The cello or violoncello is a string instrument. It is played by bowing or plucking its four strings, which are tuned in perfect fifths an octave lower than the viola: from low to high, C2, G2, D3 and A3, it is the bass member of the violin family, which includes the violin and the double bass, which doubles the bass line an octave lower than the cello in much of the orchestral repertoire. After the double bass, it is the second-largest and second lowest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra; the cello is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music ensembles, string orchestras, as a member of the string section of symphony orchestras, most modern Chinese orchestras, some types of rock bands. Music for the cello is written in the bass clef, but both tenor clef and treble clef are used for higher-range parts, both in orchestral/chamber music parts and in solo cello works. A person who plays the cello is called a violoncellist. In a small classical ensemble, such as a string quartet, the cello plays the bass part, the lowest-pitched musical line of the piece.
In an orchestra of the Baroque era and Classical period, the cello plays the bass part doubled an octave lower by the double basses. In Baroque-era music, the cello is used to play the basso continuo bassline along with a keyboard instrument or a fretted, plucked stringed instrument. In such a Baroque performance, the cello player might be joined or replaced by other bass instruments, playing bassoon, double bass, viol or other low-register instruments; the name cello is derived from the ending of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone". Violone was a large-sized member of the violin family; the term "violone" today refers to the lowest-pitched instrument of the viols, a family of stringed instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except England and France, where they survived another half-century before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country as well. In modern symphony orchestras, it is the second largest stringed instrument.
Thus, the name "violoncello" contained both the augmentative "-one" and the diminutive "-cello". By the turn of the 20th century, it had become common to shorten the name to'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the missing stem, it is now customary to use "cello" without apostrophe as the full designation. Viol is derived from the root viola, derived from Medieval Latin vitula, meaning stringed instrument. Cellos are tuned in fifths, starting with C2, followed by G2, D3, A3, it is tuned in the same intervals as the viola. Unlike the violin or viola but similar to the double bass, the cello has an endpin that rests on the floor to support the instrument's weight; the cello is most associated with European classical music, has been described as the closest sounding instrument to the human voice. The instrument is a part of the standard orchestra, as part of the string section, is the bass voice of the string quartet, as well as being part of many other chamber groups. Among the most well-known Baroque works for the cello are Johann Sebastian Bach's six unaccompanied Suites.
The cello figures as a member of the basso continuo group in chamber works by Francesca Caccini, Barbara Strozzi with pieces such as Il primo libro di madrigali, per 2–5 voci e basso continuo, op. 1 and Elisabeth Jacquet de La Guerre who wrote six sonatas for violin and basso continuo. From the Classical era, the two concertos by Joseph Haydn in C major and D major stand out, as do the five sonatas for cello and pianoforte of Ludwig van Beethoven, which span the important three periods of his compositional evolution. A Divertimento for Piano, Clarinet and Cello is among the surviving works by Duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. A review of compositions for cello in the Romantic era must include the German composer Fanny Mendelssohn who wrote the Fantasy in G minor for cello and piano and a Capriccio in A-flat for cello. Other well-known works of the era include the Robert Schumann Concerto, the Antonín Dvořák Concerto as well as the two sonatas and the Double Concerto by Johannes Brahms.
Compositions from the late-19th and early 20th century include three cello sonatas by Dame Ethel Smyth, Edward Elgar's Cello Concerto in E minor, Claude Debussy's Sonata for Cello and Piano, unaccompanied cello sonatas by Zoltán Kodály and Paul Hindemith. Pieces including cello were written by American Music Cente founder Marion Bauer and Ruth Crawford Seeger. Polish composer Grażyna Bacewicz was writing for cello in the mid 20th century with Concerto No. 1 for Cello and Orchestra, Concerto No. 2 for Cello and Orchestra and in 1964 composed her Quartet for four cellos. The cello's versatility made it popular with many male composers in this era as well, such as Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Benjamin Britten, György Ligeti, Witold Lutoslawski and Henri Dutilleux. Well-known cellists include Jacqueline du Pre, Raya Garbousova, Zara Nelsova, Hildur Gudna
The violin family of musical instruments was developed in Italy in the 16th century. At the time the name of this family of instruments was viole da braccio, used to distinguish them from the viol family; the standard modern violin family consists of the violin, viola and double bass. Instrument names in the violin family are all derived from the root viola, a derivative of the Medieval Latin word vitula. A violin is a "little viola", a violone is a "big viola" or a bass violin, a violoncello is a "small violone"; the playing ranges of the instruments in the violin family overlap each other, but the tone quality and physical size of each distinguishes them from one another. The ranges are as follows: violin: G3 to E7. Both the violin and viola are played under the jaw; the viola, being the larger of the two instruments, has a playing range that reaches a perfect fifth below the violin's. The cello is played sitting down with the instrument between the knees, its playing range reaches an octave below the viola's.
