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Bowing in the Eastern Orthodox Church

Poyasny zemnoy poklon and'Naklon' Serbian Bowing, are different kinds of bows used in an Eastern Orthodox worship service. The different kinds of bows one could encounter at an Eastern Orthodox service are shown in the adjacent picture. Only types 2, 5 and 6 have rules of usage. Strict rules exist as to; the rules are complicated, are not always carried out in most parishes. Old Believers are much more punctilious about bows in comparison with the official Orthodoxy; the first type is a'head-only bow'. This type of bow does not have its own assigned usage, but can be used only instead of a'belt-low bow' in some situations, such as when one cannot make a lower bow because of too many people in the church or for back problems. People should keep standing in this position during reading of Gospels and some other important periods of the service.'Belt-low bow' can be called an'ordinary bow', since it is the most widespread type of bow. Most bows during the Eastern Orthodox service are of this kind.

However, for example, during the Lent, the bows became lower and'earth-low bows' should be used instead.'Belt-low bow with touching earth by a hand'. This type of a bow could be treated in two ways: sometimes it's only the'very done type 2 bow'. Sometimes, on the other hand, it's a'lightened' version of an'earth-low bow'. For example, when Popovtsy Old Believers ask their priests for a blessing, they should, perform a'earth-low bow'. However, since one could ask a priest for a blessing during an occasional meeting on a street, where it is rather uncomfortable to make a full'earth-low bow' one only touches the earth with one's right hand. Metania is a'lightened' version of a'earth-low bow', used in Orthodox services sometimes. Zemnoy poklon is a special type of bow, important for Old Believers, it is performed by the priest and many of the congregation during the epiclesis. Prostration is used only during the service of imposition of holy orders, it is important to note that traditionally, the Eastern Orthodox service has no kneeling in the Western sense of standing on one's knees.

While kneeling for prayer was customary in the primitive church, the Byzantine tradition did not maintain it, the people stood traditionally. In the 20th century in some western countries, some Eastern Orthodox churches have begun to use pews and kneelers and so have begun kneeling in some parts of the service. Orthodox tradition specifies that the faithful are to stand rather than kneel in prayer from Pascha until Pentecost, on all Sundays throughout the year, in honour of the Resurrection; that dates from the time. There is some variation in interpretation, with some traditions, notably in the Greek church, extending this prohibition on kneeling to preclude prostrations. Within the Slavic churches, there is regional variation in practice, with some places avoiding prostrations on Sundays and others making the usual prostrations regardless of the day of the week; the Russian Old Rite, which reflects the praxis of the Russian church prior to the 17th-century reforms, which brought it in line with Greek practice as it stood at the time, itself the result of revision over the centuries, explicitly requires prostrations to be made at certain points during the services regardless of whether it is a Sunday, including at the end of Shine, Shine throughout the paschal season.

That would seem to suggest that the canons forbidding kneeling on Sundays were not anciently understood to prohibit prostrations. Indeed, the rubrics of the services require the faithful to prostrate before the Cross on the Third Sunday of Great Lent and on the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross if it falls on a Sunday. Dogeza Genuflection Kowtow Podruchnik Sign of the cross Sujud Why are Prayers Said Without Kneeling On All Sundays and From Pascha Until Pentecost? Orthodox Information Center

Arthur Bassett (died 1586)

Sir Arthur Bassett was a member of the prominent west-country Basset family and was MP for Barnstaple in 1563 and Devon in 1572. He served as JP for Devon from 1569 to his death and as Sheriff of Devon in 1574–5, he was knighted in 1575. He had been appointed deputy warden of Stannaries by 1580, he was the eldest son of John Bassett of Heanton Punchardon and Umberleigh in Devon and Tehidy in Cornwall, Sheriff of Cornwall in 1518 and 1523, by his wife Frances Plantagenet, the daughter and co-heiress of his step-father Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle, bastard son of King Edward IV. Arthur Bassett was thus a grandson of Arthur Plantagenet on his mother's side, on his father's side a grandson of Honor Plantagenet, Viscountess Lisle, née Honor Grenville, the second wife of Sir John Bassett who married secondly as his second wife the aforementioned Arthur Plantagenet. Making Bassett the cousin of Sir Richard Grenville the Younger, via Grenville's Aunt, Honor Grenville. Bassett was by religion a puritan, a friend of the powerful Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford, of whose will he was an overseer.

