Chesapeake is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 222,209. Chesapeake is included in the Virginia Beach–Norfolk–Newport News, VA–NC MSA. One of the cities in the South Hampton Roads, Chesapeake was organized in 1963 by voter referendums approving the political consolidation of the city of South Norfolk with the remnants of the former Norfolk County, which dated to 1691. Chesapeake is the second-largest city by land area in the Commonwealth of Virginia, the 17th-largest in the United States. Chesapeake is a diverse city. Extending from the rural border with North Carolina to the harbor area of Hampton Roads adjacent to the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach, Chesapeake is located on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, it has miles of waterfront industrial and residential property. In 2011, Chesapeake was named the 21st best city in the United States by Bloomberg Businessweek. Chesapeake is home to the international Headquarters for Dollar Tree.
In 1963, the new independent city of Chesapeake was created when the former independent city of South Norfolk consolidated with Norfolk County. The consolidation was approved and the new name selected by the voters of each community by referendum, authorized by the Virginia General Assembly. Formed in 1691 in the Virginia Colony, Norfolk County had included all the area which became the towns and cities of Norfolk and South Norfolk, its area was reduced after 1871. Becoming an independent city was a method for the former county to stabilize borders with neighbors, as cities could not annex territory from each other; the small city of South Norfolk had become an incorporated town within Norfolk County in 1919, became an independent city in 1922. Its residents wanted to make a change to put their jurisdiction on a more equal footing in other aspects with the much larger cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth. In addition, by the late 1950s, although immune from annexation by the bigger cities, South Norfolk was close to losing all the county land adjoining it to the city of Norfolk in another annexation suit.
The consolidation that resulted in the city of Chesapeake was part of a wave of changes in the structure of local government in southeastern Virginia which took place between 1952 and 1975. The Chesapeake region was among the first areas settled in the state's colonial era, when settlement started from the coast. Along Chesapeake's segment of the Intracoastal Waterway, where the Great Bridge locks marks the transition between the Southern Branch Elizabeth River and the Chesapeake and Albemarle Canal, lies the site of the Battle of Great Bridge. Fought on December 9, 1775, in the early days of the American Revolutionary War, the battle resulted in the removal of Lord Dunmore and all vestiges of English Government from the Colony and Dominion of Virginia; until the late 1980s and early 1990s, much of Chesapeake was either suburban or rural, serving as a bedroom community of the adjacent cities of Norfolk and Virginia Beach with residents commuting to these locations. Beginning in the late 1980s and accelerating in the 1990s, Chesapeake saw significant growth, attracting numerous and significant industries and businesses of its own.
This explosive growth led to strains on the municipal infrastructure, ranging from intrusion of saltwater into the city's water supply to congested roads and schools. Chesapeake made national headlines in 2003 when, under a court-ordered change of venue, the community hosted the first trial of alleged Beltway sniper Lee Boyd Malvo for shootings in 2002. A jury spared him a potential death sentence. A jury in neighboring Virginia Beach convicted his older partner John Allen Muhammad and sentenced him to death for another of the attacks. Chesapeake is located at 36°46′2″N 76°17′14″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 351 square miles, of which 341 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water; the northeastern part of the Great Dismal Swamp is located in Chesapeake. Chesapeake is one of the nation in terms of land area; this poses challenges to city leaders in supporting infrastructure to serve this area. In addition, the city has many and geographically distinct communities.