The double bass is played standing or sitting on a stool, with a range that reaches a minor sixth, an octave or a ninth below the cello's. While the cello, the viola and the violin are indisputable members of the ancestral violin or viola da braccio family, the double bass's origins are sometimes called into question; the double bass is taken to be part of the viol family, due to its sloping shoulders, its tuning, the practice of some basses being made with more than four strings and its sometimes flat back. Others point out that correlation does not imply causation and say that these external similarities are either arbitrary or that they arose from causes other than a relationship to the viol family, they point to the internal construction of the double bass, which includes a sound post and bass bar like other violin family instruments as a more weighty piece of evidence than the external features. Its origins aside, it has been used as the lowest member of the violin family. All string instruments share similar form, parts and function, the viols bear a close resemblance to the violin family.
However, instruments in the violin family are set apart from viols by similarities in shape, tuning practice and history. Violin family instruments have four strings each, are tuned in fifths, are not fretted and have four rounded bouts while always having a sound post and bass bar inside. In contrast, the viol family instruments have five to six strings with a fretted fingerboard, are tuned in fourths and thirds have sloping shoulders, do not have a sound post or bass bar; the instruments of the violin family may be descended in part from the lira da braccio and the medieval Byzantine lira. The instruments of the violin family are the most used bowed string instruments in the world today. Although all share a place in classical music, they are used to a lesser degree in jazz, electronic music and other types of popular music, where they are amplified, or created to be used as electric instruments; the violin is used extensively in fiddle music, country music, folk music. The double bass plays an indispensable part in both jazz music forms.
One of the most popular and standardized groupings in classical chamber music, the string quartet, is composed of instruments from the violin family: two violins, one viola and one cello. This similarity in the manner of sound production allows string quartets to blend their tone colour and timbre more than less homogeneous groups; this is notable in comparison to the standard wind quintet, although composed of wind instruments, includes four fundamentally different ways of producing musical pitch. The octobass, a larger version of the double bass, is a used member of this family constructed in the 19th century, it is unwieldy to play and thus has not found much acceptance. The octobass is played standing and its range reaches an octave below the double bass. Violin octet, an experiment in part to create an more homogeneous blend of instruments related to the violin. Kit violin Tenor violin String instrument String orchestra List of string instruments Viol Andrea Amati violin, Cremona, ca. 1560 at The Metropolitan Museum of Art Violin makers: Nicolò Amati and Antonio Stradivari on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of violin
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The word comes from Latin vibrationem; the oscillations may be periodic, such as the motion of a pendulum—or random, such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road. Vibration can be desirable: for example, the motion of a tuning fork, the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica, a mobile phone, or the cone of a loudspeaker. In many cases, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating unwanted sound. For example, the vibrational motions of engines, electric motors, or any mechanical device in operation are unwanted; such vibrations could be caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, or the meshing of gear teeth. Careful designs minimize unwanted vibrations; the studies of sound and vibration are related. Sound, or pressure waves, are generated by vibrating structures. Hence, attempts to reduce noise are related to issues of vibration. Free vibration occurs when a mechanical system is set in motion with an initial input and allowed to vibrate freely.
Examples of this type of vibration are pulling a child back on a swing and letting it go, or hitting a tuning fork and letting it ring. The mechanical system vibrates at one or more of its natural frequencies and damps down to motionlessness. Forced vibration is; the disturbance can be a transient input, or a random input. The periodic input can be a non-harmonic disturbance. Examples of these types of vibration include a washing machine shaking due to an imbalance, transportation vibration caused by an engine or uneven road, or the vibration of a building during an earthquake. For linear systems, the frequency of the steady-state vibration response resulting from the application of a periodic, harmonic input is equal to the frequency of the applied force or motion, with the response magnitude being dependent on the actual mechanical system. Damped vibration: When the energy of a vibrating system is dissipated by friction and other resistances, the vibrations are said to be damped; the vibrations reduce or change in frequency or intensity or cease and the system rests in its equilibrium position.