He helped to finance the expedition to the South Seas undertaken by his cousin, Sir Richard Grenville. His father-in-law Sir John Chichester conveyed to him for a term of five years the rectory of Pilton Priory, which he had himself acquired following the Dissolution of the Monasteries, he volunteered for military service in the Netherlands to defend the Protestant cause against the Spanish, where in 1586 he obtained a command at The Hague, serving under Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, the maternal uncle of his friend Sir Philip Sidney, killed in 1586 at the Battle of Zutphen. He married Eleanor Chichester, a daughter of Sir John Chichester, MP, lord of the manor of Raleigh in the parish of Pilton, Devon. By her he had five sons and two daughters including: Sir Robert Basset, his eldest son and heir, MP for Plymouth in 1593, who married Elizabeth Periam the second daughter and co-heiress of Sir William Peryam, Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. Due to his Plantagenet ancestry he made what turned out to be a foolish and costly decision to offer himself as one of the many claimants to the throne of England after the death of Queen Elizabeth encouraged by his father-in-law Peryam.

He suffered a heavy fine for his action which, according to the biographer John Prince, involved the sale of thirty of the family's manors. Margaret Bassett, who married Richard Duke of Otterton, Devon. Bassett died of Gaol Fever in 1586 whilst serving in his judicial role at the notorious Lent Black Assize of Exeter from 14 March 1586. Eight other judges or Justices of the Peace died of the same fever. In his will dated 18 October 1585 he asked to decently" beside his wife, he died before 7 April 1586. His curiously small chest tomb with inscribed slate top slab exists in Atherington Church, within the manor of Umberleigh, it is that his burial took place in the Umberleigh Chapel, now a ruin, which stood next to the manor house of Umberleigh. All the tombs and monuments were removed from there to Atherington Church in about 1820, thus Sir Arthur's slab sits on a modern base; the surface of the slate has flaked off, but the central escutcheon showing the arms of Bassett impaling Chichester is still visible, with part of the inscription in a ledger line around the perimeter, some verse beneath the shield:"Here lie ye bodies of ye Right Worshipful and Worthy Knight, Sir Arthur Bassett and Elianora his wife, daughter of Sir John Chichester of Rawleigh... the 2nd April 1586.

The latter buried the 10th July 1585... behind them 5 sonnes and 2 daughters. Requiescant in pace"" Below is the impaled shield, below, the following verse: "He, three in one and one in three, First made us two one, this one were wee, One love, one life we lived, one year, one death Rocked us asleepe by borrowing but our breath. Grave the bed that holds us both, the stone hides us covert, the bed is one, One Heaven contains our souls, one trumpte one day, raise our bodies from this bed of clay. Death which useth others to dissever, once united us forever" Hasler, P. W. Biography of Arthur Bassett published in History of Parliament, House of Commons 1558-1603, London, 1981


Cirencester is a market town in Gloucestershire, England, 80 miles west of London. Cirencester lies on the River Churn, a tributary of the River Thames, is the largest town in the Cotswolds, it is the home of the Royal Agricultural University, the oldest agricultural college in the English-speaking world, founded in 1840. The town's Corinium Museum has an extensive Roman collection; the Roman name for the town was Corinium, thought to have been associated with the ancient British tribe of the Dobunni, having the same root word as the River Churn. The earliest known reference to the town was by Ptolemy in AD 150. Cirencester is twinned in the Steinburg region of Germany. Cirencester lies on an outcrop of oolitic limestone. Natural drainage is into the River Churn, which flows north to south through the eastern side of the town and joins the Thames near Cricklade a little to the south; the Thames itself rises just a few miles west of Cirencester. The town is split into five main areas: the town centre, the suburbs of Chesterton, Stratton and The Beeches.