City leaders are faced with conflicts between development of residential and industrial areas and preservation of virgin forest and wetlands. Within the city limits in the southwestern section is a large portion of the Great Dismal Swamp. Portsmouth, Virginia Norfolk, Virginia Virginia Beach, Virginia Currituck County, North Carolina Camden County, North Carolina Suffolk, Virginia Chesapeake consists of eight informal boroughs: South Norfolk, Hickory, Deep Creek, Great Bridge, Indian River, Western Branch. One of the boroughs, South Norfolk, used to be its own independent city; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Chesapeake has a humid subtropical climate, a
Norfolk Southern Railway
The Norfolk Southern Railway is a Class I railroad in the United States. With headquarters in Norfolk, the company operates 19,420 miles route miles in 22 eastern states, the District of Columbia, has rights in Canada over the Albany to Montréal route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, on CN from Buffalo to St. Thomas. NS is responsible for maintaining 28,400 miles, with the remainder being operated under trackage rights from other parties responsible for maintenance; the most common commodity hauled on the railway is coal from mines in Indiana, Pennsylvania, Tennessee and West Virginia. The railway offers the largest intermodal network in eastern North America. NS is a major transporter of export coal; the railway's major sources of the mineral are located in: Pennsylvania's Cambria and Indiana counties, as well as the Monongahela Valley. In Pennsylvania, NS receives coal through interchange with R. J. Corman Railroad/Pennsylvania Lines at Cresson, originating in the "Clearfield Cluster". NS's export of West Virginia bituminous coal begins transport on portions of the well-engineered former Virginian Railway and the former N&W double-tracked line in Eastern Virginia to its Lambert's Point coal pier on Hampton Roads at Norfolk.
Coal transported by NS is thus exported to steel mills and power plants around the world. The company is a major transporter of auto parts and completed vehicles, it operates some in conjunction with other railways. NS was the first railway to employ roadrailers which are highway truck trailers with interchangeable wheel sets; the Norfolk Southern Railway's parent Norfolk Southern Corporation is based in Virginia. Norfolk Southern Corporation was incorporated on July 23, 1980 in the Commonwealth of Virginia and is publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol NSC; the primary business function of Norfolk Southern Corporation is the rail transportation of raw materials, intermediate products, finished goods across the Southeast and Midwest United States. The corporation further facilitates transport to the remainder of the United States through interchange with other rail carriers while serving overseas transport needs by serving several Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports; as of April 10, 2019, Norfolk Southern Corporation's total public stock value was over $51.6 billion.
On December 12, 2018, Norfolk Southern announced that it would be relocating its headquarters to Atlanta, leaving its hometown of Norfolk, Virginia after 38 years. The move is expected to be completed by the year 2021; the system began in 1982 with the creation of the Norfolk Southern Corporation, a holding company for the Southern Railway and Norfolk & Western Railway. The new company was given the name of the Norfolk Southern Railway, an older line acquired by SOU in 1974, that served North Carolina and the southeastern tip of Virginia. Headquarters for the new NS were established in Virginia; the company suffered a slight embarrassment when the marble headpiece at the building's entrance was unveiled, which read "Norfork Southern Railway". A new headpiece replaced the erroneous one several weeks later. NS aimed to compete in the eastern United States with CSX Transportation, formed after the Interstate Commerce Commission's 1980 approval of the merger of the Chessie System and the Seaboard System.
Norfolk Southern's predecessor railroads date to the early 19th century. The SR's earliest predecessor line was Rail Road. Chartered in 1827, the South Carolina Canal & Rail Road Company became the first to offer scheduled passenger train service with the inaugural run of the Best Friend of Charleston in 1830. Another early predecessor, the Richmond & Danville Railroad, was formed in 1847 and expanded into a large system after the American Civil War under Algernon S. Buford; the R&D fell on hard times and in 1894, it became a major portion of the new Southern Railway. Financier J. P. Morgan selected veteran railroader Samuel Spencer as president. Profitable and innovative, Southern became, in 1953, the first major U. S. railroad to switch to diesel-electric locomotives from steam. The City Point Railroad, established in 1838, was a 9-mile railroad in Virginia that started south of Richmond — City Point on the navigable portion of the James River, now part of the independent city of Hopewell — and ran to Petersburg.
