United States non-interventionism
Robert Walpole, Britains first Whig Prime Minister, proclaimed in 1723, My politics are to keep free from all engagements as long as we possibly can. He emphasized economic advantage and rejected the idea of intervening in European affairs to maintain a balance of power, walpoles position was known to Americans. However, during the American Revolution, the Second Continental Congress debated about forming an alliance with France. When Britain and France went to war in 1792, George Washington declared neutrality, with support of his cabinet. Europe has a set of interests, which to us have none. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are foreign to our concerns. President Thomas Jefferson extended Washingtons ideas about foreign policy in his March 4,1801 inaugural address, Jefferson said that one of the essential principles of our government is that of peace and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none. It is only when our rights are invaded, or seriously menaced that we resent injuries, after Tsar Alexander II put down the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, French Emperor Napoleon III asked the United States to join in a protest to the Tsar.
The United States policy of non-intervention was maintained throughout most of the 19th century, the first significant foreign intervention by the US was the Spanish–American War, which ultimately resulted in the Philippine–American War from 1899–1902. Theodore Roosevelts administration is credited with inciting the Panamanian Revolt against Colombia in order to secure rights for the Panama Canal. The President of the United States Woodrow Wilson, after winning reelection with the slogan He kept us out of war, was able to navigate neutrality in World War I for about three years. Early on, their historic shunning of foreign entanglements, and the presence in the US of immigrants with divided loyalties in the conflict helped maintain neutrality. A few months after the declaration of War, Wilson gave a speech to congress outlining his aims to end the conflict, labeled the Fourteen Points. After the war, Wilson traveled to Europe and stayed for months to labor on the post-war treaty, in that Treaty of Versailles, Wilsons association was formulated as the League of Nations.
In the wake of the First World War, the non-interventionist tendencies of US foreign policy gained ascendancy, while some of the sentiment was grounded in adherence to Constitutional principles, some of the sentiment bore a reassertion of nativist and inward-looking policy. Although the United States was unwilling to commit to the League of Nations, they continued to engage in international negotiations, in August 1928, fifteen nations signed the Kellogg–Briand Pact, brainchild of American Secretary of State Frank Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand. This pact that was said to have outlawed war and showed the United States commitment to international peace had its semantic flaws. The Kellogg–Briand Pact was more of a sign of good intentions on the part of the US, the economic depression that ensued after the Crash of 1929, continued to abet non-intervention
D. W. Griffith
David Wark D. W. Griffith was an American director and producer who pioneered modern filmmaking techniques. Griffith is best remembered for The Birth of a Nation and Intolerance, the Birth of a Nation made use of advanced camera and narrative techniques, and its popularity set the stage for the dominance of the feature-length film in the United States. Today, it is noted for its radical technique and condemned for its inherently racist philosophy. The film was subject to boycotts by the NAACP and, after screenings of the film had caused riots at several theaters, his next film, was, in part, an answer to his critics. By the time of his feature, The Struggle, he had made roughly 500 films. Griffith is one of the founders of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences and he is credited with popularizing the use of the close-up shot. Griffith was born on a farm in Oldham County, Jacob was a Confederate Army colonel in the American Civil War and was elected as a Kentucky state legislator. He attended a one-room schoolhouse where he was taught by his older sister, after his father died when he was ten, the family struggled with poverty.
When Griffith was 14, his mother abandoned the farm and moved the family to Louisville, Griffith left high school to help support the family, taking a job in a dry goods store and in a bookstore. Griffith began his career as an actor in touring companies. Meanwhile, he was learning how to become a playwright, but had little success—only one of his plays was accepted for a performance, Griffith decided to become an actor, and appeared in many films as an extra. Griffith began making films in 1908, and released his first feature film, Judith of Bethulia. A few years earlier, in 1907, still struggling as a playwright, Porter rejected Griffiths script, but gave him an acting part in Rescued from an Eagles Nest instead. Finding this attractive, Griffith began to explore a career as an actor in the picture business. At Biograph, Griffiths career in the industry would change forever. In 1908, Biographs main director Wallace McCutcheon grew ill, and his son, Wallace McCutcheon, McCutcheon, Jr. however, was not able to bring the studio any success.