The village of Siddington to the south of the town is now contiguous with Watermoor. Other suburbs include New Mills; the area and population of these 5 electoral wards are identical to that quoted above. The town serves as a centre for surrounding villages, providing employment, shops and education, as a commuter town for larger centres such as Cheltenham, Gloucester and Stroud. Cirencester is the hub of a road network with routes to Gloucester, Leamington Spa, Wantage, Chippenham, Bristol and Stroud, although only Gloucester, Cheltenham and Swindon have bus connections. Since the closure of the Kemble to Cirencester branch line to Cirencester Town in 1964, the town has been without its own railway station. Kemble railway station, 3.7 miles away, is served by regular services Great Western Railway services between Swindon and Gloucester, with peak-time direct trains to London Paddington station. The nearest airports are London Heathrow and Birmingham. A general aviation airport, Cotswold Airport, is nearby at Kemble.

Cirencester is known to have been an important early Roman area, along with St. Albans and Colchester, the town includes evidence of significant area roadworks; the Romans built a fort where the Fosse Way crossed the Churn, to hold two quingenary alae tasked with helping to defend the provincial frontier around AD 49, native Dobunni were drawn from Bagendon, a settlement 3 miles to the north, to create a civil settlement near the fort. When the frontier moved to the north after the conquest of Wales, this fort was closed and its fortifications levelled around the year 70, but the town persisted and flourished under the name Corinium. In Roman times, there was a thriving wool trade and industry, which contributed to the growth of Corinium. A large forum and basilica were built over the site of the fort, archaeological evidence shows signs of further civic growth. There are many Roman remains in the surrounding area, including several Roman villas near the villages of Chedworth and Withington.

When a wall was built around the Roman city in the late 2nd century, it enclosed 240 acres, making Corinium the second-largest city by area in Britain. The details of the provinces of Britain following the Diocletian Reforms around 296 remain unclear, but Corinium is now thought to have been the capital of Britannia Prima; some historians would date to this period the pillar erected by the governor Lucius Septimus to the god Jupiter, a local sign of the pagan reaction against Christianity during the principate of Julian the Apostate. The Roman amphitheatre still exists in an area known as the Querns to the south-west of the town, but has only been excavated. Investigations in the town show that it was fortified in the 6th centuries. Andrew Breeze argued that Gildas received his education in Cirencester in the early 6th century, showing that it was still able to provide an education in Latin rhetoric and law at that time; this was the palace of one of the British kings defeated by Ceawlin in 577.

It was the scene of the Battle of Cirencester, this time between the Mercian king Penda and the West Saxon kings Cynegils and Cwichelm in 628. The minster church of Cirencester, founded in the 9th or 10th century, was a royal foundation, it was replaced by the great abbey church. At the Norman Conquest the royal manor of Cirencester was granted to the Earl of Hereford, William Fitz-Osbern, but by 1075 it had reverted to the Crown; the manor was granted to Cirencester Abbey, founded by Henry I in 1117, following half a century of building work during which the minster church was demolished, the great abbey church was dedicated in 1176. The manor was granted to the Abbey in 1189, although a royal charter dated 1133 speaks of burgesses in the town; the struggle of the townsmen to gain the rights and privileges of a borough for Cirencester began in the same year, when they were amerced for a false presentment. Four inquisitions during the 13th century supported the abbot's claims, yet the townspeople remained unwavering in their quest for borough status: in 1342, they lodged a Bill of complaint in Chancery.