It was acquired by the South Side Railroad in 1854. After the Civil War, it became part of the Atlantic, Mississippi & Ohio Railroad, a trunk line across Virginia's southern tier formed by mergers in 1870 by William Mahone, who had built the Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad in the 1850s; the AM&O was the oldest portion of the Norfolk & Western when it was formed in 1881, under new owners with a keen interest and financial investments in the coal fields of Western Virginia and West Virginia, a product which came to define and enrich the railroad. In the second half of the 20th century, the N&W acquired the Virginian Railway, the Wabash Railway, the Nickel Plate Road, among others. In 1982, the two systems formed the Norfolk Southern Railway; the system grew with the acquisition of over half of Conrail. In 1996, CSX bid to buy Conrail. S. responded with a bid of its own. On June 23, 1997, NS and CSX filed a joint application with the Surface Transportation Board for authority to purchas
Seaboard Air Line Railroad
The Seaboard Air Line Railroad, which styled itself "The Route of Courteous Service," was an American railroad which existed from April 14, 1900, until July 1, 1967, when it merged with the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, its longtime rival, to form the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad. Predecessor railroads dated from the 1830s and reorganized extensively to rebuild after the American Civil War; the company was headquartered in Norfolk, until 1958, when its main offices were relocated to Richmond, Virginia. The Seaboard Air Line Railway Building in Norfolk's historic Freemason District still stands and has been converted into apartments. At the end of 1925 SAL operated 3,929 miles not including its flock of subsidiaries; the main line ran from Richmond via Raleigh, North Carolina, South Carolina, Savannah, Georgia to Jacksonville, Florida, a major interchange point for passenger trains bringing travelers to the Sunshine State. From Jacksonville, Seaboard rails continued to St. Petersburg, West Palm Beach and Miami.
Other important Seaboard routes included a line from Jacksonville via Tallahassee to a connection with the Louisville and Nashville Railroad at Chattahoochee, for through service to New Orleans. In the first half of the 20th century, along with its main competitors Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, Florida East Coast Railway and Southern Railway, contributed to the economic development of the Southeastern United States, to that of Florida, its trains brought vacationers to Florida from the Northeast and carried southern timber and produce Florida citrus crops, to the northern states. The complex corporate history of the Seaboard began on March 8, 1832, when its earliest predecessor, the Portsmouth and Roanoke Railroad was chartered by the legislatures of Virginia and North Carolina to build a railroad from Portsmouth, Virginia, to the Roanoke River port of Weldon, North Carolina. After a couple of months of horse-drawn operation, the first locomotive-pulled service on this line began on September 4, 1834, with a twice-daily train from Portsmouth to Suffolk, Virginia, 17 miles away.
By June 1837 the railroad was completed to Weldon, where a connection was made with the tracks of the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad. In 1846, after suffering financial difficulties, the P&R was reorganized as the Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad, known informally as the Seaboard Road. Meanwhile, the Raleigh and Gaston Railroad had begun construction on November 1, 1836, with the first scheduled service between its endpoints beginning on March 21, 1840. After the American Civil War, this was advertised as the Inland Air-Line Route. By 1853, the Roanoke and Gaston had connected with the Seaboard and Roanoke at Weldon, thus offering travelers through service on the 176-mile route from Portsmouth to Raleigh. Both railroads were built to standard gauge, 4 feet, 8½ inches, rather than the 5-foot gauge favored by most other railroads in the South; the R&G takeover gave the P&R control of the Raleigh & Augusta Air-Line Railroad which the former road controlled. This was the first time; the R&AA-L began as the Chatham Railroad, chartered by the state in February 14, 1855 to build a rail line, "...between Deep River, at or near the Coalfields, Moncure, NC in the county of Chatham, the City of Raleigh or some point on the North Carolina Railroad."
The project was riddled with delays and reorganized as the Raleigh & Augusta Air-Line in 1871. It reached Hamlet in 1877 which in years was a major SAL terminal point. With a route that now extended through North Carolina the three roads offered a competitive network serving several important cities; the South was blossoming into an industrial giant in the area of cotton, agriculture/farming and manufacturing. The American Civil War devastated railroads in former Confederate territories including Virginia and North Carolina. After the war, Moncure Robinson and Alexander Boyd Andrews organized the Seaboard Inland Air Line to connect Georgia and South Carolina to Portsmouth, Virginia, they worked with Confederate general turned Republican political boss William Mahone to work against the conglomeration of railroads reorganized by Thomas A. Scott, who had moved up the ranks of the Pennsylvania Railroad, took control of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad after the Civil War, tried to work with African American legislators to acquire railroads further South.