As a result, Biograph co-founder, Henry Harry Marvin, decided to give Griffith the position, Griffith would end up directing forty-eight shorts for the company that year. His short In Old California was the first film shot in Hollywood, four years he produced and directed his first feature film Judith of Bethulia, one of the earliest to be produced in the United States
Screen Actors Guild
The Screen Actors Guild was an American labor union which represented over 100,000 film and television principal and background performers worldwide. On March 30,2012, the leadership announced that the SAG membership voted to merge with the American Federation of Television. The Screen Actors Guild was associated with the Associated Actors and Artistes of America, AAAA is affiliated with the AFL–CIO. Internationally, the SAG was affiliated with the International Federation of Actors. C, since 1995, the guild annually awarded the Screen Actors Guild Awards, which are considered an indicator of success at the Academy Awards. This award is continued by SAG-AFTRA, in 1925, the Masquers Club was formed by actors discontent with the grueling work hours at the Hollywood studios. This was one of the concerns which led to the creation of the Screen Actors Guild in 1933. A meeting in March 1933 of six led to the guilds foundation. Aubrey Smith, Charles Starrett, Richard Tucker, Arthur Vinton, Morgan Wallace, many high-profile actors refused to join SAG initially.
This changed when the producers made an agreement amongst themselves not to bid competitively for talent, a pivotal meeting, at the home of Frank Morgan, was what gave SAG its critical mass. Cantors participation was critical, particularly because of his friendship with the recently elected President Franklin D. Roosevelt, after several years and the passage of the National Labor Relations Act, the producers agreed to negotiate with SAG in 1937. Robinson, Edwin Stanley, Gloria Stuart, Lyle Talbot, Franchot Tone, Warren William, Ten of those summoned, dubbed the Hollywood Ten, refused to cooperate and were charged with contempt of Congress and sentenced to prison. The president of SAG – future United States President Ronald Reagan – known to the FBI as Confidential Informant T-10, testified before the committee but never publicly named names. He felt that lacking a definite stand on the part of the government, subsequently, a climate of fear, enhanced by the threat of detention under the provisions of the McCarran Internal Security Act, permeated the film industry.
On November 17,1947, the Screen Actors Guild voted to force its officers to take a non-communist pledge, none of those blacklisted were proven to advocate overthrowing the government – most simply had Marxist or socialist views. The Waldorf Statement marked the beginning of the Hollywood blacklist that saw hundreds of people prevented from working in the film industry, there are no credits to restore, nor any other belated recognition that we can offer our members who were blacklisted. They could not work under assumed names or employ surrogates to front for them, an actors work and his or her identity are inseparable. The Screen Actors Guild Ethnic Minorities Committee was co-founded in 1972 by actors Henry Darrow, Edith Diaz, Ricardo Montalban, the Screen Actors Guild Womens Committee was founded in 1972. In 1998, Naomi Marquez filed suit against SAG and Lakeside Productions claiming they had breached their duty of fair representation, the claim was denied by the Supreme Court
Zyzzyx Road, called Zyzzyx Rd. is a 2006 American thriller film written and directed by John Penney. It stars Leo Grillo, Katherine Heigl, and Tom Sizemore, the film involves a philandering accountant who goes to Las Vegas on a business trip, where he encounters the seductive Marissa and her jealous ex-boyfriend. The former pair kill and bury the latter along the eponymous Zzyzx Road, Zyzzyx Road is not associated with the similarly-named Zzyzx. Leo Grillo as Grant, an accountant who begins an affair with Marissa, Katherine Heigl as Marissa, Grants lover and Joeys ex-girlfriend. John Penney gambled on Heigls rising success in Greys Anatomy to boost sales, thora Birch was initially offered the role, but she turned it down. Tom Sizemore as Joey, Marissas jealous ex-boyfriend, Grillo was drawn to his acting chops, and Sizemores past actually made him more convincing as a tough-guy villain. Several actors turned down the role before Sizemore was cast, including Jason Lee, yorlin Madera as Truck Driver Bob.
Principal photography took place in the summer of 2005 and lasted 18 days, the film was shot entirely on location in the Mojave Desert, in and around local mines. Sizemore and long-time friend Peter Walton, who worked as Sizemores assistant, were arrested during the production for repeatedly failing drug tests while on probation. Police discovered that Walton had a warrant out for his arrest for child pornography distribution and was subsequently jailed, Sizemore was not jailed, making it possible for him to film his scenes. Zyzzyx Road was shown once a day, at noon, for six days at Highland Park Village Theater in Dallas, Texas, a movie theater rented by the producers for $1,000. The strategy had the effect of making the film at the time the lowest-grossing film of all time. Unofficially, its opening weekend netted $20, the $10 difference is due to Grillo personally refunding two tickets purchased by Sheila Moore, the films makeup artist, who saw the film with a friend. The similarly-named Zzyzx has cited as the lowest-grossing film of all time, because of the similar titles.
