Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service
The Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service is a business division of the Department of Environment and Science within the Government of Queensland. The division’s primary concern is with the management and maintenance of protected areas within Queensland, to protect and manage Queensland’s parks and the Great Barrier Reef for current and future generations; the QPWS managed areas include more than 1000 national parks, state forests, marine parks and other protected areas, five world heritage areas. Queensland’s first national park, Witches Falls, was established on 28 March 1908, followed by Bunya Mountains National Park in July 1908, Lamington National Park in 1915. From modest early beginnings within the Forestry department, a dedicated national parks service was established in 1975—the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. From that time, park rangers have proudly worn QPWS uniform badge featuring the symbol, which has become one of the most well-recognised symbols in Queensland; the Nature Conservation Act 1992, Marine Parks Act 2004 and Forestry Act 1959 provide guiding legislation for the service.
Leanne Enoch, Minister for Environment and Science is responsible for the department. The agency's head office is located at 400 George Street in the Brisbane central business district. Protected areas in Queensland are needed to provide wildlife habitat to maintain biodiversity and provide opportunities for outdoor nature-based activities. Managing national parks involves protecting a park's natural condition and processes, presenting the park's cultural and natural resources and its values. Managing multiple-use marine parks involves providing refuge areas for species and ecosystems while allowing for continuing recreational and commercial use of the majority of the marine environment. A Master Plan for Queensland's Park System outlines the directions for management of all protected areas in Queensland for the next 20 years. QPWS is responsible for day-to-day management of Queensland’s five World Heritage areas, which are within the protected area estate; these properties are outstanding examples of the world's natural or cultural heritage, provide valuable environmental and economic services for Queensland.
For each park, either a management statement or a management plan is prepared to identify the park's special values and determine ways to ensure those values are preserved, enhanced or maintained. The service employs park rangers who are responsible for constructing and maintaining infrastructure such as camping areas, picnic areas, walking tracks and lookouts providing advice to visitors, recording wildlife data, controlling feral plants and animals, assisting in the preparation of management plans and enforcing park rules. QPWS works with Aboriginal Traditional Owners and, in some places, volunteers, as well as other government departments and organisations to conserve, manage and present Queensland’s most precious natural and cultural places. Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland National Parks Association of Queensland Find a park or forest
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli
Cape Bowling Green Light
Cape Bowling Green Light is an active lighthouse located on Cape Bowling Green, a lengthy headland ending with a long low sandspit, about 30 kilometres from Ayr, Australia. The lighthouse is near the base of the sandspit; the first lighthouse at the location, established 1874, was moved multiple times. It was prefabricated in Brisbane, shipped to the location, moved twice due to coastal erosion and transferred for display at the Australian National Maritime Museum at Darling Harbour in Sydney. Many ships wrecking at Cape Bowling Green necessitated the construction of a lighthouse at the cape; the first Cape Bowling Green Light was constructed in 1874, one of 22 lighthouse of similar design constructed in Queensland around that time. It was a round conical tower, constructed of local hardwood frame clad with galvanized iron plates imported from Britain; the lighthouse was prefabricated in Brisbane dismantled and shipped to the location to be erected again. The construction was done by the brothers John and Jacob Rooney of Maryborough, which constructed Sandy Cape Light, Cowan Cowan Point Light, Cape Capricorn Light, Lady Elliot Island Light and Booby Island Light.
The original lens was a 3rd order Chance Brothers dioptric lens, the light source was a kerosene wick lamp with an intensity of 13,000 cd, visible for 14 nautical miles. The apparatus was rotated with a clockwork mechanism and the station was operated by four lighthouse keepers, a chief and three assistants. In 1878 beach erosion threatened the lighthouse for the first time and it was moved for the first time. In 1908 the tower had to be relocated further away for the same reason. In 1913 an incandescent gas mantle operated by vaporised kerosene was installed, raising the power to 64,000 cd. In 1920 a fixed automatic acetylene gas lamp with a sun valve was installed; as a result, the lighthouse was demanned and all other buildings were demolished. In 1985 a racon was installed. In 1987 the lighthouse was replaced by the current skeletal tower. With the sponsorship of the Australian Maritime Safety Authority, the lighthouse was dismantled, sections were lifted by a Department of Transport helicopter to a site where they were numbered and shipped to Sydney.
