. Pearis never returned to his plantation but Paris Mountain is named after him; the Treaty of Dewitt's Corner in 1777 ceded all Cherokee land, including present-day Greenville, to South Carolina. Greenville County was named for its physical appearance. However, other sources say Greenville is named after General Nathanael Greene in honor of his service in the American Revolutionary War. Lemuel J. Alston came to Greenville County in 1788 and bought 400 acres and a portion of Pearis' former plantation. In 1797 Alston used his land holdings to establish a village called Pleasantburg where he built a stately mansion. In 1816, Alston's land was purchased by Vardry McBee, who leased the Alston mansion for a summer resort, before making mansion his home from 1835 until his death in 1864. Considered to be the father of Greenville, McBee donated land for many structures such as churches, a cotton mill. Furman University was funded by McBee who helped bring the university to Pleasantburg from Winnsboro, South Carolina in 1851.
In 1853 McBee and other Greenville County leaders funded a new railroad called the Greenville and Columbia Railroad. Pleasantburg boomed to around 1,000 in the 1850s due to the growth of McBee's donations and the attraction of the town as a summer resort for visitors. In 1831 Pleasantburg was incorporated as Greenville. In December 1860 Greenville supported a convention to debate the issue of secession for South Carolina; the Greenville District sent James Furman, William K. Easley, Perry E. Duncan, William H. Campbell, James P. Harrison as delegates for the convention. On December 20, 1860 the South Carolina state convention, along with the Greenville delegation, voted to secede from the Union. Greenville County provided over 2,000 soldiers to the Confederate States Army; the town supplied food and firearms to the Confederacy. Greenville saw no action from the war until 1865 when Union troops came through the town looking for President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy who had fled south from Richmond, Virginia.
In June 1865 Andrew Johnson appointed Greenville County native Benjamin Franklin Perry as Governor of South Carolina. In February 1869, Greenville's town charter was amended by the S. C. General Assembly establishing Greenville, the town, as a city. Construction boomed in the 1870s such as the establishment of a bridge over the Reedy River, new mills on the river and new railroads; the Greenville News was established in 1874 as Greenville's first daily newspaper. Southern Bell installed the first telephone lines in the city; the most important infrastructure that came to the city were cotton mills. Prominent cotton mill businesses operated near Greenville making it a cotton mill town. By 1915 Greenville became known as the "Textile Center of the South." During World War I, Greenville served as a training camp center for Army recruits. After World War I commercial activity expanded with new movie theaters and department stores; the Mansion House was demolished and replaced with the Poinsett Hotel in 1925.
The Great Depression hurt the economy of Greenville forcing mills to lay off workers. Furman University and the Greenville Women's College struggled in the crippling economy forcing them to merge in 1933; the Textile Workers Strike of 1934 caused such an uproar in the city and surrounding mill towns that the National Guard had to subdue the chaos. The New Deal established Sirrine S
Canadian Pacific Limited
Canadian Pacific Limited was created in 1971 to own properties owned by Canadian Pacific Railway, a transportation and mining giant in Canada. In October 2001, the CPR decided to spin off the remaining businesses it had not sold off, thus creating separate companies for each, including Canadian Pacific Railway Limited; the Canadian Pacific Railway Company was incorporated on February 16, 1881, to build a railway linking British Columbia with Ontario and Quebec. On July 5, 1971, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company was renamed Canadian Pacific Limited, reflecting the fact that for years it had been a diversified company. On July 4, 1996, as part of a corporate reorganization, the Canadian Pacific Railway Company became a subsidiary of a new company that assumed the Canadian Pacific Limited name. Canadian Pacific Limited's non-railway operations became subsidiaries of the new Canadian Pacific Limited, leaving the Canadian Pacific Railway Company with the railway operations. In 2001, the five remaining subsidiaries of Canadian Pacific Limited were spun off into separate companies.
