Anti-Irish sentiment may refer to or include oppression, persecution, hatred or fear of Irish people as an ethnic group or nation, whether directed against the island of Ireland in general or against Irish emigrants and their descendants in the Irish diaspora. It is traditionally rooted in the Middle Ages, is evidenced in Irish immigration to Great Britain, North America, New Zealand, South Africa. Anti-Irish sentiment can include both social and cultural discrimination in Ireland itself, such as sectarianism or cultural religious political conflicts in the Troubles of Northern Ireland; the negative stereotyping of the Irish is first recorded in ca. 1190 with the Norman chronicler Giraldus Cambrensis known as Gerald of Wales. To justify the Norman invasion of Ireland, he wrote disparagingly of the Irish. "Gerald was seeking promotion by Henry II within the English church. His history was therefore written to create a certain effect—of supporting Henry II's claims to Ireland."Over the centuries, hostility increased towards the Irish, who steadfastly remained Roman Catholic in spite of coercive force by Edward VI and subsequent rulers to convert them to Protestantism.
The religious majority of the Irish nation was ruled by a religious minority, leading to perennial social conflict. During the Great Famine in the middle of the 19th century, some evangelical Protestants sought to convert the starving Catholics as part of their relief efforts. Discrimination against the Irish was rooted in anti-Catholicism and in disgust for their poverty-stricken lifestyle. Negative English attitudes towards the Gaelic Irish and their culture date as far back as the reign of Henry II of England. In 1155 Pope Adrian IV issued the papal bull called Laudabiliter, that gave Henry permission to conquer Ireland as a means of strengthening the Papacy's control over the Irish Church. Pope Adrian called the Irish a "barbarous" nation. Thus, the Norman invasion of Ireland began in 1169 with the backing of the Papacy. Pope Alexander III, Pope at the time of the invasion, ratified the Laudabiliter and gave Henry dominion over Ireland, he called the Irish a "barbarous nation" with "filthy practices".
Gerald of Wales accompanied John, on his 1185 trip to Ireland. As a result of this he wrote Topographia Hibernica and Expugnatio Hibernia, both of which remained in circulation for centuries afterwards. Ireland, in his view, was rich. Little is cultivated and less is sown; the problem here is not the quality of the soil but rather the lack of industry on the part of those who should cultivate it. This laziness means that the different types of minerals with which hidden veins of the earth are full are neither mined nor exploited in any way, they do not devote themselves to the manufacture of flax or wool, nor to the practice of any mechanical or mercantile act. Dedicated only to leisure and laziness, this is a barbarous people, they depend on animals for their livelihood and they live like animals. Gerald was not atypical, similar views may be found in the writings of William of Malmesbury and William of Newburgh; when it comes to Irish marital and sexual customs Gerald is more biting: "This is a filthy people, wallowing in vice.
They indulge in incest, for example in marrying – or rather debauching – the wives of their dead brothers". Earlier than this Archbishop Anselm accused the Irish of wife swapping, "exchanging their wives as as other men exchange their horses". One will find these views echoed centuries in the words of Sir Henry Sidney, twice Lord Deputy of Ireland during the reign of Elizabeth I, in those of Edmund Tremayne, his secretary. In Tremayne's view the Irish "commit whoredom, hold no wedlock, ravish and commit all abomination without scruple of conscience". In A View of the Present State of Ireland, circulated in 1596 but not published until 1633, the English official and renowned poet Edmund Spenser wrote "They are all papists by profession but in the same so blindingly and brutishly informed that you would rather think them atheists or infidels". In a "Brief Note on Ireland," Spenser argued that "Great force must be the instrument but famine must be the means, for till Ireland be famished it cannot be subdued...
There can be no conformity of government where is no conformity of religion... There can be no sound agreement between two equal contraries viz: the English and Irish"; this "civilising mission" embraced any manner of cruel and barbaric methods to accomplish its end goal. For instance, in 1305 Piers Bermingham received a financial bonus and accolades in verse after beheading thirty members of the O'Conor clan and sending them to Dublin. In 1317 one Irish chronicler opined that it was just as easy for an Englishman to kill an Irishman or English woman to kill an Irish woman as he/she would a dog; the Irish were thought of as the most barbarous people in Europe, such ideas were modified to compare the Scottish Highlands or Gàidhealtachd where traditionally Scottish Gaelic is spoken to medieval Ireland. In the Early Modern period following the advent of Protestantism in Great Britain, the Irish people suffered both social and political oppression for refusing to renounce Catholicism; this discrimination sometimes manifested itself in areas with large Puritan or Presbyterian populations such as the northeastern parts of Ireland, the Central Belt of Scotland, parts of Canada.