By 1994 the lighthouse was reassembled at the Australian National Maritime Museum where it is now on display. The lighthouse is still operational, using the original 3rd order lens and a typical 1913 clockwork mechanism, it maintains its original light characteristic, four white flashes every twenty seconds; the current tower is a square steel skeletal tower. It is topped by a square lantern structure with a gallery, it is painted white with a red horizontal band at the top. The light characteristic shown is four white flashes every twenty seconds, visible for 11 nautical miles; the current lighthouse is operated by the AMSA. The visiting status is unclear; the original lighthouse is owned and operated by the Australian National Maritime Museum, it is open for guided tours daily. List of lighthouses and lightvessels in Australia Searle, Garry. "List of Lighthouses - Queensland". Lighthouses of Australia. SeaSide Lights. "List of Lighthouses of Queensland". Lighthouses of Australia. Lighthouses of Australia Inc.
John Ibbotson. "Around Australia Chasing Lighthouses". Lighthouses of Australia Inc Bulletin. Archived from the original on 2011-03-07. Lighthouse at the Australian National Maritime Museum website
The whistling ducks or tree ducks are a subfamily, Dendrocygninae, of the duck and swan family of birds, Anatidae. They are not true ducks. In other taxonomic schemes, they are considered Dendrocygnidae; some taxonomists list only one genus, which contains eight living species, one undescribed extinct species from Aitutaki of the Cook Islands, but other taxonomists list the white-backed duck under the subfamily. Whistling ducks were first described by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758: the black-bellied whistling duck and the West Indian whistling duck. In 1837, William John Swainson named the genus Dendrocygna to distinguish whistling ducks from the other waterfowl; the type species was listed as the wandering whistling duck named by Thomas Horsfield as Anas arcuata. Whistling duck taxonomy, including that of the entire infraorder Anseriformes, is complicated and disputed. Under a traditional classification proposed by ornithologist Jean Théodore Delacour based on morphological and behavioral traits, whistling ducks belong to the tribe Dendrocygnini under the family Anatidae and subfamily Anserinae.
Following the revisions by ornithologist Paul Johnsgard, Dendrocygnini includes the genus Thalassornis under this system. In 1997, Bradley C. Livezey proposed that Dendrocygna were a separate lineage from Anserinae, placing it and its tribe in its own subfamily, Dendrocygninae. Alternatively Charles Sibley and Jon Edward Ahlquist recommended placing Dendrocygna in its own family, which includes the genus Thalassornis. Eight species of whistling duck are recognized in the genus Dendrocygna. However, Johnsgard considers the white-backed duck from Africa and Madagascar to be distinct ninth species, a view first proposed in 1960 and supported by behavioral similarities. Similarities in anatomy, duckling vocalizations, feather proteins gave additional support. Molecular analysis in 2009 suggested that the white-backed duck was nested within the whistling duck clade. In addition to the extant species, subfossil remains of an extinct, undescribed species have been found on Aitutaki of the Cook Islands.
Whistling ducks are found in the subtropics. As their name implies, they have distinctive whistling calls; the whistling ducks have long legs and necks, are gregarious, flying to and from night-time roosts in large flocks. Both sexes have the same plumage, all have a hunched appearance and black underwings in flight. Media related to Dendrocygna at Wikimedia Commons
Mount Elliot, Queensland
Mount Elliot is a locality in the City of Townsville, Australia. It contains the mountain of the same name. In the 2016 census, Mount Elliot had a population of 8 people; the locality contains the mountain Mount Elliot which rises to a peak of 1220 metres above sea level, with the surrounding localities at 50-100 metres above sea level. The entire locality forms part of the Bowling Green Bay National Park with the Alligator Creek and its waterfall being within the Mount Elliot part of the park; the Bruce Highway and the North Coast railway line form the northern boundary of the locality. The former Clevedon railway station was on the railway line in that area and the northern part of Mount Elliot is still known as Clevedon. Mount Elliot is a watershed with the northern and western parts of the mountain draining into the Ross River which enters the Coral Sea at Townsville City and the southern and eastern parts of the mountain draining into the Haughton River which enters the Coral Sea near Giru.
