Bowser, or King Koopa, is a fictional character and the main antagonist of Nintendo's Mario franchise. In Japan, the character bears the title of Daimaō. In the U. S. the character was first referred to as "Bowser, King of the Koopas" and "the sorcerer king" in the instruction manual. Bowser is the leader of the turtle-like Koopa race, has been the archenemy of Mario since his first appearance, in the 1985 video game Super Mario Bros, his ultimate goals are to kidnap Princess Peach, defeat Mario, conquer the Mushroom Kingdom. Since his debut, he has appeared in every Mario franchise game serving as the main antagonist. Bowser is voiced by Kenny James. In addition to his usual animated and video game appearances, he appears in the 1993 live-action film, where he is portrayed by Dennis Hopper. Bowser was created by producer Shigeru Miyamoto. Miyamoto had first envisioned Bowser as an ox, basing him on the Ox King from the Toei Animation film Alakazam the Great. However, Nintendo designer Takashi Tezuka pointed out that the character looked a lot more like a turtle than an ox.
Miyamoto and Tezuka began to work together to define Bowser's appearance. Since the character was the leader of the turtle-like Koopa Troopas the two began to base his new appearance on them, creating a new illustration. In his final design, Miyamoto commented that he could make Bowser "look cool now". Miyamoto named him 大 魔 王 クッパ Daimaō Kuppa. Kuppa came from the Japanese name for gukbap, a Korean dish. Miyamoto had considered the names ユッケ Yukke and ビビンバ Bibinba Japanese names of Korean dishes; the Korean name for the character Bowser/Kuppa is not Gukbap, but 쿠파 Kupa, a phonetic round-trip translation. The name was anglicized Kuppa rather than Koopa in the Japanese versions up until the release of Super Mario World. In the Super Mario Bros. film, Bowser is called President Koopa. He is briefly referred to as King Koopa; this incarnation is entirely human in appearance, with blonde hair he gels in the shape of a crown, he wears a black business suit and tie. However, after brief exposure to his own evolution-reversing device by the Mario Bros. he starts possessing some reptilian traits.
The climax of the film sees Koopa devolve into an enormous green Tyrannosaurus rex to battle the Mario Bros. but he is further devolved into primordial ooze. Bowser is portrayed as the "King of the Koopas", anthropomorphic turtles that inhabit the world of the Mushroom Kingdom. Bowser differs from the rest of the Koopa clan, which consists of bipedal tortoises, he is characterized by a large, spiked turtle shell, horns, a draconic muzzle, razor-sharp fangs, taloned fingers, three clawed toes on each foot, red eyes and a shock of red hair. He is physically endowed with immense strength, is nearly indestructible, can breathe fire, he can jump high for his large size, although his speed and agility are most of the time lacking. He is accomplished in black magic, thanks to which he can teleport himself or summon objects, generate a huge amount of electricity, use telekinesis or metamorphose. Bowser's physical size tends to vary from game to game. In most games, he towers over the majority of characters.
In Super Mario RPG, he stands only taller than Mario. He is shown changing his size at will or through others' sorcery in games including Yoshi's Island, Super Mario Galaxy and Super Mario Galaxy 2. Bowser aspires to merge it with his own realm, he is infatuated with Princess Peach, kidnaps her as part of his plans for domination. Sometimes, he kidnaps Peach to lure Mario into a trap, but he hopes to marry her; the character's role in the franchise varies. He is the main antagonist in the main series, but in the RPG series, he sometimes works with the heroes to defeat a greater evil; the RPGs portray Bowser in a more humorous light as a blustering, buffoonish bully with a hidden softer side. He cares for his minions. Bowser has Bowser Jr. who helps his father kidnap Princess Peach. Bowser Jr.'s mother is unknown, as Bowser isn't confirmed as having a previous marriage yet. In Super Mario Bros. 3, Bowser was stated to be the father of the Koopalings with subsequent official sources adding that he was their biological father, but since their return in New Super Mario Bros.
Wii they have been referred to as Bowser's minions. In a 2012 interview, Shigeru Miyamoto stated that "Our current story is that the seven Koopalings are not Bowser's children. Bowser's only child is Bowser Jr. and we do not know who the mother is.". Up until the release of Super Mario Sunshine, Bowser's voice consisted of computer generated roars and laughs. In the 2002 release of Super Mario Sunshine, radio personality and voice actor Scott Burns gave Bowser his first spoken dialogue and continued portraying him for several more years. With the late 2005 release of Super Mario Strikers, Kenneth W. James became the new voice actor for Bowser. Although, for a few years, old recordings of Burns were reused for games after James took the role, such as Mario Party DS. Between Burns and James, Bowser was voiced by Eric Newsome in Super Paper Mario. Computerized roars are still used for Bowser in such games as the Super Smash Bros. series. Bowser's first appearance was in Super Mario Bros. as the main antagonist who kidnaps Princess Peach and as the final boss with several false versions of him appearing as lesser bosses.