Twenty townspeople were ordered to Westminster, where they declared under oath that successive abbots had bought up many burgage tenements, made the borough into an

Expansion of the universe

The expansion of the universe is the increase in distance between any two given gravitationally unbound parts of the observable universe with time. It is an intrinsic expansion; the universe does not require space to exist "outside" it. Technically, neither space nor objects in space move. Instead it is the metric governing the geometry of spacetime itself that changes in scale. Although light and objects within spacetime cannot travel faster than the speed of light, this limitation does not restrict the metric itself. To an observer it appears that space is expanding and all but the nearest galaxies are receding into the distance. During the inflationary epoch about 10−32 of a second after the Big Bang, the universe expanded, its volume increased by a factor of at least 1078, equivalent to expanding an object 1 nanometer in length to one 10.6 light years long. A much slower and gradual expansion of space continued after this, until at around 9.8 billion years after the Big Bang it began to expand more and is still doing so.

The metric expansion of space is of a kind different from the expansions and explosions seen in daily life. It seems to be a property of the universe as a whole rather than a phenomenon that applies just to one part of the universe or can be observed from "outside" of it. Metric expansion is a key feature of Big Bang cosmology, is modeled mathematically with the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker metric and is a generic property of the universe we inhabit. However, the model is valid only on large scales, because gravitational attraction binds matter together enough that metric expansion cannot be observed at this time, on a smaller scale; as such, the only galaxies receding from one another as a result of metric expansion are those separated by cosmologically relevant scales larger than the length scales associated with the gravitational collapse that are possible in the age of the universe given the matter density and average expansion rate. Physicists have postulated the existence of dark energy, appearing as a cosmological constant in the simplest gravitational models, as a way to explain the acceleration.

According to the simplest extrapolation of the currently-favored cosmological model, the Lambda-CDM model, this acceleration becomes more dominant into the future. In June 2016, NASA and ESA scientists reported that the universe was found to be expanding 5% to 9% faster than thought earlier, based on studies using the Hubble Space Telescope. While special relativity prohibits objects from moving faster than light with respect to a local reference frame where spacetime can be treated as flat and unchanging, it does not apply to situations where spacetime curvature or evolution in time become important; these situations are described by general relativity, which allows the separation between two distant objects to increase faster than the speed of light, although the definition of "separation" is different from that used in an inertial frame. This can be seen. Light, emitted today from galaxies beyond the cosmological event horizon, about 5 gigaparsecs or 16 billion light-years, will never reach us, although we can still see the light that these galaxies emitted in the past.

Because of the high rate of expansion, it is possible for a distance between two objects to be greater than the value calculated by multiplying the speed of light by the age of the universe. These details are a frequent source of confusion among amateurs and professional physicists. Due to the non-intuitive nature of the subject and what has been described by some as "careless" choices of wording, certain descriptions of the metric expansion of space and the misconceptions to which such descriptions can lead are an ongoing subject of discussion within education and communication of scientific concepts. In 1912, Vesto Slipher discovered that light from remote galaxies was redshifted, interpreted as galaxies receding from the Earth. In 1922, Alexander Friedmann used Einstein field equations to provide theoretical evidence that the universe is expanding. In 1927, Georges Lemaître independently reached a similar conclusion to Friedmann on a theoretical basis, presented the first observational evidence for a linear relationship between distance to galaxies and their recessional velocity.

Edwin Hubble observationally confirmed Lemaître's findings two years later. Assuming the cosmological principle, these findings would imply that all galaxies are moving away from each other. Based on large quantities of experimental observation and theoretical work, the scientific consensus is that space itself is expanding, that it expanded rapidly within the first fraction of a second after the Big Bang; this kind of expansion is known as "metric expansion". In mathematics and physics, a "metric" means a measure of distance, the term implies that the sense of distance within the universe is itself changing; the modern explanation for the metric expansion of space was proposed by physicist Alan Guth in 1979 while investigating the problem of why no magnetic monopoles are seen today. Guth found in his investigation that if the universe contained a field that has a positive-energy false vacuum state according to general relativity it would generate