The locality was named after Gilbert Eliot, the member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland for Wide Bay in the first Queensland Parliament, formed in 1860. He was the first Speaker of the Queensland Legislative Assembly; the spelling was corrupted over time to Elliot. Media related to Mount Elliot, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
The magpie goose is the sole living representative species of the family Anseranatidae. This common waterbird is found in southern New Guinea; as the species is prone to wandering when not breeding, it is sometimes recorded outside its core range. The species was once widespread in southern Australia, but disappeared from there due to the drainage of the wetlands where the birds once bred; the Kunwinjku of western Arnhem Land know this bird as Manimanuk. It became an important food item with the formation of wetlands about 1500 ya, is depicted in rock art from this period. Mimi figures are shown holding goose-feather fans. Magpie geese are unmistakable birds with their black and white yellowish legs; the feet are only webbed, the magpie goose feeds on vegetable matter in the water, as well as on land. Males are larger than females. Unlike true geese, their moult is gradual, so no flightless period results, their voice is a loud honking. This species is placed in the order Anseriformes, having the characteristic bill structure, but is considered to be distinct from the other species in this taxon.
The related and extant families and Anatidae, contain all the other taxa. The magpie goose is contained in the genus Anseranas and family Anseranatidae, which are monotypic now. A cladistic study of the morphology of waterfowl found that the magpie goose was an early and distinctive offshoot, diverging after screamers and before all other ducks and swans; this family is quite old, a living fossil, having diverged before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event — the relative Vegavis iaai lived some 68-67 million years ago. The fossil record is limited, nonetheless; the enigmatic genus. Other Paleogene birds sometimes considered magpie-geese are the genera Geranopsis from the Hordwell Formation Late Eocene to the Early Oligocene of England and Anserpica from the Late Oligocene of Billy-Créchy; the earliest known member of the group in Australia is an unnamed species represented by fossils found in the late Oligocene Carl Creek Limestone of Queensland. Additional fossils from North America and Europe suggest that the family was spread across the globe during the late Paleogene period.
The Australian distribution of the living species ties in well with the presumed Gondwanan origin of Anseriformes, but Northern Hemisphere fossils are puzzling. The magpie geese were one of the dominant groups of Paleogene waterfowl, only to become extinct later; the magpie goose is found in a variety of open wetland areas such as swamps. It is sedentary apart from some movement during the dry season, they are colonial breeders and are gregarious outside of the breeding season when they can form large and noisy flocks of up to a few thousand individuals. Its nest is on the ground, a typical clutch is 5-14 eggs; some males mate with two females, all of which raise the young, unlike some other polygamous birds. This may be beneficial when predation of young is high as chicks raised by trios are more to survive; this species is plentiful across its range, although this is reduced in comparison to the range at time of European settlement. The range once extended as far south as the Coorong and the wetlands of the southeast of South Australia and Western Victoria.
For Australia as a whole, it is not threatened and has a controlled hunting season when numbers are large. However, most of the southern populations were extirpated in the mid-20th century by overhunting and habitat destruction; the species has been subject to reintroduction projects such as Bool Lagoon between Penola and Naracoorte. Populations in more northern areas have again reached a level where it can be utilized by hunters, although not in the example provided. In Victoria, the magpie goose was listed as near threatened on the 2007 advisory list of threatened vertebrate fauna in Victoria. In the December 2007 Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act list of threatened fauna, it is listed; as of early 2008, an Action Statement for the recovery and future management of this species had not been prepared. With the advent of climate change, more frequent seawater inundations of the current extensive freshwater floodplains, CSIRO scientists argue that Magpie geese populations may be at risk. Carboneras, C.
Family Anatidae, pp. 536–630 in. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol 1, Ostrich to Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-09-1 Madge, Steve & Burn, Hilary: Wildfowl: an identification guide to the ducks and swans of the world. Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7470-2201-1 Pringle, J. D.: The Waterbirds of Australia. National Photographic Index of Australian Wildlife, Australian Museum/Angus and Robertson, Sydney. BirdLife Species Factsheet