Boxers and Saints
Boxers and Saints are two companion graphic novel volumes written and illustrated by Gene Luen Yang, colored by Lark Pien. The publisher First Second Books released them on September 10, 2013. Together the two volumes have around 500 pages. Boxers follows the story of Little Bao, a boy from Shandong who becomes a leader of the Boxer Rebellion. Saints follows the story of "Four-Girl", a girl from the same village who becomes a Catholic, adopts the name "Vibiana", hopes to attain the glory of Joan of Arc. One book cover shows the left half of Bao's face with Qin Shi Huangdi and the other shows the right half of Vibiana's face with Joan of Arc. Together the covers portray a divided China. Yang said that he wanted to do two volumes because he was not sure which side in the conflict were "good" or "bad" and he noticed connections between contemporary terrorists and the Boxers. Yang said "So in a lot of ways, I was trying to write the story of a young man, a terrorist, I wanted him to be sympathetic, but I didn't want the book to feel like I was condoning terrorism.
So it was kind of a fine line." He explained that he needed two different characters so the reader can "see everything through". Yang took six years to make the books; the first one or two years went into research. He visited a library on a university campus to compile notes, he visited the library once weekly for a period of one year. Much of the research came from The Origins of the Boxer Uprising by Joseph Esherick, he visited an archive in Vanves, France made by the Jesuits. So he himself and his readers could stomach the violence, Yang deliberately used a cartoonish and simple manner of illustration; the books were different lengths due to the differing natures of the respective stories. Yang stated that he encountered more difficulty writing Saints, in which the Christians stay in the same place and defend themselves, compared to Boxers, in which the characters go on an adventure; the reason was that he wanted to find a visually interesting way to present the converts' internal struggles. Yang made the volumes separate.
He scripted and drew the two volumes separately, scripting Boxers first simultaneously scripting Saints while drawing Boxers, drawing Saints. He worked on an unrelated superhero comic in-between drawing the two volumes to deal with his emotions. Yang decided that a reader needed to be able to enjoy each individual book as a story of its own and not only together, so he gave the beginning-middle-end narrative structure to each. Yang described Boxers and Saints "definitely historical fiction". In Boxers Yang began including more history; the author said that his process in making the story was creating Bao, taking "just the bits and pieces that we do know about the beginnings of the Boxer Rebellion and weave it into his fictional life story." In Saints Yang modeled the style off of American autobiographical comics, the color scheme of Saints is far more limited than that of Boxers. Since many older American comic books used gibberish writing to portray foreign languages and since Yang wished to use the point of view of the Chinese, he decided that doing this for characters speaking non-Chinese languages would show how the Chinese considered them to be foreign.
The font used for the books' captions was derived from the handwriting style of Yang's wife. Wesley Yang of The New York Times wrote that "Despite the ostensibly evenhanded way Yang presents opposed perspectives, it’s clear he views the Boxer Rebellion as a series of massacres conducted by xenophobes who wound up harming the culture they had pledged to protect."Dan Solomon of The Austin Chronicle wrote that the books are "very personal and character-driven, which isn't what you might anticipate when you have 500 pages in front of you about the Boxer Rebellion."Sheng-mei Ma, author of Sinophone-Anglophone Cultural Duet, stated that Saints is overall a more comedic work than Boxers and that the scenes of Vibiana being bored of Christian history shows "self-depreciating humor" from the Roman Catholic author. Lee Bao or "Little Bao" - Becomes the leader of the boxer rebellion. Bao grows up in Shandong and starts a rebellion after his fellow villagers are killed by imperial authorities acting under the direction of foreign powers.
As Bao continues his quest, he begins committing more gruesome killings. His given name means "treasure". Jee Yoon Lee of Hyphen Magazine wrote that "As the story draws to an end, Yang shows Bao as a morally complicated hero whose decisions expose the inevitable tragedy of civil warfare."Yang wrote that he wanted to make his actions understandable but he did not want to justify them. Yang stated "The Boxers have a lot in common with many of today's extremist movements in the Middle East. Little Bao would be labeled a terrorist if he were real and alive today." Yang stated that he did not want to have the comic approve of terrorism, but he wanted Bao to be a sympathetic character. Sheng-mei Ma stated that since Bao shows excitement over Chinese culture, Bao serves as the "alter ego" of the U. S.-born Yang, who would find Chinese history to be exotic from his point of view. Four-Girl/Vibiana - Chinese girl who converts to Catholicism, she was named "Four-Girl" due to her birth order. The character for four sounds similar to that of "death" in Chinese, so her name has a negative connotation.