As it had before the Civil War, Virginia paid millions to get railroads rebuilt and commerce moving through its cities. Charges of corruption against Scott, resentment against northern and black workers led to volatile situations in many areas. Eruptions of Ku Klux Klan violence centered on railroads through interior South Carolina. Together the R&G, P&R, R&AA-L formed the backbone of the future Seaboard Air Line. Moncure Robinson's son John M. Robinson acquired financial control of the trio in 1875; as a marketing tactic they were collectively known as the "Seaboard Air-Line System." The name had no legal author
South Hampton Roads
South Hampton Roads is a region located in the extreme southeastern portion of Virginia's Tidewater region in the United States with a total population of 1,191,937. It is part of the Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC MSA, which itself has a population of 1,724,876. Hampton Roads is the common name for the metropolitan area that surrounds the body of water of the same name; the land portion of Hampton Roads has been divided into two regions, South Hampton Roads on the south side and the Virginia Peninsula on the north side. As of the 2010 Census, the Hampton Roads MSA is the fifth largest metropolitan area by size in the southeastern United States, is the second-largest between Washington, D. C. and Atlanta, Georgia. South Hampton Roads is home to several United States military bases. Norfolk Naval Shipyard is located in Portsmouth, as are the Naval Medical Center, two historic and important facilities, as well as several smaller facilities; the shipyard was founded as the Gosport Shipyard on November 1, 1767, has the country's first dry dock.
The name was changed after the American Civil War. Across the Elizabeth River, at Sewell's Point near the mouth of Hampton Roads is the Norfolk Navy Base, the central hub of the United States Navy's Atlantic Fleet; the base was founded in 1917, is now the largest naval facility in the world. Virginia Beach is home to the U. S. Navy's Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek. NAS Oceana is the largest employer in Virginia Beach, both bases there, like the Norfolk Navy Base, are considered to be the largest of their respective kinds in the world. Furthermore, adjacent to Oceana is NAVSEA Dam Neck. Virginia Beach is the home of Joint Expeditionary Base East, operated by the United States Navy, located at Cape Henry. St. Julien's Creek Annex is a U. S. Navy facility in Chesapeake on the Southern Branch Elizabeth River, it began operations in 1849 and occupies 490 acres, including 407 acres of land, 14 acres of marsh, 69 acres of surface water. It is considered part of the Norfolk Navy Base. Chesapeake is home to U.
S. Naval Auxiliary Landing Field Fentress, an auxiliary landing facility for NAS Oceana; the decision to call the region "Hampton Roads" was a political one. The area was referred to as "Tidewater" for many years by the local residents; the local baseball team was called the Tidewater Tides for years but is now called the Norfolk Tides. When they first came to Tidewater, they adopted the local name to draw more fans. In Colonial times, in the first 150 years of the United States, much like Virginia as a whole, South Hampton Roads was in an constant state of change in terms of local government due to growth, as counties were divided and towns were formed as the population grew; some towns grew to become cities. Under the state constitutional changes in 1871, extant and future cities in Virginia became independent cities of the counties they had been located within. However, in the second half of the 20th century, an unprecedented wave of city-county-town local government consolidations took place in South Hampton Roads and on the Virginia Peninsula.
Nowhere else in Virginia have rural areas and more dense cities been combined in such a manner as these two areas. The changes resulted in the area having Virginia's cities with the largest land areas and the most farming over 30 years after the consolidations in some instances; the South Hampton Roads region includes five independent cities, three counties, five incorporated towns with a total population of 1,191,937 people. There were a number of political subdivisions which are now extinct due to growth and consolidation of local government. Chesapeake Norfolk Portsmouth Suffolk Virginia Beach Currituck County, NC Gates County, NC Isle of Wight County Isle of Wight County Town of Smithfield Town of Windsor Exclusive of towns which became cities and still have the same name, no less than 2 shires, 6 counties, 1 town, 2 entire cities no longer exist in the South Hampton Roads area. For search of genealogical and other historical records, it may be necessary to find these old names; the following is a listing of these 11 extinct shire, counties and cities, with the approximate dates they existed: Elizabeth River Shire Warrosquyoake Shire New Norfolk County Upper Norfolk County Lower Norfolk County Nansemond County Norfolk County Princess Anne County Town of Berkley South Norfolk City of Nansemond Generally surrounded by water, the South Hampton Roads region is accessed from the north by a network of highways, bridges and bridge-tunnels across the James and Elizabeth Rivers, the harbor of Hampton Roads and the Chesapeake Bay.