The CPR built hotels along its railway routes across Canada. The first hotels were built in 1886 to provide meal service for passengers in the Rocky Mountains where railway grades were too severe to justify the operation of Dining Cars. CPR's hotel network expanded to include the Château Frontenac in Quebec City, Chateau Lake Louise on Lake Louise in Alberta, the Banff Springs Hotel in Banff, The Empress in Victoria, British Columbia, the Royal York in Toronto and The Algonquin in St. Andrews, New Brunswick among others. In 2001, CPR acquired US hotelier Fairmont and merged it with CP Hotels to form Fairmont Hotels and Resorts. In some of the former CP Hotels, CP retained stores selling CPR-related items under the banner "CP Store". Stock Code: None - held company Headquarters: Toronto, Ontario The flagship division of Canadian Pacific, the Canadian Pacific Railway began as a private tender to build a railway line connecting eastern Canada to the Pacific. Formed by a group of businessmen, the company was formally established in May 1881 under President George Stephen.
The CPR was completed under the leadership of American William Cornelius Van Horne. Stock Code: CP Headquarters: Calgary, Canada Along with railways, CPR established telegraph operations to allow communications to remote areas. Established as CPR Telegraph Company in 1894, it became CNCP Telecommunications in 1967 and as Unitel Communications Incorporated 1990. Prior to the name change to Unitel, Rogers Communications acquired a stake in 1984 and sold to AT&T Canada in 1984. Unitel disappeared into AT&T in 1993 and Rogers sold the rest by 1995. AT&T Canada was sold off by parent AT&T into an independent company, MTS Allstream. Stock Code: MBT Headquarters: Winnipeg, Manitoba Telegraph operations within CNCP under AT&T Canada ended in 1999 and sold to Montreal-based Télégrame Plus, which in 2002 became iTelegram's Canadian unit Telegrams Canada with head office in Toronto. Along with trains, CP operated trucking operations as part of its land shipping operations. Acquiring Dominion Express Company in 1882, it became Canadian Pacific Express Company in 1926.
It operated independently from the Railway with charges being assessed between companies for work done. It became CP Express and Transport in a merger of trucking operations including Smith Transport, with extensive highway routes throughout Canada and into the United States. Changes brought on by deregulation caused great difficulties for all major trucking companies in Canada and employees bought out CP in 1994 to form Interlink Freight Systems, competition from non-union companies and owner-operators was relentless and other difficulties on the US side brought about its demise. Operations ceased in July 1997. More CP Ships trucking has been known as "C Truck", it is unclear. CP purchased ten "bush plane" companies in the early 1940s and merged them to establish Canadian Pacific Air Lines in 1942 to service western Canada and the Far East routes; the airline provided parcel service to remote areas in Canada. The name was changed in June 1968 to CP Air sold in 1987 to Canadian Airlines International, flying as Canadian.
The airline was taken over by Air Canada in the summer of 2000. Stock Code: AC. A or AC. B Headquarters: Montreal, Quebec In 1883, a CPR crew accidentally discovered natural gas near Medicine Hat, Alberta. In 1912, the CPR set up its Department of Natural Resources in Calgary to manage its timber, oil and mineral rights as well as land sales and immigration and colonization activities. In 1958, CP created Canadian Pacific Oil and Gas Company to manage its oil and mineral rights. CPOG was merged with Central-Del Rio Oils to form PanCanadian Energy in 1971, to expand CP portfolio into energy exploration. PanCanadian was spun off by CP in 2002 and merged with Alberta Energy Corporation to form EnCana. Fording Coal, a coal mining company formed by CP was spun off in 2002 and now operates under Fording Coal-Canadian Coal Trust. Stock Code: FDG. UN and FDG - no longer trades as Fording Coal ceased operations in 2008 and now royal trust under Vancouver, BC-based Teck Resources Headquarters: Calgary, Alberta Canadian Pacific Investments was created in 1962 to expand CP from core transportation business, but since 2001, CP now is focused on fewer businesses.