In addition to breathing fire, he throws hammers in lev
Keen Engineering Co. Ltd. was a consulting engineering firm based in Canada and the United States that operated from 1960 to 2005. In the late 1950s James Keen, in association with Jerry Yost of Toronto, formed Yost Keen and Associates; the company designed many projects in Toronto, Ontario. They began to build a solid reputation within the consulting engineering industry that started bringing projects from Western Canada. One of the Western projects obtained by the firm was located in Saskatchewan. In order to complete this project, the partners decided that an office needed to be set up in Regina. Jim Keen opened the Regina office. By 1960 the two partners agreed to split into two firms, the Regina office became Keen Engineering Co. Ltd. James Keen and the principals of the newly formed Keen Engineering decided to aggressively pursue the growing Western Canadian market. After conducting a careful analysis of the building services market, the Directors decided to open offices in Edmonton and Calgary in Alberta and Vancouver in British Columbia.
Due to market fluctuations in the late 1970s, they decided to close the Regina office. However, the Edmonton and Vancouver offices continued to flourish and prosper. In the late 1980s, a new office was opened in Toronto, marking the end of a round trip journey James Keen retired in 1980 and Tom Johnston was appointed president. Tom oversaw Keen's expansion to total seven offices across Canada and began to consider international projects. After 18 successful years of growth, Tom retired from presidency in 1999. James Keen died in 2000. Kevin Hydes was appointed president of Keen in 1998. Under Kevin's guidance, Keen Engineering became a leader in the field of green engineering; this led to the formation of Keengreen - a division of Keen that focused on Green design. This group promoted sustainable design across the entire company so that green design became the company's philosophy; as a result of this new policy, Keen became a world leader in sustainable building design, having over 160 Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design accredited professionals on staff by 2005, the most of any organization in the world.
In May 2000, Keen expanded its North American operations by opening an office in Seattle, on in San Francisco. In 2001, Keen opened its eighth Canadian office in Ontario. Throughout its history, Keen Engineering remained 100% employee-owned; some of the more prestigious projects that Keen designed include: Library Square in Vancouver, British Columbia UOIT in Oshawa, Ontario Simon Fraser University West Mall Campus in Burnaby, British Columbia York University Computer Science Building in Toronto, Ontario C. K. Choi Building, University of British Columbia, VancouverIn August 2005, it was announced that Keen Engineering Co. Ltd. had entered into an agreement with Stantec of Edmonton, Alberta, to merge with their building engineering division. On October 3, 2005, Keen Engineering was merged with Stantec and Keen Engineering ceased to exist
Zoku is a Sino-Japanese term meaning tribe, clan, or family. As a suffix it has been used extensively within Japan to define subcultural phenomena, though many zoku do not acquire the suffix. A zoku may be labeled with a foreign language stem; as with the usual practice elsewhere, subcultures in Japan have certainly been labeled by an outsider to the group an influential person in the media. Subcultures that emerged in the early post-war decades include the "motorcycle-riding Thunder Tribe, the amplified-music-loving Electric Tribe, the Psychedelic Tribe."Although zoku was applied to others in society, like senior citizens and political activists, it was used to label youth subcultures. Shintaro Ishihara's 1950s novel Season of the Sun gave rise to a reckless and carefree expression of youth which became stylised in subsequent films as taiyo zoku; this subculture had some parallels with the rocker and greaser subcultures being promoted by Hollywood films such as Rebel without a Cause. Traditional Japanese promiscuous.
Some Japanese youths admired American music, Japanese Bill Haley clones were known as rokabiri zoku. At the height of the hippy movement and the psychedelic age in the 1960s, the futen zoku or vagabond tribe emerged in the Shinjuku area of Japan. Japanese media depicted them as dangerous because of their substance abuse and their public presence. More recreational drug users who patronized clubs and coffee shops were known as danmo zoku. A 1970s Japanese punk movement was known as karasu zoku because they wore black clothing and accessories. Young women readers of the 1970s magazines "an an" and "non no" were known as the an-non zoku. In the 1980s, fashion became mixed with dance in the form of the takenoko-zoku or; this subculture was named after a boutique in Harajuku. Other parts of Tokyo such as Roppongi and Ginza have been centers of Japanese popular culture, many zoku have been named after sites in these localities. Another significant group of the 1980s was the kurisutaru zoku, which were branded a social group after the success of the novel Nantonaku Kurisutaru.