The area is bordered on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the State of North Carolina, on the west by several counties which are considered to be in the Southside Virginia region. Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge
Hampton Roads Beltway
The Hampton Roads Beltway is a loop of Interstate 64 and Interstate 664, which links the communities of the Virginia Peninsula and South Hampton Roads which surround the body of water known as Hampton Roads and comprise much of the region of the same name in the southeastern portion of Virginia in the United States. It crosses the harbor of Hampton Roads at two locations on large four-laned bridge-tunnel facilities: the eastern half carries Interstate 64 and uses the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel and the western half carries Interstate 664 and uses the Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel; the beltway has the clockwise direction signed as the Inner Loop, the counter-clockwise direction signed as the Outer Loop. The entire beltway, including the bridge-tunnels, is owned and operated by the Virginia Department of Transportation. Before Interstate 64 was built beginning in 1958, from some of the earliest planning stages, there were hopes of a circumferential highway to Interstate highway standards for the Hampton Roads region.
Some proposals envisioned state and local and/or toll funding if necessary to achieve that goal. Indeed, the first two-laned portion of the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel was built with toll revenue bond funding in 1957 prior to the creation of I-64, it carried U. S. Route 60 and State Route 168 designations, tied in with the new Tidewater Drive in Norfolk. Building of Interstate 64 was the first priority in the region, a portion of Interstate 264 through Portsmouth connecting with the Downtown Tunnel was completed as I-64 reached its eastern terminus at Bower's Hill in Norfolk County. I-64, the portion of the Hampton Roads Beltway, completed first, makes a huge 35-mile long arc around the area, from Hampton through portions of Norfolk, Virginia Beach, Chesapeake and around Portsmouth to reach Bower's Hill at the edge of the Great Dismal Swamp, it was a number of years. The 21-mile roadway connects with I-64 at Bower's Hill in Chesapeake and crosses through portions of Portsmouth and Suffolk to cross Hampton Roads via the Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel and pass through eastern Newport News to reconnect with I-64 in Hampton.
This completed the loop in 1992. In January, 1997, a 56-mile -long I-64/I-664 loop was designated by the Virginia Department of Transportation as the Hampton Roads Beltway. I-664 begins at a full Y interchange with I-64 and I-264 that serves as the terminus of all three Interstates in the Bowers Hill section of the city of Chesapeake. I-64 heads southeast as a continuation of the Hampton Roads Beltway through Chesapeake while I-264 heads east toward Portsmouth and Norfolk. I-664 heads west as an eight-lane freeway that has a southbound-only exit ramp to US 13 and US 460 and crosses over Military Highway and a Norfolk Southern Railway rail line; the Interstate has a cloverleaf interchange with Military Highway, which here carries US 58 in addition to US 13 and US 460. The interchange provides access to US 460 Alternate, which follows US 58 east into Portsmouth. I-664 curves north as a four-lane freeway that crosses Goose Creek and has a diamond interchange with SR 663 and a cloverleaf interchange with SR 337.
Just south of its partial cloverleaf interchange with SR 659, I-664 crosses a rail line. The rail spur leaves the median and heads northeast toward Portsmouth just south of its interchange with SR 164 and US 17. SR 164 heads. There is no access from southbound I-664 to southbound US 17. North of SR 135, northbound I-664 has a vehicle inspection station and crossovers before the highway enters the Monitor-Merrimac Memorial Bridge-Tunnel; the bridge-tunnel passes to the west of Craney Island, an artificial island in the city of Portsmouth that lies to the west of the mouth of the Elizabeth River. West of the highway is the confluence of the James River and Nansemond River to form Hampton Roads, as well as the James River Bridge a short distance to the north on the namesake river. I-664 heads north-northeast along a causeway for 3 miles to a point west of the Newport News Middle Ground Light, where the pair of bridges curve to the north-northwest onto an artificial island where the highway descends into a pair of tunnels under the estuary's main shipping channel.