CPI became Canadian Pacific Enterprises Limited in 1980 and disappeared within CP Limited in 1985. CP Ships began with st
German National Library of Economics
The German National Library of Economics is the world’s largest research infrastructure for economic literature, online as well as offline. The ZBW is a member of the Leibniz Association and has been a foundation under public law since 2007. Several times the ZBW received the international LIBER award for its innovative work in librarianship; the ZBW allows for access of millions of documents and research on economics, partnering with over 40 research institutions to create a connective Open Access portal and social web of research. Through its EconStor and EconBiz and students have accessed millions of datasets and thousands of articles; the ZBW edits two journals: Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics. The ZBW is Germany's central subject research infrastructure for economics in Germany, its mandate is to acquire, to index, to archive theoretical and empirical literature and subject-specific information from economics and business studies, to provide access to these materials to the general public on a national basis.
The ZBW acquires all publications from related and auxiliary disciplines focussing on economics, in order to accommodate the increasing tendency towards interdisciplinary work in economic research. The ZBW is part of the system of national literature provision within the German Research Foundation; the ZBW holds 4.4 million items. The ZBW subscribes to more than 27,100 journals and enables access to 2.3 million electronic documents. The search portal. More than 134,000 full-texts from German research institutes and universities are available online and free of charge on the repository EconStor; the ZBW creates content-descriptive metadata not only for books, but for articles in journals and working papers, i.e. they are indexed with keywords from the Standard Thesaurus for Economics. The ZBW maintains the search portal EconBiz containing more than 10 million datasets of bibliographic references for economics and business studies; the ZBW offers an online reference service, Research Guide EconDesk, which provides guidance for literature and data searches in economics and business studies.
The ZBW is an active player in the Open Access movement which aims for free access to scholarly research output. It is the chief negotiator for national licences in economics in Germany; the repository EconStor serves as a platform for the free publication of research output in economics. Authors and publishing institutions can publish without charges on EconStor. More than 400 institutions use EconStor for the digital dissemination of their publications in Open Access, it is an input service for RePEc and one of its most used archives. All titles in EconStor are indexed by search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and BASE, distributed to databases such as WoldCat, OpenAire and EconBiz; the ZBW Journal Data Archive is a service for the editors of scholarly journals in economics. Editors can deposit datasets and other material relating to empirical articles and provide access to them in order to enable reproducibility of published research findings; the ZBW publishes two journals of Wirtschaftsdienst and Intereconomics.
The ZBW provides support for researchers dealing with the different aspects of the digitisation of the science system, such as publishing in Open Access or research data management. The ZBW participates in international projects to develop new services for its users. GeRDI – Generic Research Data Infrastructure; the project aims to develop a linked-up research data infrastructure. It aims to link existing and future research data centres all over Germany; this allows scientists to search for and re-use research data across disciplines and without barriers. The ZBW coordinates the project, funded by the German Research Foundation. Linked Open Citation Database; the project LOC-DB develops tools and processes based on linked data technologies that will enable individual libraries to participate in an open, distributed infrastructure for the indexation of citations. It aims to show that extensive automation of metadata creation can produce relevant added value to scholarly information discovery. Metrics: MEasuring The Reliability and perception of Indicators for interactions with sCientific productS.
The project focuses on gaining a deeper understanding of alternative indicators for measuring scientific performance. Under review are the quality and reliability of the indicators, but how far they are able to map discipline-specific differences. MOVING: the project aims to build a working environment for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of large collections of documents and data; the ZBW is the research partner for text and data mining and the scientific coordinator, contributes its expertise in the field of Science 2.0. Digital Imperial Statistics: Historical statistics are not available online. In this pilot project, the German Imperial Statistics 1873-1883 have been digitised and processed into a format that researchers can download for re-use in spreadsheets; this project is funded by the German Research Foundation. Digital preservation: Because of the rapid technical development of recent years, information is only available in digital form. At the same time, the hard- and software needed for reading this information becomes obsolete more rapidly.