This label applied to youth who were swept up in the freedoms of the economic boom of the 1980s and became materialistic and conscious of their image, much like yuppies. They have been contrasted with the rougher groups; the Hanako zoku of the late 1980s was associated with a popular magazine for young women called Hanako. Bōsō zoku: motorcycle gang Dorifuto zoku: Drifting tribe Kaminari zoku: early name for Bōsō zoku Rolling zoku: Off-road variety of Bōsō zoku Roulette zoku: Circular-highway racing tribe Vanning zoku: Van-driving tribe Zeroyon zoku: 0-4 tribe Bara zoku: Rose tribe Danchi zoku: Unit tribe Dobunezumi zoku: Sewer rat tribe Figure moe zoku: Otaku who collect figurines Ereki zoku: Electric Guitar Tribe Hodo-Hodo zoku: Employees who avoid promotion to minimize stress and maximize free time Hotaru zoku: Firefly tribe Madogiwa zoku: Window-seat tribe Nure ochiba zoku: Wet leaf tribe from Wet leaves Oyayubi zoku: thumb tribe Yuri zoku: Lily tribe Zoku-giin: Policy tribes Seidensticker, Edward.
Tokyo Rising: The City Since the Great Earthquake. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1990. Karl Taro Greenfeld Speed Tribes. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-092665-1 Japanese page about the bosozoku subculture Other hot rod tribes at jingai The fanned flames of fashion Shout sister shout Second digital divide - information on the Japanese thumb tribe Article referring to dearuki zoku References for futen zoku and an-non zoku A collaborative information and social networking system. A home-office hybrid connecting people and ideas
The Requiem by the Hungarian composer György Ligeti is a large-scale choral and orchestral composition, composed between 1963 and 1965. The work lasts for just under half an hour, is in four movements: Introitus, a gradual unbroken plane of sound moving from "mourning into the promise of eternal light". Ligeti was commissioned to write a work in 1961 for a series of new-music concerts on Swedish Radio, it was he who suggested a Requiem, had intended to set the full text of the Requiem mass. However he decided that to set around half the text met his structural needs, he scored the work for large choral forces, featuring two mixed choirs and soprano and mezzo-soprano soloists. To the orchestral forces he added a celesta. Ligeti spent nine months working on the six-minute Kyrie section alone, which featured the most complex polyphony he had attempted, featuring twenty vocal lines, although as Harold Kaufmann notes, "it refers back... to the classical vocal polyphony of the old masters". In particular, it drew for inspiration from the work of Ockeghem, "refracted and multiplied through the technique of micropolyphony."
The work was first performed on 14 March 1965 in Stockholm, with the soloists Liliana Poli, Barbro Ericson and the Choir and Orchestra of Swedish Radio under Michael Gielen. During rehearsals, Ligeti was sent a telegram from the chorus master who entreated him to come at once to Stockholm as they were all "terrified" of the piece; the same soloists and conductor were joined by the Choir of Bavarian Radio and the Orchestra of Hesse Radio, for the first recording, made in November 1968. A second recording was made in 2003 with soloists, London Voices and the Berliner Philharmoniker under Jonathan Nott. A further recording has been made by the WDR Symphony Orchestra under Peter Eötvös. Ligeti's Requiem achieved instant fame from its use by Stanley Kubrick in his 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey, although the soundtrack only uses the climax of the Kyrie section; the piece was not specially recorded for the film, but according to conductor Francis Travis came from a live performance he directed in 1967
Australian bilateral treaties on extradition and criminal matters are a set of Australian treaties concerning extradition, cooperation in criminal matters. The absence of an extradition treaty does not, in theory, prevent an arrest and/or extradition either to or from that country. 1928 – Extradition Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Albanian Republic 1928 – Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Albania extending to Certain Mandated Territories the Extradition the Government of Albania extending to Certain Mandated Territories the Extradition Treaty of 22 July 1926 1889 – Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Argentine Republic for the Mutual Extradition of Fugitive Criminals 1990 – Treaty on Extradition between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Republic of Argentina 1993 – Treaty between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Argentine Republic on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters 1873 – Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Austria-Hungary for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 3 December 1873 1873 – Declaration amending Article XI of the Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Austria-Hungary for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 3 December 1873 1902 – Declaration amending Article XI of the Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Austria-Hungary for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 3 December 1873 1928 – Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Republic of Austria extending to Certain Mandated Territories the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 3 December 1873, as amended 1935 – Convention between the United Kingdom and Austria supplementary to the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 3 December 1873 1975 – Treaty between Australia and the Republic of Austria concerning Extradition 1987 – Protocol between Australia and the Republic of Austria amending the Treaty concerning Extradition of 29 March 1973 1990 – Treaty between Australia and the Republic of Austria on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters 1876 – Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Belgium for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals 1876 – Declaration between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Belgium amending Article I of the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 20 May 1876 1877 – Declaration between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Belgium