Many people around her call her "devil". She stumbles onto a group of Catholics, thinking it is "devi
Chinese martial arts
Chinese martial arts named under the umbrella terms kung fu and wushu, are the several hundred fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are classified according to common traits, identified as "families", "sects" or "schools" of martial arts. Examples of such traits include Shaolinquan physical exercises involving Five Animals mimicry, or training methods inspired by Old Chinese philosophies and legends. Styles that focus on qi manipulation are called internal, while others that concentrate on improving muscle and cardiovascular fitness are called "external". Geographical association, as in northern and "southern", is another popular classification method. Kung fu and wushu are loanwords from Cantonese and Mandarin that, in English, are used to refer to Chinese martial arts. However, the Chinese terms kung fu and wushu have distinct meanings; the Chinese equivalent of the term "Chinese martial arts" would be Zhongguo wushu. In Chinese, the term kung fu refers to any skill, acquired through learning or practice.
It is a compound word composed of the words 功 meaning "work", "achievement", or "merit", 夫, a particle or nominal suffix with diverse meanings. Wǔshù means "martial art", it is formed from the two words 武術: 武, meaning "martial" or "military" and 術 or 术, which translates into "art", "discipline", "skill" or "method". The term wushu has become the name for the modern sport of wushu, an exhibition and full-contact sport of bare-handed and weapons forms and judged to a set of aesthetic criteria for points developed since 1949 in the People's Republic of China. Quanfa is another Chinese term for Chinese martial arts, it means "fist method" or "the law of the fist", although as a compound term it translates as "boxing" or "fighting technique." The name of the Japanese martial art kempō is represented by the same hanzi characters. The genesis of Chinese martial arts has been attributed to the need for self-defense, hunting techniques and military training in ancient China. Hand-to-hand combat and weapons practice were important in training ancient Chinese soldiers.
Detailed knowledge about the state and development of Chinese martial arts became available from the Nanjing decade, as the Central Guoshu Institute established by the Kuomintang regime made an effort to compile an encyclopedic survey of martial arts schools. Since the 1950s, the People's Republic of China has organized Chinese martial arts as an exhibition and full-contact sport under the heading of “wushu”. According to legend, Chinese martial arts originated during the semi-mythical Xia Dynasty more than 4,000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who, before becoming China’s leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and the martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling; the earliest references to Chinese martial arts are found in the Spring and Autumn Annals, where a hand-to-hand combat theory, one that integrates notions of "hard" and "soft" techniques, is mentioned.
A combat wrestling system called jiǎolì is mentioned in the Classic of Rites. This combat system included techniques such as strikes, joint manipulation, pressure point attacks. Jiao Di became a sport during the Qin Dynasty; the Han History Bibliographies record that, by the Former Han, there was a distinction between no-holds-barred weaponless fighting, which it calls shǒubó, for which training manuals had been written, sportive wrestling known as juélì. Wrestling is documented in the Shǐ Jì, Records of the Grand Historian, written by Sima Qian. In the Tang Dynasty, descriptions of sword dances were immortalized in poems by Li Bai. In the Song and Yuan dynasties, xiangpu contests were sponsored by the imperial courts; the modern concepts of wushu were developed by the Ming and Qing dynasties. The ideas associated with Chinese martial arts changed with the evolution of Chinese society and over time acquired some philosophical bases: Passages in the Zhuangzi, a Daoist text, pertain to the psychology and practice of martial arts.
Zhuangzi, its eponymous author, is believed to have lived in the 4th century BCE. The Dao De Jing credited to Lao Zi, is another Taoist text that contains principles applicable to martial arts. According to one of the classic texts of Confucianism, Zhou Li, Archery and charioteering were part of the "six arts" of the Zhou Dynasty; the Art of War, written during the 6th century BCE by Sun Tzu, deals directly with military warfare but contains ideas that are used in the Chinese martial arts. Daoist practitioners have been practicing Tao Yin from as early as 500 BCE. In 39–92 CE, "Six Chapters of Hand Fighting", were included in the Han Shu written by Pan Ku; the noted physician, Hua Tuo, composed the "Five Animals Pl
The Caucasian race is a grouping of human beings regarded as a biological taxon, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa. First introduced in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History, the term denoted one of three purported major races of humankind. In biological anthropology, Caucasoid has been used as an umbrella term for phenotypically similar groups from these different regions, with a focus on skeletal anatomy, cranial morphology, over skin tone. Ancient and modern "Caucasoid" populations were thus held to have ranged in complexion from white to dark brown. Since the second half of the 20th century, physical anthropologists have moved away from a typological understanding of human biological diversity towards a genomic and population-based perspective, have tended to understand race as a social classification of humans based on phenotype and ancestry as well as cultural factors, as the concept is understood in the social sciences.