Digital preservation ensures. To this end, the ZBW cooperates with two other German Libraries, the Leibniz Information Centre for Science and Technology (TIB
Newsprint is a low-cost, non-archival paper consisting of wood pulp and most used to print newspapers and other publications and advertising material. Invented in 1844 by Charles Fenerty of Nova Scotia, Canada, it has an off white cast and distinctive feel, it is designed for use in printing presses that employ a long web of paper rather than individual sheets of paper. Newsprint is favored by publishers and printers as it is low cost and can accept four-color printing at qualities that meet the needs of typical newspapers. Charles Fenerty began experimenting with wood pulp around 1838, making his discovery in 1844. On October 26, 1844, Fenerty took a sample of his paper to Halifax's top newspaper, the Acadian Recorder, where he had written a letter on his newly invented paper saying: The web of paper is placed on the printer, in the form of a roll of paper, from a paper mill. World demand of newsprint in 2006 totaled about 37.2 million metric tonnes, according to the Montreal-based Pulp & Paper Products Council.
This was about 1.6% less than in 2000. Between 2000 and 2006, the biggest changes were in Asia—which saw newsprint demand grow by about 20%—and North America, where demand fell by about 25%. Demand in China doubled during the period, to about 3.2 million metric tonnes. About 35% of global newsprint usage in 2006 was in Asia, with 26% being in North America and about 25% in Western Europe. Latin America and Eastern Europe each represented about 5% of world demand in 2006, according to PPPC, with smaller shares going to Oceania and Africa. Among the biggest factors depressing demand for newsprint in North America have been the decline in newspaper readership among many sectors of the population—particularly young adults—along with increasing competition for advertising business from the Internet and other media. According to the Newspaper Association of America, a United States newspaper trade group, average U. S. daily circulation in 2006 on a typical weekday was 52.3 million, compared with 62.5 million in 1986 and 57.0 million in 1996.
According to NAA, daily ad revenues reached their all-time peak in 2000, by 2007 had fallen by 13%. Newsprint demand has been affected by attempts on the part of newspaper publishers to reduce marginal printing costs through various conservation measures intended to cut newsprint usage. While demand has been trending down in North America in recent years, the rapid economic expansion of such Asian countries as China and India benefited the print newspaper, thus their newsprint suppliers. According to the World Association of Newspapers, in 2007 Asia was the home to 74 of the world's 100 highest-circulation dailies. With millions of Chinese and Indians entering the ranks of those with disposable income, newspapers have gained readers along with other news media. Newsprint is used worldwide in the printing of newspapers and other printed material intended for mass distribution. In the U. S. about 80% of all newsprint, consumed is purchased by daily newspaper publishers, according to PPPC. Dailies use a large majority of total demand in most other regions as well.
In North America, newsprint is purchased by a daily newspaper publisher and is shipped from the mill to the publisher's pressroom or pressrooms, where it is used to print the main body of the newspaper. The daily newspaper publisher may be hired by outside companies such as advertisers or publishers of weekly newspapers or other daily newspapers to produce printed products for those companies using its presses. In such cases the press owner might purchase newsprint from the mill for such contract printing jobs. For the 20% of demand, not purchased by a daily newspaper, common end uses include the printing of weekly newspapers, advertising flyers and other printed products by a commercial printer, a company whose business consists of printing products for other companies using its presses. In such a case, the newsprint may be purchased by the printer on behalf of an advertiser or a weekly newspaper publisher, or it may be purchased by the client and ordered to be shipped to the printer's location.
The biggest inputs to the newsprint manufacturing process are energy and labor. Mill operating margins have been affected in the 2006–2008 time-frame by rising energy costs. Many mills' fiber costs have been affected during the U. S. housing market slowdown of 2007–8 by the shutdown of many sawmills in Canada, since the virgin fiber used by mills comes from nearby sawmills in the form of wood chips produced as a residual product of the saw milling process. Another consideration in the newsprint business is delivery, affected by energy cost trends. Newsprint around the world may be delivered by truck. All things being equal, for domestic shipments in areas like North America or Europe where modern road and rail networks are available, trucks can be more economical than rail for short-haul deliveries, while rail may be more economical for longer s