Thinly veiled nationalism under the guise of religious conflict has occurred in both the UK and Ireland. Anti-Irish sentiment is found in works by several 18th-century writers such as Voltaire, who depicted the Catholic Irish as s
Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Most societies consider murder to be an serious crime, thus believe that the person charged should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder faces a long-term prison sentence a life sentence; the modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun.
The eighteenth-century English jurist William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England set out the common law definition of murder, which by this definition occurs when a person, of sound memory and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either express or implied. The elements of common law murder are: Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought; the Unlawful – This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defence, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life.Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission.of a human – This element presents the issue of when life begins.
At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath.by another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder. The requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate and premeditated killing of another motivated by ill will. Murder required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill; the courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice. All, required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes "malice"; the four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Under state of mind, intent to kill, the deadly weapon rule applies. Thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill.
In other words, "intent follows the bullet". Examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. Under state of mind, an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. In Australian jurisdictions, the unreasonable risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death, as opposed to possibility. Under state of mind, the felony-murder doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape, robbery or kidnapping; the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, otherwise all criminal homicides would be murder as all are felonies. As with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is codified in some form of legislation.
When the legal distinction between murder and manslaughter is clear, it is not unknown for a jury to find a murder defendant guilty of the lesser offence. The jury might sympathise with the defendant, the jury may wish to protect the defendant from a sentence of life imprisonment or execution. Many jurisdictions divide murder by degrees; the distinction between first- and second-degree murder exists, for example, in Canadian murder law and U. S. murder law. The most common division is between first- and second-degree murder. Second-degree murder is common law murder, first-degree is an aggravated form; the aggravating factors of first-degree murder depend on the jurisdiction, but may include a specific intent to kill, premeditation, or deliberation. In some, murder committed by acts such as strangulation, poisoning, or lying in wait are treated as first-degree murder. A few states in the U. S. further distinguish third-degree murder, but they differ in which kinds of murders they classify as second-degree versus third-degree.
For example, Minnesota defines third-degree murder as depraved-heart murder, whereas Flori
Five Points, Manhattan
Five Points was a 19th-century neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The neighborhood was defined as being bound by Centre Street to the west, the Bowery to the east, Canal Street to the north, Park Row to the south. Through the 20th century, the former Five Points area was redeveloped, with streets changed or closed; the area is now occupied by the Civic Center to the west and south, which includes major federal and city facilities, the African Burial Ground National Monument. To the east and north, former Five Points area is located within Chinatown; the Five Points gained international notoriety as a densely populated, disease-ridden, crime-infested slum that existed for well over 70 years. The name "Five Points" was derived from the five-pointed intersection created by Orange Street and Cross Street. To the west of this "point" ran Little Water Street north to south, creating a triangular plot which would become known as "Paradise Square," after the buildings standing in the triangle were torn down in 1832.
The center of the Five Points is part the inland portion of the Manhattan street grid aligned with the river, thus was still undeveloped in the early 1700s as the city spread northward. In 1754, the basic grid began to be shown in plan maps. Orange Street was a two block street running from the "High Road To Boston", ended at a small clearing where the "bend" in the street would occur, at this time at the banks of the still unnamed body of "fresh water" to the west, with its surrounding marsh lying ahead to the north; the future "Five Points" intersection was a normal four-corner crossing of Cross Streets. Cross Street ran from Mott Street to an unmarked short street where the "Little Water Street" would be located. Orange and Cross Streets ended at the banks of the pond; the area was called the "Out Ward", as the wards were named rather than numbered in this print.. Mott and Mulberry Streets were named up to their respective "bends", but had different names north of these points. Mulberry became "Rynderts Street", Mott became "Winne Street".
Elizabeth Street was the same. All three ran to Kevin Street. Only these three north-south streets and the High Road are drawn this far north. Meanwhile, Bayard Street ended at Rynderts. A 1776 British map shows the entire area of the intersection, including the stretch where Orange Street should run, from the pond to the High Road, where Cross St. west of Orange should be, as the "Tanners Yards", with eight buildings marked. These tanneries were among. A 1797 map shows. A walkway had been built next to the street, along the pond and its marsh and running from the bend to Hester Street. Cross Street was extended and now bent northward and merged into Magazine Street, which would be renamed as an extension of Pearl Street, it is shown crossing what was by a short creek connecting the main pond with a smaller one to the south. The little street after Orange, next to the pond, was now "Water Street". There were multiple "Ann" and "Catherine" streets, one of, what would become Anthony Street and now ended at the opposite bank of the pond from where Water Street dead-ended.