Although Caucasian / Caucasoid and their counterparts Negroid and Mongoloid have been used less as a biological classification in forensic anthropology, the terms remain in use by some anthropologists. In the United States, the root term Caucasian has often been used in a different, societal context as a synonym for white or of European, Middle Eastern, or North African ancestry, its usage in American English has been criticized. The traditional anthropological term Caucasoid is a conflation of the demonym Caucasian and the Greek suffix eidos, implying a resemblance to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus. In its usage as a racial category, it contrasts with the terms Negroid and Australoid; the term Caucasian referred in a narrow sense to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus region. In his The Outline of History of Mankind, the German philosopher Christoph Meiners first used the concept of a "Caucasian" race in its wider racial sense. Meiners acknowledged two races: the Caucasian or beautiful, the Mongolian or ugly.
His Caucasian race encompassed all of the ancient and most of the modern native populations of Europe, the aboriginal inhabitants of West Asia, the autochthones of Northern Africa, the Indians, the ancient Guanches. In his earlier racial typology, Meiners put forth that Caucasians had the "whitest, most blooming and most delicate skin". In a series of articles, Meiners boasts about the superiority of Germans among Europeans, describes non-German Europeans' color as "dirty whites", in an unfavorable comparison with Germans; such views were typical of early proto-scientific attempts at racial classification, where skin pigmentation was regarded as the main difference between races. This view was shared by the French naturalist Julien-Joseph Virey, who believed that the Caucasians were only the palest-skinned Europeans, it was Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, a German professor of medicine and a member of the British Royal Society, who came to be considered one of the founders of the discipline of anthropology, who gave the term a wider audience, by grounding it in the new methods of craniometry and Linnean taxonomy.
Blumenbach did not credit Meiners with his taxonomy, although his justification points to Meiners' aesthetic viewpoint of Caucasus origins: Caucasian variety – I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian. Blumenbach would assert that of the various Caucasian varieties, the Northern European type represented the perfect form. In contrast to Meiners, Blumenbach was a monogenist – he considered all humans to have a shared origin and to be a single species. Blumenbach, like Meiners, did rank his Caucasian grouping higher than other groups in terms of mental faculties or potential for achievement. In various editions of On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach expanded on Meiners' popular idea and defined five human races based on color, using popular racial terms of his day, justified with scientific terminology, cranial measurements, facial features, he established Caucasian as the "white race", Mongoloid as the "yellow race", Malayan as the "brown race", Ethiopian as the "black race", American as the "red race".
In the 3rd edition of his On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach moved skin tone to second-tier importance after noticing that poorer European people whom he observed worked outside became darker skinned through sun exposure. He noticed that darker skin of an "olive-tinge" was a natural feature of some European populations closer to the Mediterranean Sea. Alongside the anthropologist Georges Cuvier, Blumenbach classified the Caucasian race by cranial measurements and bone morphology in addition to skin pigmentation, thus considered more than just the palest Europeans as archetypes for the Caucasian race. Following Meiners, Blumenbach described the Caucasian race as con
The Eight-Nation Alliance was a multi-national military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China. The eight nations were Japan, Britain, the United States, Germany and Austria-Hungary. In the summer of 1900, when the international legations in Beijing were besieged by Boxer rebels supported by the Qing government, the coalition dispatched their armed forces, in the name of humanitarian intervention, to defend their respective nations' citizens, as well as a number of Chinese Christians who had taken shelter in the legations; the incident ended with the signing of the Boxer Protocol. The Boxers, a peasant movement, had attacked and killed foreign missionaries and Chinese Christians across northern China in 1899 and 1900; the Qing government and Imperial Army supported the Boxers and under the Manchu general Ronglu, besieged foreign diplomats and civilians taking refuge in the Legation Quarter in Peking. After failing in its initial attempt to relieve the Legation Quarter, in August 1900 the Allied force marched to Peking from Tianjin, defeated the Qing Imperial Army's Wuwei Corps in several engagements, brought an end to the Boxer Rebellion and the siege.