The film was released on DVD in 23 countries, including Bulgaria, Indonesia, by the end of 2006, the film earned around $368,000. In the summer of 2012, six years after its original release, in September 2012, the film was released on DVD in North America. Official website Zyzzyx Road at the Internet Movie Database Zyzzyx Road at AllMovie Zyzzyx Road at Rotten Tomatoes
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. The service was created by three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—in February 2005, Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion, YouTube now operates as one of Googles subsidiaries. Unregistered users can watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos. Videos deemed potentially offensive are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old, YouTube earns advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, and Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Karim could not easily find video clips of either event online and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, and had been influenced by the website Hot or Not.
YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup, primarily from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital between November 2005 and April 2006, YouTubes early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California. The domain name www. youtube. com was activated on February 14,2005, the first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo. The video was uploaded on April 23,2005, and can still be viewed on the site, YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005. The first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005. Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site grew rapidly, and in July 2006 the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, and that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. The site has 800 million unique users a month and it is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000.
The choice of the name www. youtube. com led to problems for a similarly named website, the sites owner, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, filed a lawsuit against YouTube in November 2006 after being regularly overloaded by people looking for YouTube. Universal Tube has since changed the name of its website to www. utubeonline. com, in October 2006, Google Inc. announced that it had acquired YouTube for $1.65 billion in Google stock, and the deal was finalized on November 13,2006. In March 2010, YouTube began free streaming of certain content, according to YouTube, this was the first worldwide free online broadcast of a major sporting event. On March 31,2010, the YouTube website launched a new design, with the aim of simplifying the interface, Google product manager Shiva Rajaraman commented, We really felt like we needed to step back and remove the clutter. In May 2010, YouTube videos were watched more than two times per day. This increased to three billion in May 2011, and four billion in January 2012, in February 2017, one billion hours of YouTube was watched every day
Intolerance is a 1916 epic silent film directed by D. W. Griffith. Subtitles include Loves Struggle Throughout the Ages and A Sun-Play of the Ages, Bartholomews Day massacre of 1572, and a Babylonian story, the fall of the Babylonian Empire to Persia in 539 BC. Each story had its own distinctive color tint in the original print, the scenes are linked by shots of a figure representing Eternal Motherhood, rocking a cradle. It was not, as is implied, an apology for the racism of his earlier film. In numerous interviews, Griffith made clear that the films title, in the years following its release, Intolerance would strongly influence European film movements despite its lack of commercial success domestically. The film sets up moral and psychological connections among the different stories, the timeline covers approximately 2,500 years. The ancient Babylonian story depicts the conflict between Prince Belshazzar of Babylon and Cyrus the Great of Persia, the fall of Babylon is a result of intolerance arising from a conflict between devotees of two rival Babylonian gods—Bel-Marduk and Ishtar.
The Biblical Judean story recounts how—after the Wedding at Cana and the Woman Taken in Adultery—intolerance led to the Crucifixion of Jesus and this sequence is the shortest of the four. The Renaissance French story tells of the religious intolerance led to the St. Bartholomews Day Massacre of Protestant Huguenots fomented by Catholic royals. The American Modern story demonstrates how crime, moral puritanism, to get more money for his spinster sisters charities, a mill owner orders a 10% pay cut to his workers wages. An ensuing workers strike is crushed and The Boy and The Dear One make their way to another city, she lives in poverty, after they marry he tries to break free of crime but is framed for theft by his ex-boss. While he is in prison, his wife must endure their child being taken away by the same moral uplift society that instigated the strike, upon his release from prison, he discovers his ex-boss attempting to rape his wife. A struggle begins and in the confusion the girlfriend of the boss shoots and she escapes and The Boy is convicted and sentenced to the gallows.