An example of this type of vibration is the vehicular suspension. Vibration testing is accomplished by introducing a forcing function into a structure with some type of shaker. Alternately, a DUT is attached to the "table" of a shaker. Vibration testing is performed to examine the response of a device under test to a defined vibration environment; the measured response may rattle sound output. Squeak and rattle testing is performed with a special type of quiet shaker that produces low sound levels while under operation. For low frequency forcing, servohydraulic shakers are used. For higher frequencies, electrodynamic shakers are used. One or more "input" or "control" points located on the DUT-side of a fixture is kept at a specified acceleration. Other "response" points experience maximum vibration level or minimum vibration level, it is desirable to achieve anti-resonance to keep a system from becoming too noisy, or to reduce strain on certain parts due to vibration modes caused by specific vibration frequencies.
The most common types of vibration testing services conducted by vibration test labs are Sinusoidal and Random. Sine tests are performed to survey the structural response of the device under test. A random test is considered to more replicate a real world environment, such as road inputs to a moving automobile. Most vibration testing is conducted in a'single DUT axis' at a time though most real-world vibration occurs in various axes simultaneously. MIL-STD-810G, released in late 2008, Test Method 527, calls for multiple exciter testing; the vibration test fixture used to attach the DUT to the shaker table must be designed for the frequency range of the vibration test spectrum. For smaller fixtures and lower frequency ranges, the designer targets a fixture design, free of resonances in the test frequency range; this becomes more difficult as the test frequency increases. In these cases multi-point control strategies can mitigate some of the resonances that may be present in the future. Devices designed to trace or record vibrations are called vibroscopes.
Vibration Analysis, applied in an industrial or maintenance environment aims to reduce maintenance costs and equipment downtime by detecting equipment faults. VA is a key component of a Condition Monitoring program, is referred to as Predictive Maintenance. Most VA is used to detect faults in rotating equipment such as Unbalance, rolling element bearing faults and resonance conditions. VA can use the units of Displacement and Acceleration displayed as a time waveform, but most the spectrum is used, derived from a fast Fourier transform of the TWF; the vibration spectrum provides important frequency information that can pinpoint the faulty component. The fundamentals of vibration analysis can be understood by studying the simple Mass-spring-damper model. Indeed a complex structure such as an automobile body can be modeled as a "summation" of simple mass–spring–damper models. T
The octobass is an large and rare bowed string instrument, first built around 1850 in Paris by the French luthier Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume. It has three strings and is a larger version of the double bass; because of the extreme fingerboard length and string thickness, the musician plays it using a system of levers and pedals. It has never been used much by composers. In addition to the Paris instrument, octobasses exist in the collections of the Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix and the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. In October 2016, the Montreal Symphony Orchestra was donated an octobass by the Quebec company Canimex and is now the only orchestra in the world to own one; this instrument was made by the luthier Jean-Jacques Pagès of Mirecourt, France in 2010. According to Berlioz, the three open strings were tuned C1, G1, C2; this tuning gave it a low range one octave below the cello and equal to the modern double bass with low C extension. However, at the time when the octobass was invented, the double bass lacked this extension and could descend only to E1 or G1.
