A boxcab, in railroad terminology, is a locomotive in which the machinery and crew areas are enclosed in a box-like superstructure. It is a term used in North America while in Victoria, such locomotives have been nicknamed "butterboxes". Boxcabs may use any source of power but most are diesel or electric locomotives. Few steam locomotives are so described but the British SR Leader class was a possible exception. Most American boxcabs date from before World War II, when the earliest boxcabs were termed "oil-electrics" to avoid the use of the German name "Diesel" due to propaganda purposes. Boxcabs do not have styled ends, or a superstructure consisting of multiple boxy structures, although the prototype diesel/oil-electric, GE #8835, had one prominently-rounded nose and the second and following 100-ton ALCO boxcabs had semi-cylindrical ends; the construction of double-ended boxcab diesel locomotives was common in Australia from 1969 until the 1980s. These were GM-EMD derivatives built by Clyde Engineering with a smaller number of Alco derivatives built by A. E. Goodwin/Commonwealth Engineering and GE derivatives by A. Goninan & Co/UGL Rail.
Most British diesel and electric locomotives are boxcabs but the term "boxcab" is not used in Britain. Instead, locomotives are referred to by their TOPS class numbers, e.g. British Rail Class 47 and British Rail Class 92. British diesel and electric locomotives are nearly always double-ended. Other double cab designs, where the cab is wider than a narrow engine compartment, include the British Rail Class 58 and British Rail Class 70, however these do not classify as boxcabs. In post-Soviet Eastern Europe and electric locomotives with a boxcab configuration are common. Notable examples are the diesel TE10 and 2TE25A, the electric VL23. In Sweden, the electric SJ Rb and Rc locomotives have a near-perfect box shape which would inspire derivatives such as the American EMD AEM-7. In historic East and West Germany, the first electric locomotives such as the DRG Class E 77 and the E 91 has this configuration, although there are more recent locomotives such as the DB Class 151 and 155 which have the same shape.
Several locomotives of this configuration can be found in Asia. In China, there are many diesel locomotives that use this classification such as the first generation DF8, ND2 and the NJ2. In Japan, most of its earlier electric locomotives have this body type such as the JNR Classes EF60 to EF65. In Thailand every diesel locomotive classifies as a "boxcab", with the exception of the Hitachi 8FA-36C. An example of this configuration used by the State Railway of Thailand would be the Alsthom AD42C. In the Philippines, around 6 Alsthom 1500-type BBB diesel-electric locomotives served between 1966 and 1987. Pakistan Railways ran boxcab electric locomotives until 2011 with the BCU30. In South Africa, while diesel locomotives follow the hood unit style since their inception, electric locomotives has followed this configuration since 1947 with the introduction of the South African Class 3E; the first electrics had a steeplecab shape while locomotives had a pentagonal shape. The electrics feature a door in front of the locomotive with the exception of the 12E, similar to the Japanese JNR-era ones.
Older locos have their doors at the center while newer ones starting with 14E feature a door at the left-hand side of the train. ALCO boxcab Box motor GE boxcab GE three-power boxcab GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab
Said Durrah is an American stand-up comedian of Arab descent. Durrah is of Palestinian descent, his father, Hisham Durrah, is from Amman and mother, Hiyam Durrah, is from Gaza, Palestine. He was born in Detroit, United States and he grew up in Mayo, United States, he attended South River Senior and studied General Business Administration at University of Maryland University College. Durrah worked in corporate marketing, travel agents and banking, before he focused on comedy in 2009. In October 2009, Durrah first hit the stage at Big Brown Comedy Hour in New York, he got his start in Manhattan, New York, at Comic Strip Live. He performed at the Town Hall Theatre on Broadway within his first year in comedy. Durrah has performed stand up comedy in a number of venues all over the United States. In October and November 2010, he toured with other Muslim comedians on the "Arabs Gone Wild" tour. In 2011 and 2012, Durrah performed at the New York Arab American Comedy Festival at Gotham Comedy Club. From February 2013, Durrah will be touring with his show "Arab Is Me".
Durrah produces comedy shows. Durrah's comedy career is influenced by their Arab roots, his comedy has been described as an experience of off the wall energy in which he uses different voices, storytelling and crazy facial expressions. Islamic humour Jordanian American Palestinian American List of Palestinian Americans Official website Al-Din, Seif. Qs with Comedian Said Durrah. April 19, 2010 Durrah, Said. Broadway Theatre Review – Arab Edition. KABOBfest. October 4, 2010 Martinez, Michael. Arab-Americans watch Israel-Gaza conflict. CNN. 2012 Dodge, Carl. Said Durrah steps into the Recovery Room Podcast!. Blog Talk Radio. April 11, 2012
Vera Fretter was a British conchologist, one of the authors of British Prosobranch Molluscs. Fretter was brought up in Plumstead, London, UK, she trained as a teacher at Furzedown Training College, taught at a primary school in south-east London. While teaching she studied in the evenings at Birkbeck, University of London, obtaining a first class B. Sc. in zoology. She took up full-time studies and gained her doctorate in 1936, she worked at the University of Reading from 1954 to her retirement in 1970. Fretter specialised in the study of prosobranch molluscs, she was awarded the 1986 Frink Medal from the Zoological Society of London: "for her contributions to the understanding of the developmental biology, physiological ecology and functional morphology of the prosobranch molluscs". British Prosobranch Molluscs was published in 1962 by The Ray Society, republished in a revised and updated edition in 1994. Fretter was President of the Malacological Society of London for three years from 1966-9, she joined the Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland in 1966, remained active in research at the University of Reading until her death.
In her will, Fretter left £200,000 to the Royal Society for use in marine biological research. In 2001, Vera Fretter and Ruth Turner were honoured by the symposium'New Frontiers in Functional Morphology of Molluscs', held at the second World Congress of Malacology in Vienna, Austria, in August of that year. Fretter, biography He sells sea-shells, includes an illustration of the intestine of Cryptochiton stelleri by Fretter