A kindly policeman helps The Dear One find the killer and together they try to reach the Governor in time so her reformed husband will not be hanged. Breaks between the time periods are marked by the symbolic image of a mother rocking a cradle. The film simultaneously cross-cuts back and forth and interweaves the segments over great gaps of space and time, One of the unusual characteristics of the film is that many of the characters do not have names. Griffith wished them to be emblematic of human types, the central female character in the modern story is called The Dear One. Her young husband is called The Boy, and the leader of the local Mafia is called The Musketeer of the Slums
Thomas Edward Sizemore, Jr. is an American film and television actor and producer. Sizemore was born in Detroit and his mother, was a member of the city of Detroit ombudsman staff, and his father, Thomas Edward Sizemore, Sr. was a lawyer and philosophy professor. Sizemore has stated that his grandfather was of French and Native American ancestry. He has three brothers, Charlie and Paul, and a sister, Paul Sizemore is an actor. He attended Michigan State University for one year, as well as Wayne State University, Sizemore earned a masters degree in theatre from Temple University in 1986. He subsequently moved to New York City to pursue an acting career, one of Sizemores earliest film appearances was in Oliver Stones Born on the Fourth of July in 1989. Other early roles included Lock Up, Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man, Point Break, True Romance and Souls, Natural Born Killers, Sizemore starred in the independent drama film Love Is Like That with actress and model Pamela Gidley. He had a role in Kevin Costners Wyatt Earp as Bat Masterson.
A succession of well-received supporting parts followed by, perhaps the most well known being his portrayal of Michael Cheritto as a robber in the heist film Heat. Sizemores first major leading role was as Vincent DAgosta in The Relic, Sizemore had a recurring role on the television series China Beach as an enlisted man named Vinnie who was in love with Dana Delanys character. Sizemore continued to play leading and character parts in films, notably Devil in a Blue Dress, Saving Private Ryan, Bringing Out the Dead. In the early 2000s, Sizemore appeared in films such as Pearl Harbor, starring Ben Affleck. He had a role as Sonny Forelli in the video game Grand Theft Auto. In 2001, Sizemore starred in Ticker, a film directed by Albert Pyun, with Steven Seagal. In 2002, Sizemore starred in the well-reviewed but short-lived television drama series Robbery Homicide Division and it was cancelled midway through its first season. He played a cop in the film Swindle opposite Sherilyn Fenn. In 2004, he starred in Paparazzi, in 2006, he starred in The Genius Club, playing a terrorist who taunts seven geniuses into solving the worlds problems in one night.
That same year, he had a role in the action/thriller film Splinter with Edward James Olmos
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, the Scott Trust became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for The Guardian. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders, the Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, The Guardians print edition had a daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US, the newspapers online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers. Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers, notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowlers phone.
The investigation led to the closure of the UKs biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, in 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the British Prime Minister David Camerons links to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the paper is still occasionally referred to by its nickname of The Grauniad, given originally for the purported frequency of its typographical errors. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle and they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. They do not toil, neither do they spin, but they better than those that do. When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, the prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty.
Warmly advocate the cause of Reform, endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and. Support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, in 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828. The working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian the foul prostitute, the Manchester Guardian was generally hostile to labours claims. The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators –, if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. CP Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised and he was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylors son in 1907. Under Scott, the moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting William Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886
John William Oliver is an English comedian, producer, political commentator, media critic, and television host. He is the host of the HBO political talk-show Last Week Tonight with John Oliver and he is the recipient of five Primetime Emmy Awards and two Writers Guild Awards. Oliver became known in the United States for his work on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart and he has co-hosted the satirical comedy podcast The Bugle and hosted John Olivers New York Stand-Up Show on Comedy Central. Oliver has worked frequently with Andy Zaltzman with the work including satirical podcasts and radio broadcasts, as well as series such as Political Animal. John William Oliver was born on 23 April 1977 in Erdington, West Midlands, England to Jim Oliver and his wife and his father worked as both a school headmaster and social worker, his mother was a music teacher. Both of his parents are originally from Liverpool and his uncle was composer Stephen Oliver, and a paternal two-times great-grandfather was William Boyd Carpenter, Bishop of Ripon and court chaplain to Queen Victoria.
As a child, Oliver was educated in Bedford at the Mark Rutherford School, following secondary school, he studied at Christs College, a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. While a student there in the mid-to-late 1990s, Oliver was a member of the Cambridge Footlights, Olivers contemporaries in the troupe included David Mitchell and Richard Ayoade. In 1997, he became the vice president. In 1998, Oliver graduated from Christs College with a degree in English, Oliver first appeared at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 2001 as part of The Comedy Zone, a late-night showcase of newer acts, where he played the character of an oleaginous journalist. He performed his solo show in 2002 and returned in 2003. In 2004 and 2005, he collaborated with Andy Zaltzman on an act and co-hosting Political Animal. After moving to New York City for The Daily Show, Oliver began performing stand-up in small clubs around the city, Olivers first stand-up special, titled John Oliver, Terrifying Times, debuted on Comedy Central in 2008 and was released on DVD.