The Interstate resurfaces on another artificial island at Newport News Point east of the coal piers in the city of Newport News. I-664 has a southbound vehicle inspection station adjacent to its first interchange in Newport News, with Terminal Avenue; the Interstate parallels the southern end of CSX's Peninsula Subdivision as it passes through interchanges with several streets to the east of downtown Newport News. The southern interchange has ramps to and from 25th, 26th, 27th streets; the northern interchange has ramps to and from Jefferson Avenue.
U.S. Route 460
U. S. Route 460 is a spur of U. S. Route 60, it runs for 655 miles from Norfolk, Virginia, at U. S. Route 60 at Ocean View to Frankfort, Kentucky, at U. S. Route 60, it passes through the states of Virginia, West Virginia, to Frankfort, the state capital. It goes through the cities of Norfolk, Suffolk, Farmville, Roanoke, Blacksburg and Grundy, in Virginia; the section from Interstate 81 at Christiansburg, Virginia, to U. S. Route 23 in Pikeville, Kentucky, is Corridor Q in the Appalachian Development Highway System; the portion improved under this system is unfinished between Grundy and Pikeville. US 460 is a major east–west highway in Virginia, it connects the area to Petersburg. US 460 connects Lynchburg to Roanoke. US 460 is paired with US 221 between Bedford and Roanoke and with US 11 between Salem and Christiansburg, it is the primary east–west roadway in the northern part of Southwest Virginia between Christiansburg and the Kentucky border. US 460 now begins, it is a winding two-lane highway with I-75 at Georgetown.
It proceeds to Paris, where it serves as the town's "Main Street" and intersects US 27 and US 68. The next major intersection is with I-64 in Mount Sterling, it proceeds through West Liberty. In Salyersville, the Mountain Parkway ends by merging onto it, it is a 3-lane highway for 14 miles and it merges with US 23 in Paintsville. US 460 East follows US-23 South through Pikeville; the route enters the southwestern part of Virginia. U. S. Route 460 runs east–west through the southern part of the Virginia, it has two separate pieces in Virginia, joined by a short section in West Virginia. Most of US 460 is a four-lane divided highway. US 460 from Interstate 81 at Christiansburg west to Pikeville, including the piece in West Virginia, is Corridor Q of the Appalachian Development Highway System. From West Virginia east to I-81, US 460 is part of the proposed Interstate 73; the earliest origins of this road were as part of the track once known as the Trader's Path, a Virginia colonial trail dating from the 17th century that led from Augusta County to present-day Roanoke.
Before it was commissioned as a federally designated route in the late 1940s, US 460 was designated as Kentucky Route 4 from the western Virginia state line near Grundy to Millard, Kentucky. It was Kentucky Route 40 from Paintsville to Lexington. In the pre-Interstate era, US 460 was a major highway, passing from Frankfort through Louisville and Evansville, ending in St. Louis, after crossing the MacArthur Bridge. Interstate 64 has supplanted most of old US 460 as a more direct route; the stretch through Indiana and Illinois was eliminated in November 1976. Old US 460 has been redesignated in these areas as parts of State Road 66 and State Road 62 in Indiana. However, its parent route, US 60 has not been supplanted by I-64 and converted to a state highway in the greater Louisville area. Many years after the road's elimination in Indiana in 1977, some older residents and businesses along what is now Indiana State Road 62 still refer to the road as "Highway 460." Older billboards retain that designation in the St. Meinrad area.
Some current telephone books contain listings for those living on "Hwy 460." When Fishtrap Lake was created in Pike County, Kentucky, US 460 was realigned to its current route from Salyersville to Paintsville. The former US 460 leading to the lake is now Kentucky Routes 1499 and 1789; the part between Paintsville and Millard remained U. S. Highway 23 and Kentucky Route 80. Kentucky US 60 / US 421 in Frankfort US 25 in Georgetown US 62 in Georgetown I‑75 in Georgetown US 27 / US 68 in Paris I‑64 in Mt. Sterling US 60 in Mt. Sterling; the highways travel concurrently through Mt. Sterling. US 23 in Paintsville; the highways travel concurrently to Pikeville. US 119 in Pikeville; the highways travel concurrently through Pikeville. Virginia SR 83 in Grundy US 19 in Claypool Hill; the highways travel concurrently to Bluefield. West Virginia US 52 in Bluefield; the highways travel concurrently through Bluefield. US 19 northeast of Bluefield; the highways travel concurrently to southwest of Princeton. I‑77 east-southeast of Princeton Virginia US 219 in Rich Creek Appalachian Trail across the New River near Pearisburg US 11 in Christiansburg I‑81 in Christiansburg.