The mechanism enabled each string to chromatically cover the range of a perfect fifth and gave the instrument a high range to G2. The instrument at the Musée de la Musique in Paris, which uses period-accurate gut strings, is tuned thus; the instrument at the Musical Instrument Museum in Phoenix, which uses modern wound metal strings, is tuned C0, G0, D1. This tuning gives it a low range two octaves below the cello and one octave below the modern double bass with low C extension. Berlioz noted this tuning in his orchestration treatise, but considered it erroneous; as on the Paris instrument, the mechanism allows each string to cover a perfect fifth, giving it a high range to A1. The fundamental frequencies of the lowest notes in this tuning lie below 20 Hz — the commonly-stated lower bound of human hearing range — but these notes are audible due to the overtones they produce; the Montreal Symphony Orchestra octobass uses gut strings, is tuned A0, E1, B1 and has a high range to F♯2. Triple contrabass viol – A similar, but more recent, instrument that has appeared on a recording by the American composer Roscoe Mitchell
The rebab is a type of a bowed string instrument so named no than the 8th century and spread via Islamic trading routes over much of North Africa, the Middle East, parts of Europe, the Far East. The bowed variety has a spike at the bottom to rest on the ground, is thus called a spike fiddle in certain areas, but plucked versions like the kabuli rebab exist; the Arabic rabāb is the earliest known bowed instrument and the parent of the medieval European rebec. The Arabic rabāb is the ancestor of all European bowed instruments, including the rebec and the lyra. Besides the spike fiddle variant, there exists a variant with a pear-shaped body, quite similar to the Byzantine lyra and the Cretan lyra; this latter variant travelled to western Europe in the 11th century, became the rebec. This article will only concentrate on the spike-fiddle rebab, which consists of a small rounded body, the front of, covered in a membrane such as parchment or sheepskin and has a long neck attached. There is a long thin neck with a pegbox at the end and there are one, two or three strings.
There is no fingerboard. The instrument is held upright, either resting on the lap or on the floor; the bow is more curved than that of the violin. The rebab, though valued for its voice-like tone, has a limited range, was replaced throughout much of the Arab world by the violin and kemenche; the Iraqi version of the instrument has four strings. The rebab is used in a wide variety of musical ensembles and genres, corresponding with its wide distribution, is built and played somewhat differently in different areas. Following the principle of construction in Iran, the rebab is a large instrument with a range similar to the viola da gamba, whereas versions of the instrument further west tend to be smaller and higher-pitched; the body varies from being ornately carved, as in Java, to simpler models such as the 2-string Egyptian "fiddle of the Nile." They may have a body made of half a coconut shell, while the more sophisticated versions have a metal soundbox, the front may be half-covered with beaten copper, half with cowskin.
The rebab was used, continues to be used, in Arabic Bedouin music as well traditional Iraqi music under the name "joza", named after the sound box material made of a coconut shell. There is a bowed instrument in Persian music named Kamanche which has similar shape and structure. For a famous Iranian singer and rebab player see Hassaan Egzaar Chenani; the spike fiddle variants are commonly used by many North and Central Asian ethnic groups and their diaspora around the world, such as the Huqin variety used by most ethnic groups of China, the khoochir and morin khuur of Mongolia, the Byzaanchy of Tuva, the Haegeum of Korea, kyl kiak of Kyrgyzstan, Saw sam sai of Thailand and many others. These are used in playing traditional folk tunes, but have become popular in arrangements of contemporary music, including such genres as classical and rock. In the Indonesian gamelan the rebab is an essential elaborating instrument, ornamenting the basic melody. A two-string bowed lute consisting of a wooden body, traditionally though now a single coconut shell, covered with fine stretched skin.
Two brass strings are tuned a fifth apart and the horse hair bow is tied loosely with the proper tension controlled by the players bow hand, contributing to the difficult technique. There are two per ensemble, one for pelog and one for slendro, never played together; the rebab does not have to conform to the scale of the other gamelan instruments and can be played in free time, finishing its phrases after the beat of the gong ageng. The rebab frequently plays the buka when it is part of the ensemble. In the eastern Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu, the Rebab is used in a healing ritual called "Main Puteri"; the musician healer is sometimes taken to hospitals in cases where doctors are unable to heal ailing patients. Margaret J. Kartomi: On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments. Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology, University of Chicago Press, 1990 Turkish Rebab Master Ibrahim Metin Ugur Nay-Nava the encyclopedia of persian music instruments Rebab The Rebab Arabic rababa photo nuke.liuteriaetnica.it FERNWOOD, an American music group that uses a Rebab.
Fiddling refers to the act of playing the fiddle, fiddlers are musicians that play it. A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most a violin, it is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres including classical music. Although violins and fiddles are synonymous, the style of the music played may determine specific construction differences between fiddles and classical violins. For example, fiddles may optionally be set up with a bridge with a flatter arch to reduce the range of bow-arm motion needed for techniques such as the double shuffle, a form of bariolage involving rapid alternation between pairs of adjacent strings. To produce a "brighter" tone, compared to the deeper tones of gut or synthetic core strings, fiddlers use steel strings; the fiddle is part of many traditional styles, which are aural traditions—taught'by ear' rather than via written music. Among musical styles, fiddling tends to produce rhythms that focus on dancing, with associated quick note changes, whereas classical music tends to contain more vibrato and sustained notes.