This is called "Cow Bay". The 1799 map, shows Cross Street taking its final alignment, bending southward, crossing Magazine and Duane Streets and running to Read Street; the smaller southern pond has by now been filled in. This led into the street which became Centre Street, known as "Potter's Hill" and ended at this intersection. By the 1807 plan, the entire pond has disappeared, the whole basic grid is complete through the area. Water Street has been extended and renamed "Collect Street", takes the future alignment of Centre Street north of Leonard Street. At Canal Street, it becomes the new "Rynders Street" and merges with Orange Street at "Broom St.". Orange ends at a dead end north of Prince Street. Mott and Mulberry have been renamed for their entire lengths. South of Leonard, a small unnamed street takes the future Centre St. alignment for two blocks, ending at Magazine Street. Anthony Street ends at this street. Cross Street is still the next street running the two blocks between Magazine and "Reed" Street, connecting the area to City Hall.
The entire area is now marked as "Sixth Ward". The "fifth point" was created when Anthony Street was extended to the intersection of Orange and Cross. Centre Street was built through the area, Collect Street was renamed "Little Water Street", cut off north of Anthony, recreating the "Cow Bay" dead-end; the encroaching building lines of the new street are what cau
A tenement is a multi-occupancy building of any sort. In Scotland it refers to flats divided horizontally in an established building type, including desirable properties in affluent ares, but in other countries the term refers to a run-down apartment building or slum building. In parts of England Devon and Cornwall, the word refers to an outshot, or additional projecting part at the back of a terraced house with its own roof; the term tenement referred to tenancy and therefore to any rented accommodation. The New York State legislature defined it in the Tenement House Act of 1867 in terms of rental occupancy by multiple households, as Any house, building, or portion thereof, rented, let, or hired out to be occupied or is occupied, as the home or residence of more than three families living independently of one another and doing their own cooking upon the premises, or by more than two families upon a floor, so living and cooking and having a common right in the halls, yards, water-closets, or privies, or some of them.
In Scotland, it continues to be the most common word for a multiple-occupancy building, but elsewhere it is used as a pejorative in contrast to apartment building or block of flats. Tenement houses were either adapted or built for the working class as cities industrialized, came to be contrasted with middle-class apartment houses, which started to become fashionable in the 19th century. Late-19th-century social reformers in the US were hostile to both tenements and apartment houses; as the United States industrialized during the 19th century and workers from the countryside were housed in former middle-class houses and other buildings, such as warehouses, which were bought up and divided into small dwellings. Beginning as early as the 1830s in New York City's Lower East Side or the 1820s on Mott Street, three- and four-story buildings were converted into "railroad flats," so called because the rooms were linked together like the cars of a train, with windowless internal rooms; the adapted buildings were known as "rookeries," and these were a particular concern, as they were prone to collapse and fire.
Mulberry Bend and Five Points were the sites of notorious rookeries that the city worked for decades to clear. In both rookeries and purpose-built tenements, communal water taps and water closets were squeezed into the small open spaces between buildings. In parts of the Lower East Side, buildings were older and had courtyards occupied by machine shops and other businesses; such tenements were prevalent in New York, where in 1865 a report stated that 500,000 people lived in unhealthy tenements, whereas in Boston in 1845, less than a quarter of workers were housed in tenements. One reason New York had so many tenements was the large numbers of immigrants. Prior to 1867, tenements covered more than 90 percent of the lot, were five or six stories high, had 18 rooms per floor, of which only two received direct sunlight. Yards were a few feet wide and filled with privies. Interior rooms were unventilated. Early in the 19th century, many of the poor were housed in cellars, which became less sanitary after the Croton Aqueduct brought running water to wealthier New Yorkers: the reduction in well use caused the water table to rise, the cellar dwellings flooded.
Early housing reformers urged the construction of tenements to replace cellars, beginning in 1859 the number of people living in cellars began to decline. The Tenement House Act of 1867, the state legislature's first comprehensive legislation on housing conditions, prohibited cellar apartments unless the ceiling was 1 foot above street level; this was amended by the Tenement House Act of 1879, known as the Old Law, which required lot coverage of no more than 65 percent. As of 1869, New York State law defined a “tenement house” as “any house or building, or portion thereof, rented, leased let or hired out, to be occupied, or is occupied as the home or residence of three families or more living independently of each other, doing their cooking upon the premises, or by more than two families upon any floor, so living and cooking, but having a right in the halls, yards, water-closets or privies, or some of them.” L 1867, ch 908. The New York City Board of Health was empowered to enforce these regulations, but it declined to do so.