The members of the Alliance occupied Peking and proceeded to loot and pillage the capital. The forces consisted of 45,000 troops, from various countries. At the end of the campaign, the Qing Imperial government signed the Boxer Protocol of 1901; the diplomatic compound in Peking was under siege by the Wuwei Rear Division of the Chinese army and some Boxers, for 55 days, from 20 June to 14 August 1900. A total of 473 foreign civilians, 409 soldiers from eight countries, about 3,000 Chinese Christians took refuge in the Legation Quarter. Under the command of the British minister to China, Claude Maxwell MacDonald, the legation staff and security personnel defended the compound with small arms and one old muzzle-loaded cannon discovered and unearthed by Chinese Christians who turned it over to the Allies. Under siege in Peking was the North Cathedral, the Beitang of the Catholic Church; the Beitang was defended by 43 French and Italian soldiers, 33 foreign Catholic priests and nuns and about 3,200 Chinese Catholics.
The defenders suffered heavy casualties from lack of food and Chinese mines that exploded in tunnels dug beneath the compound. Austria-Hungary had a single cruiser SMS Zenta on station at the beginning of the rebellion, based at the Russian concession of Port Arthur. Detachments of sailors from the Zenta were the only Austro-Hungarian forces to see action; some were involved in defending the legations under siege while another detachment was involved in the rescue attempts. In June, the Austro-Hungarians helped hold the Tianjin railway against Boxer forces and fired upon several armed junks on the Hai River near Tong-Tcheou in Peking, they took part in the seizure of the Taku Forts commanding the approaches to Tianjin, the boarding and capture of four Chinese destroyers by Capt. Roger Keyes of HMS Fame; the Austro-Hungarian Navy sent the cruisers SMS Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia, SMS Kaiserin Elisabeth, SMS Aspern and a company of marines to China. Arriving in September, they were too late as most of the fighting had ended and the legations relieved.
The cruisers together with the Zenta were involved in capture of several Chinese forts. The Austro-Hungarians suffered minimal casualties during the rebellion. After the Boxer uprising, a cruiser was maintained permanently on the Chinese coast and a detachment of marines was deployed at the Austro-Hungarian embassy in Peking. Lieutenant Georg Ludwig von Trapp, made famous in the 1959 musical The Sound of Music, was decorated for bravery aboard SMS Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia during the rebellion. At the outset of the Boxer Rebellion, Britain was engaged in the Boer conflict in South Africa. With the army tied down by the war, the British had to rely on the China Squadron and troops from India; the Royal Navy's China Squadron, stationed off Tientsin, consisted of the battleships Barfleur and Centurion. British forces were the third-largest contingent in the international alliance, consisted of the following units: Naval Brigade, 12th Battery Royal Field Artillery, Hong Kong & Singapore Artillery, 2nd Battalion Royal Welsh Fusiliers, 1st Bengal Lancers, 7th Rajput Infantry, 24th Punjab Infantry, 1st Sikh Infantry, Hong Kong Regiment, 1st Chinese Regiment, Royal Engineers, other support personnel.
The Australian colonies did not become a unified federation until 1901. As such several of the colonies, independently of each other, sent contingents of naval and army personnel to support the British contingent. For example, South Australia sent its entire navy: the gunboat HMCS Protector. Australia, was not an official member of the eight-nation alliance and its forces arrived too late to see significant action. Britain provided 10,000 troops, of which a large part were Indian troops, made out of units of Baluchis, Gurkhas and Punjabis. Germany had gained a presence in China after the Juye Incident in which two German missionaries were murdered in November 1897; the concession in Kiaochow, with the port of Tsingtao, was used as a naval base for the East Asia Squadron and a trading port. It was garrisoned by the Imperial German Navy. At the outbreak of the Boxer Rebellion in June 1900, the garrison of the German concession comprised the III. Seebataillon with 1,126 men, a marine/naval artillery battery, a
Ethnic groups in Europe
The indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe. According to German monograph Minderheitenrechte in Europa co-edited by Pan and Pfeil there are 87 distinct peoples of Europe, of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities; the total number of national or linguistic minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans. There are no universally accepted and precise definitions of the terms "ethnic group" and "nationality". In the context of European ethnography in particular, the terms ethnic group, people and ethno-linguistic group, are used as synonymous, although preference may vary in usage with respect to the situation specific to the individual countries of Europe. There are eight European ethno-linguistic groups with more than 30 million members residing in Europe.