Sexual abuse scandal in San Diego diocese

The sexual abuse scandal in San Diego diocese is a significant episode in the series of Catholic sex abuse cases in the United States and Ireland. Diocesan officials acknowledged that these cases, except for a few, were legitimate and occurred before 1990; the few that were not considered legitimate were placed in the global settlement and, due to the settlement, will not be challenged. On February 27, 2007, the Diocese of San Diego filed for Chapter 11 protection, hours before the first of about 150 lawsuits was due to be heard. San Diego became the largest diocese to file for bankruptcy. On September 7, 2007, The Roman Catholic Diocese of San Diego agreed to pay $198.1 million to settle 144 claims of sexual abuse by clergy, the 2nd-largest payment by a diocese, terminating four years of settlement talks in state and federal courts. Robert Brom was accused of coercing a student into a sexual relationship at a seminary in Minnesota, where he once was rector and headed the Diocese of Duluth; the alleged victim claimed that the incident of abuse occurred "in a coffin along with other bishops".

Due to the "unusual" allegation, no criminal charges were brought at the time and, according to Brom, the settlement was made to offer psychological assistance for the alleged victim. Audits, Child And Youth Protection.

George Greville, 4th Earl of Warwick

George Guy Greville, 4th Earl of Warwick, 4th Earl Brooke, styled Lord Brooke from 1818 to 1853, was an English Tory politician and Collector. Greville was born in Berkeley Square, London, he was the only child of Henry Greville, 3rd Earl of Warwick, the former Lady Sarah Elizabeth Savile, eldest daughter of John Savile, 2nd Earl of Mexborough. He was educated at St John's College, from where he obtained a BA in 1839, he was Member of Parliament for South Warwickshire from 1845 to 1853, when he succeeded to the peerage. He served as honorary colonel to the Warwickshire Yeomanry cavalry, as A. D. C. to Queen Victoria. He joined the Canterbury Association on 11 February 1850 and was, from the day of joining, a member of the management committee. Lord Warwick was a prolific contributor to the improvements of Warwick Castle during the nineteenth century. Alongside his artistic wife, Anne Charteris 4th Countess of Warwick, he oversaw the redecoration of the castle's Great Hall and domestic apartments after the fire of 1871.

The celebrated architect Anthony Salvin was employed to rebuild the hall in the typical Victorian'Gothic' taste, embellished with stained glass to achieve the effect of a medieval baronial hall. The domestic apartments were redesigned, with each room assigned a different'historical' style, typical of the nineteenth century interest in the'Romantic Interior'. Known as a prolific collector of books, Lord Warwick established a Shakespeare Library at Warwick Castle with the help of James Halliwell-Phillipps during the years 1852–1870; the entire contents of the library was sold after his death in 1897 to the Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D. C. Lord Warwick was a great collector of arms and armour, most of, purchased through the legendary New Bond Street dealer and forger Samuel Luke Pratt. Many of the greatest pieces were acquired by Pratt from the dispersed collection of Samuel Rush Meyrick and sold to Greville. Alongside original pieces Pratt sold the Earl several Victorian forgeries, a practise, common place of dealers in Antique furniture and arms and armour at the time.

On 18 February 1852, he married Anne Charteris, daughter of Francis Wemyss-Charteris, 9th Earl of Wemyss. They had five children: Francis Greville, 5th Earl of Warwick. Hon. Alwyn Greville, who married Mabel Elizabeth Georgina Smith OBE, only daughter of Ernald Mosley Smith of Selsdon Park, in 1888. Hon. Louis Greville, the High Sheriff of Wiltshire in 1920 who married Lily Gordon, a daughter of J. H. Gordon, in 1887. Lady Eva Greville, who married Col. Frank Dugdale CVO, second son of James Dugdale of Wroxall Abbey, in 1895. Hon. Sidney Greville, who served as Private Secretary to Queen Alexandra, he died at Warwick Castle on 2 December 1893. Earl of Warwick List of owners of Warwick Castle Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Warwicke