Since 2010, Oliver has hosted four seasons of John Olivers New York Stand-Up Show. According to Edward Helmore in The Guardian, His style leans toward the kind that Americans like best from the British – exaggerated, full of odd accents and mannerisms, Oliver has used his British culture as a primary subject of his jokes. Oliver describes his own accent as a mongrel of Brummie, prior to joining The Daily Show, Oliver was making appearances on British television as a panellist on the satirical news quiz Mock the Week. He was a frequent guest on the first two series in 2005 and 2006, appearing in 7 out of 11 episodes, Oliver joined The Daily Show with Jon Stewart as its Senior British Correspondent in July 2006. He says he was interviewed for the show on the recommendation of comedian Ricky Gervais and it was his first time in the United States
Dallas is a major city in the U. S. state of Texas. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the citys population ranks ninth in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. The citys prominence arose from its importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries. The bulk of the city is in Dallas County, of which it is the county seat, sections of the city are located in Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. According to the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 1,197,816, the United States Census Bureaus estimate for the citys population increased to 1,300,092 as of July 1,2015. In 2016 DFW ascended to the one spot in the nation in year-over-year population growth. In 2014, the metropolitan economy surpassed Washington, D. C. to become the fifth largest in the U. S. with a 2014 real GDP over $504 billion, as such, the metropolitan areas economy is the 10th largest in the world. As of January 2017, the job count has increased to 3,558,200 jobs.
The citys economy is based on banking, telecommunications, energy and medical research. The city is home to the third-largest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the nation. Located in North Texas, Dallas is the core of the largest metropolitan area in the South. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton, cattle. Later, France claimed the area but never established much settlement, the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, and the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, the Republic of Texas, with majority Anglo-American settlers, in 1839, Warren Angus Ferris surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. John Neely Bryan established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841, the origin of the name is uncertain. The Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845, Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1856.
With construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South and the Midwest. The Praetorian Building of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and it marked the prominence of Dallas as a city
Heaven's Gate (film)
Heavens Gate is a 1980 American epic Western film written and directed by Michael Cimino. Loosely based on the Johnson County War, it portrays a fictional dispute between land barons and European immigrants in Wyoming in the 1890s. It is generally considered one of the biggest box office bombs of all time, Cimino had an expensive and ambitious vision for the film, pushing it nearly four times over its planned budget. In the decades since the release however, general assessment of Heavens Gate has become more positive, the reception of the 1980 re-edit after poor test screenings has been characterized as one of the greatest injustices of cinematic history. The BBC ranked Heavens Gate 98th on their 100 greatest American films of all-time list, in 1870, two young men, Jim Averill and Billy Irvine, graduate from Harvard College. The Reverend Doctor speaks to the graduates on the association of the mind with the uncultivated. Irvine, brilliant but obviously intoxicated, follows this with his opposing, a celebration is held after which the male students serenade the women present, including Averills girlfriend.
Twenty years later, Averill is passing through the town of Casper, Wyoming. Nate Champion – a friend of Averill and an enforcer for the stockmen – kills a settler for suspected rustling and dissuades another from stealing a cow. At a formal meeting, the head of the Association, Frank Canton, tells members, including a drunk Irvine, of plans to kill 125 named settlers, as thieves. Irvine leaves the meeting, encounters Averill, and tells him of the Associations plans, as Averill leaves, he exchanges bitter words with Canton. Canton slaps Averill across the face, which is immediately retaliated and that night, Canton recruits men to kill the named settlers. Ella Watson, a Johnson County bordello madam from Quebec who accepts stolen cattle as payment for use of her prostitutes, is infatuated with both Averill and Champion. Averill and Watson skate in a crowd, alone, in an enormous roller skating rink called Heavens Gate. Averill gets a copy of the Associations death list from a baseball-playing U. S.
Army captain and reads the names aloud to the settlers, who are thrown into terrified turmoil. Cully, a master and friend of Averills, sees the train with Cantons posse heading north. Later, a group of men come to Watsons bordello and rape her, all but one are shot and killed by Averill. Champion, realizing that his landowner bosses seek to eliminate Watson, goes to Cantons camp and shoots the remaining rapist and his men encounter one of Champions friends leaving a cabin with Champion and his friend Nick inside, and a gunfight ensues