extending to Certain Additional Crimes the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 20 May 1876 1902 – Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Belgium for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals 1907 – Convention between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Belgium supplementing Article XIV of the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals 1911 – Convention between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Belgium amending Article VI of the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 29 October 1901 1928 – Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Belgium extending to Certain Mandated Territories the Convention for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 29 October 1901, as amended 1986 – Treaty on Extradition between Australia and the Kingdom of Belgium 1892 – Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Republic of Bolivia for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals 1928 – Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Bolivia extending to Certain Mandated Territories the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 22 February 1892 1872 – Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Brazil for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals, Protocol 1996 – Treaty on Extradition between Australia and the Federative Republic of Brazil 1990 – Treaty between the Government of Australia and the Government of Canada on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters 1897 – Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Chile for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals 1928 – Exchange of Notes between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Chile extending to Certain Mandated Territories the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 26 January 1897 1996 – Treaty on Extradition between Australia and the Republic of Chile 1888 – Treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Colombia for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals 1930 – Convention between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Republic of Colombia, supplementary to the Treaty for the Mutual Surrender of Fugitive Criminals of 27 October 1888 1924 – Convention between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Belgium, extending to the Belgian Congo and certain British Protecto
The municipality is the second-level administrative subdivision of Portugal, as defined by the 1976 Constitution. As a general rule, each municipality is further subdivided into parishes. Six municipalities are composed of only one parish, Barcelos is the municipality with most parishes, with 61. Corvo is, by law, the only municipality with no parishes. Since the creation of a democratic local administration, in 1976, the Portuguese municipalities have been ruled by a system composed by an executive body and a deliberative body; the municipal chamber is the executive body and is composed of the president of the municipality and a number of councillors proportional to the municipality's population. The municipal assembly is composed of the presidents of all the parishes that compose the municipality, as well as by a number of directly elected deputies, at least equal to the number of parish presidents plus one. Both bodies are elected for four years. Portugal has an separate system of cities and towns.
Cities and towns are located in municipalities but do not have the same boundaries they are continuously built up. There are around twice as many towns as there are municipalities; the municipality has been the most stable subdivision of Portugal since the foundation of the country in the 12th century. They have their origin in the foral, a legal document, issued by the King of Portugal, which assigned privileges to a town or a region; the present subdivisions have their origins in the 19th century after the administrative reforms conducted by the middle of the 19th century by the governments of the constitutional monarchy. The concelhos formed after the expulsion of the Visigothic rulers by the Moors during the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. Towns were thus left free to govern themselves, the population started to organize in councils in order to govern the town and surrounding lands; these were a reminder of Roman municipalities. The existence since the Middle Ages of a large number of small municipalities with no financial resources and without people qualified to take part in municipal councils caused the stagnation of their growth.
The Liberal revolution of 1836, resulted in the suppression/annexation of many of these smaller municipalities, which allowed the infusion of new revenues and facilitated growth in population and size. There are 308 municipalities in Portugal: 278 in mainland Portugal and 30 in the autonomous regions of the Azores and Madeira, they are named for their biggest city, or at least, their most important city or town. However, the municipality is not synonymous with the city, can include various towns or cities. In Portugal, cities/towns are a social distinction based on population size and associated services, have no legal representation in law or constitution. Before the 2013 local government reforms, Portugal was divided into 18 continental districts and two autonomous regions and Madeira; the table below is the distribution of the municipalities within these districts and the autonomous regions: The biggest municipalities are those located in rural and inland areas where the dominating property type is the latifundia, such as Beja, Évora or Portalegre in the south, in other less populated areas, such as Bragança or Castelo Branco.
The most populous municipalities are those located near the sea, around the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Braga, while the less populous municipalities are located in the inland regions of Alentejo and Trás-os-Montes. The municipalities with the lowest population densities are found in these inland regions, with smaller populations distributed over a greater area; this chart gives the number of inhabitants in the municipality area and the area is in km2. Municipality List of municipalities of Portugal Subdivisions of Portugal