Fiddling is open to improvisation and embellishment with ornamentation at the player's discretion—in contrast to orchestral performances, which adhere to the composer's notes to reproduce a work faithfully. It is less common for a classically trained violinist to play folk music, but today, many fiddlers have classical training; the medieval fiddle emerged in 10th-century Europe, deriving from the Byzantine lira, a bowed string instrument of the Byzantine Empire and ancestor of most European bowed instruments. The first recorded reference to the bowed lira was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih. Lira spread westward to Europe. Over the centuries, Europe continued to have two distinct types of fiddles: one square-shaped, held in the arms, became known as the viola da braccio family and evolved into the violin. During the Renaissance the gambas were elegant instruments; the etymology of fiddle is uncertain: the Germanic fiddle may derive from the same early Romance word as does violin, or it may be natively Germanic.
The name appears to be related to Icelandic Fiðla and Old English fiðele. A native Germanic ancestor of fiddle might be the ancestor of the early Romance form of violin. In medieval times, fiddle referred to a predecessor of today's violin. Like the violin, it came in a variety of shapes and sizes. Another family of instruments that contributed to the development of the modern fiddle are the viols, which are held between the legs and played vertically, have fretted fingerboards. In performance, a solo fiddler, or one or two with a group of other instrumentalists, is the norm, though twin fiddling is represented in some North American, Scandinavian and Irish styles. Following the folk revivals of the second half of the 20th century, however, it has become common for less formal situations to find large groups of fiddlers playing together—see for example the Calgary Fiddlers, Swedish Spelmanslag folk-musician clubs, the worldwide phenomenon of Irish sessions. Orchestral violins, on the other hand, are grouped in sections, or "chairs".
These contrasting traditions may be vestiges of historical performance settings: large concert halls where violins were played required more instruments, before electronic amplification, than did more intimate dance halls and houses that fiddlers played in. The difference was compounded by the different sounds expected of violin music and fiddle music; the majority of fiddle music was dance music, while violin music had either grown out of dance music or was something else entirely. Violin music came to value a smoothness that fiddling, with its dance-driven clear beat, did not always follow. In situations that required greater volume, a fiddler could push their instrument harder than could a violinist. Various fiddle traditions have differing values. In the late 20th century, a few artists have attempted a reconstruction of the Scottish tradition of violin and "big fiddle," or cello. Notable recorded examples include Iain Fraser and Christine Hanson, Amelia Kaminski and Christine Hanson's Bonnie Lasses, Alasdair Fraser and Natalie Haas' Fire and Grace. and Tim Macdonald and Jeremy Ward's The Wilds.
Hungarian and Romanian fiddle players are accompanied by a three-stringed variant of the viola—known as the kontra—and by double bass, with cimbalom and clarinet being less standard yet still common additions to a band. In Hungary, a three stringed viola variant with a flat bridge, called the kontra or háromhúros brácsa makes up part of a traditional rhythm section in Hungarian folk music; the flat bridge lets the musician play three-string chords. A three stringed double bass variant is used. To a greater extent than classical violin playing, fiddle playing is characterized by a huge variety of ethnic or folk music traditions, each of which has its own distinctive sound. English folk music fiddling, including The Northumbrian fiddle style, which features "seconding", an improvised harmo
Kemenche or kemençe is a name used for various types of stringed bowed musical instruments having their origin in the Eastern Mediterranean in Greece, Turkey and regions adjacent to the Black Sea. These instruments are folk instruments having three strings and played held upright with their tail on the knee of the musician; the name Kemençe derives from the Persian Kamancheh, means "small bow". The Kemençe of the Black Sea is a box-shaped lute, while the classical kemençe is a bowl-shaped lute. Other bowed instruments have names sharing the same Persian etymology include the kamancheh, a spike lute, the Cappadocian kemane, an instrument related to the kemenche of the Black Sea with added sympathetic strings. Byzantine lyra Kemence, from Folk Tours Middle Eastern Dance & Music