As a compromise, the "Old Law tenement" became the standard: this had a "dumbbell" shape, with air and light shafts on either side in the center, it covered 80 percent of the lot. James E. Ware is credited with the design. Public concern about New York tenements was stirred by publication in 1890 of Jacob Riis's How the Other Half Lives, in 1892 by Riis's The Children of the Poor; the New York State Assembly Tenement House Committee report of 1894 surveyed 8,000 buildings with 255,000 residents and found New York to be the most densely populated city in the world, at an average of 143 people per acre, with part of the Lower East Side havin
The Bowery is a street and neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The street runs from Chatham Square at Park Row, Worth Street, Mott Street in the south to Cooper Square at 4th Street in the north; the eponymous neighborhood runs from the Bowery east to Allen Street and First Avenue, from Canal Street north to Cooper Square/East Fourth Street. To the south is Chinatown, to the east are the Lower East Side and the East Village, to the west are Little Italy and NoHo, it has been considered a part of the Lower East Side. In the 17th century, the road branched off Broadway north of Fort Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan to the homestead of Peter Stuyvesant, director-general of New Netherland; the street was known as Bowery Lane prior to 1807. "Bowery" is an anglicization of the Dutch bouwerij, derived from an antiquated Dutch word for "farm": In the 17th century the area contained many large farms. A New York City Subway station named Bowery, serving the BMT Nassau Street Line, is located close to the Bowery's intersection with Delancey and Kenmare Streets.
There is a tunnel under the Bowery once intended for use by the proposed, but never built, New York City Subway services, including the Second Avenue Subway. The Bowery is the oldest thoroughfare on Manhattan Island, preceding European intervention as a Lenape footpath, which spanned the entire length of the island, from north to south; when the Dutch settled Manhattan island, they named the path Bouwerij road – "bouwerij" being an old Dutch word for "farm" – because it connected farmlands and estates on the outskirts to the heart of the city in today's Wall Street/Battery Park area. In 1654, the Bowery's first residents settled in the area of Chatham Square. Petrus Stuyvesant, the last Dutch governor of New Amsterdam before the English took control, retired to his Bowery farm in 1667. After his death in 1672, he was buried in his private chapel, his mansion burned down in 1778 and his great-grandson sold the remaining chapel and graveyard, now the site of the Episcopal church of St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery.
In her Journal of 1704–05, Sarah Kemble Knight describes the Bowery as a leisure destination for residents of New York City in December: Their Diversions in the Winter is Riding Sleys about three or four Miles out of Town, where they have Houses of entertainment at a place called Bowery, some go to friends Houses who handsomely treat them. I believe we mett 50 or 60 slays that day – they fly with great swiftness and some are so furious that they'le turn out of the path for none except a Loaden Cart. Nor do they spare for any diversion the place affords, sociable to a degree, they'r Tables being as free to their Naybours as to themselves. By 1766, when John Montresor made his detailed plan of New York, "Bowry Lane", which took a more north-tending track at the rope walk, was lined for the first few streets with buildings that formed a solid frontage, with market gardens behind them. In 1766, straight lanes led away at right angles to gentlemen's seats well back from the dusty "Road to Albany and Boston", as it was labeled on Montresor's map.
James Delancey's grand house, flanked by matching outbuildings, stood behind a forecourt facing Bowery Lane. The Bull's Head Tavern was noted for George Washington's having stopped there for refreshment before riding down to the waterfront to witness the departure of British troops in 1783. Leading to the Post Road, the main route to Boston, the Bowery rivaled Broadway as a thoroughfare; as the population of New York City continued to grow, its northern boundary continued to move, by the early 1800s the Bowery was no longer a farming area outside the city. The street gained in respectability and elegance, becoming a broad boulevard, as well-heeled and famous people moved their residences there, including Peter Cooper, the industrialist and philanthropist; the Bowery began to rival Fifth Avenue as an address. When Lafayette Street was opened parallel to the Bowery in the 1820s, the Bowery Theatre was founded by rich families on the site of the Red Bull Tavern, purchased by John Jacob Astor. Across the way the Bowery Amphitheatre was erected in 1833, specializing in the more populist entertainments of equestrian shows and circuses.