The highways travel concurrently through Christiansburg. I‑81 / US 11 in Christiansburg. US 11/US 460 travels concurrently to Salem. Future I‑73 / I‑581 / US 220 in Roanoke US 11 / US 221 in Roanoke. US 221/US 460 travels concurrently to Bedford. US 29 south of Lynchburg; the highways travel concurrently to Lynchburg. US 501 in Lynchburg; the highways travel concurrently through Lynchburg. US 15 west-northwest of Farmville; the highways travel concurrently to south of Farmville. US 360 west of Burkeville; the highways travel concurrently to east of Burkeville. I‑85 southwest of Petersburg; the highways travel concurrently to Petersburg. US 1 southwest of Petersburg I‑85 / I‑95 in Petersburg. I-95/US 460 travels concurrently through Petersburg. US 301 in Petersburg I‑295 southeast of Petersburg US 258 in Windsor US 13 / US 58 in Suffolk; the highways travel concurrently to Chesapeake. I‑664 in Chesapeake; the highways travel concurrently through Chesapeake. I‑64 in Chesapeake US 17 in Chesapeake I‑264 in Norfolk US
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways known as the Interstate Highway System, is a network of controlled-access highways that forms part of the National Highway System in the United States; the system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, the original portion was completed 35 years although some urban routes were cancelled and never built; the network has since been extended. In 2016, it had a total length of 48,181 miles; as of 2016, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion; the United States government's efforts to construct a national network of highways began on an ad hoc basis with the passage of the Federal Aid Road Act of 1916, which provided for $75 million over a five-year period for matching funds to the states for the construction and improvement of highways.
The nation's revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In December 1918, E. J. Mehren, a civil engineer and the editor of Engineering News-Record, presented his "A Suggested National Highway Policy and Plan" during a gathering of the State Highway Officials and Highway Industries Association at the Congress Hotel in Chicago. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50,000-mile system, consisting of five east–west routes and 10 north–south routes; the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits. As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921; this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. Moreover, this new legislation for the first time sought to target these funds to the construction of a national road grid of interconnected "primary highways", setting up cooperation among the various state highway planning boards.
The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. In 1922, General John J. Pershing, former head of the American Expeditionary Force in Europe during the war, complied by submitting a detailed network of 20,000 miles of interconnected primary highways—the so-called Pershing Map. A boom in road construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s, with such projects as the New York parkway system constructed as part of a new national highway system; as automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such an interconnected national system to supplement the existing non-freeway, United States Numbered Highways system. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways. In 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. In 1939, Bureau of Public Roads Division of Information chief Herbert S. Fairbank wrote a report called Toll Roads and Free Roads, "the first formal description of what became the interstate highway system" and, in 1944, the themed Interregional Highways.
The Interstate Highway System gained a champion in President Dwight D. Eisenhower, influenced by his experiences as a young Army officer crossing the country in the 1919 Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway, the first road across America. Eisenhower gained an appreciation of the Reichsautobahn system, the first "national" implementation of modern Germany's Autobahn network, as a necessary component of a national defense system while he was serving as Supreme Commander Of Allied Forces in Europe during World War II, he recognized that the proposed system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies and troop deployments in case of an emergency or foreign invasion. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, mapped out what became the Interstate Highway System. Assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29, 1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956. Three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2, 1956; the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13, 1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding. Kansas claims. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, paving started September 26, 1956; the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways. On October 1, 1940, 162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes. Milestones in the construction of the Interstate Highway System include: October 17, 1974: Nebraska becomes