From stylish beginnings, the tone of Bowery Theatre's offerings matched the slide in the social scale of the Bowery itself. By the time of the Civil War, the mansions and shops had given way to low-brow concert halls, German beer gardens, pawn shops, flophouses, like the one at No. 15 where the composer Stephen Foster lived in 1864. Theodore Dreiser closed his tragedy Sister Carrie, set in the 1890s, with the suicide of one of the main characters in a Bowery flophouse; the Bowery, which marked the eastern border of the slum of "Five Points", had become the turf of one of America's earliest street gangs, the nativist Bowery Boys. In the spirit of social reform, the first YMCA opened on the Bowery in 1873.
New York City draft riots
The New York City draft riots, known at the time as Draft Week, were violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan regarded as the culmination of white working-class discontent with new laws passed by Congress that year to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War. The riots remain racially-charged insurrection in American history. U. S. President Abraham Lincoln diverted several regiments of militia and volunteer troops after the Battle of Gettysburg to control the city; the rioters were overwhelmingly white working-class men Irish or of Irish descent, who feared free black people competing for work and resented that wealthier men, who could afford to pay a $300 commutation fee to hire a substitute, were spared from the draft. Intended to express anger at the draft, the protests turned into a race riot, with white rioters, predominantly Irish immigrants, attacking black people throughout the city; the official death toll was listed at either 120 individuals. Conditions in the city were such that Major General John E. Wool, commander of the Department of the East, said on July 16 that, "Martial law ought to be proclaimed, but I have not a sufficient force to enforce it."The military did not reach the city until the second day of rioting, by which time the mobs had ransacked or destroyed numerous public buildings, two Protestant churches, the homes of various abolitionists or sympathizers, many black homes, the Colored Orphan Asylum at 44th Street and Fifth Avenue, burned to the ground.
The area's demographics changed as a result of the riot. Many black residents left Manhattan permanently with many moving to Brooklyn. By 1865, the black population fell below 11,000 for the first time since 1820. New York's economy was tied to the South. In addition, upstate textile mills processed cotton in manufacturing. New York had such strong business connections to the South that on January 7, 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood, a Democrat, called on the city's Board of Aldermen to "declare the city's independence from Albany and from Washington"; when the Union entered the war, New York City had many sympathizers with the South. The city was a continuing destination of immigrants. Since the 1840s, most were from Germany. In 1860, nearly 25 percent of the New York City population was German-born, many did not speak English. During the 1840s and 1850s, journalists had published sensational accounts, directed at the white working class, dramatizing the "evils" of interracial socializing and marriages.
Reformers joined the effort. Newspapers carried derogatory portrayals of black people and ridiculed "black aspirations for equal rights in voting and employment". Pseudo-scientific lectures on phrenology were popular. Had mixed populations of residents; the Democratic Party Tammany Hall political machine had been working to enroll immigrants as U. S. citizens so they could vote in local elections and had recruited Irish, most of whom spoke English. In March 1863, with the war continuing, Congress passed the Enrollment Act to establish a draft for the first time, as more troops were needed. In New York City and other locations, new citizens learned they were expected to register for the draft to fight for their new country. Black men were excluded from the draft as they were not considered citizens, wealthier white men could pay for substitutes. New York political offices, including the mayor, were held by Democrats before the war, but the election of Abraham Lincoln as president had demonstrated the rise in Republican political power nationally.
Newly-elected New York City Republican Mayor George Opdyke was mired in profiteering scandals in the months leading up to the riots. The Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863 alarmed much of the white working class in New York, who feared that freed slaves would migrate to the city and add further competition to the labor market. There had been tensions between black and white workers since the 1850s at the docks, with free blacks and immigrants competing for low-wage jobs in the city. In March 1863, white longshoremen refused to work with black laborers and rioted, attacking 200 black men. There were reports of rioting in Buffalo, New York, certain other cities, but the first drawing of draft numbers—on July 11, 1863—occurred peaceably in Manhattan; the second drawing was held on Monday, July 13, 1863, ten days after the Union victory at Gettysburg. At 10 a.m. a furious crowd of around 500, led by the volunteer firemen of Engine Company 33, attacked the assistant Ninth District provost marshal's office, at Third Avenue and 47th Street, where the draft was taking place.
The crowd threw large paving stones through windows, burst through the doors, set the building ablaze. When the fire department responded, rioters broke up their vehicles. Others smashed the cars. To prevent other parts of the city being notified of the riot, they cut telegraph lines. Since the New York State Militia had been sent to assist Union troops at Gettysburg, the local New York Metropolitan Police Department was the only force on hand to try to suppress the riots. Police Superintendent John Kennedy arrived at the site on Monday to check on the situation. Although not in uniform, people in the mob attacked him. Kennedy was left nearly unconscious, his face bruised and cut, his eye injured, his lips swollen, his hand cut with a knife, he had been beaten to a mass of bruises and blood