These eight groups between themselves account for some 465 million or about 65% of European population: Russians, French, Italians, Spaniards, Poles. Smaller ethno-linguistic groups with more than 10 million people residing in Europe include: Romanians, Turks, Swedes, Czechs, Serbs. About 20–25 million residents are members of diasporas of non-European origin; the population of the European Union, with some five hundred million residents, accounts for two thirds of the European population. Both Spain and the United Kingdom are special cases, in that the designation of nationality and British, may controversially take ethnic aspects, subsuming various regional ethnic groups, see nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain and native populations of the United Kingdom. Switzerland is a similar case, but the linguistic subgroups of the Swiss are discussed in terms of both ethnicity and language affiliations. Of the total population of Europe of some 740 million, close to 90% fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, these being.
Romance, including. Germanic, including. Afrikaans, a daughter language of Dutch, is spoken by some South African and Namibian migrant populations. Three stand-alone Indo-European languages do not fall within larger sub-groups and are not related to those larger language families. Besides the Indo-European languages, there are other language families on the European continent which are wholly unrelated to Indo-European: Uralic languages, including. Turkic languages, including. Semitic languages, including. Kartvelian languages, including Georgian, Zan and Laz. Northwest Caucasian languages. Northeast Caucasian languages. Language isolates. Mongolic languages exist in the form of Kalmyk spoken in the Caucasus region of Russia; the Basques have been found to descend from the population of the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age directly. The Indo-European groups of Europe are assumed to have developed in situ by admixture of Bronze Age, proto-Indo-European groups with earlier Mesolithic and Neolithic populations, after migrating to most of Europe from the Pontic steppe.
The Finnic peoples are assumed to be descended from Proto-Uralic populations further to the east, nearer to the Ural Mountains, that had migrated to their historical homelands in Europe by about 3,000 years ago. Reconstructed languages of Iron Age Europe include Proto-Celtic, Proto-Italic and Proto-Germanic, all of these Indo-European languages of the centum group, Proto-Slavic and Proto-Baltic, of the satem group. A group of Tyrrhenian languages appears to have included Etruscan, Rhaetian and Camunic. A pre-Roman stage of Proto-Basqu
Gene Luen Yang
Gene Luen Yang is an Asian-American cartoonist. He is a frequent lecturer on the subjects of graphic novels and comics, at comic book conventions and universities and libraries. In addition, he was the Director of Information Services and taught computer science at Bishop O'Dowd High School in Oakland, California. In 2012, Yang joined the faculty at Hamline University, as a part of the Low-Residency Master of Fine Arts in Writing for Children and Young Adults program. In 2016, the U. S. Library of Congress named him Ambassador for Young People's Literature; that year he became the third graphic novelist, alongside Lauren Redniss, to receive the MacArthur Fellowship. Yang believes he was born in Fremont, California, he is the child of an electrical engineer from Taiwan and a programmer who grew up in Hong Kong and Taiwan, both of whom emigrated to the United States. They met at the San Jose State University Library during graduate school, his parents instilled in him a strong work ethic and reinforced their Asian culture.
In a speech at Penn State, where he spoke as a part of a Graphic Novel Speaker Series, Yang recalled that both of his parents always told him stories during his childhood. Yang was a part of a small Asian-American minority in his elementary school, he grew up wanting to be an animator for Disney. In third grade, he did a biographical report on Walt Disney, where he says his obsession started; this changed in fifth grade when his mother took him to their local bookstore where she bought him his first comic book, issue 57 of the Superman series DC Comics Presents, a book she agreed to buy because Yang's first choice, Marvel Two-in-One issue 99, featured the characters Thing and Rom on the cover, which she thought looked too frightening. Yang attended the University of Berkeley for his undergraduate degree, he wanted to major in art but his father encouraged him to pursue a more "practical" field so Yang majored in computer science with a minor in creative writing. In college Yang found himself much less of a minority.
During this time, he began to question his faith, but a moment he experienced while walking through the woods during his freshman year caused him to make Jesus his life's focus. After graduating in 1995, Yang worked as a computer engineer for two years. However, after a five-day silent retreat, he felt he was meant to teach, left his job as an engineer to teach computer science at a high school. In 1996, Yang began self-publishing his own comics under the imprint Humble Comics. Yang went on to be published with First Second Books, Marvel Comics, SLG Publishing, Dark Horse Comics, Harper teen, The New Press, Pauline Books & Media. In 1997, Yang first published comic Gordon Yamamoto and the King of the Geeks under his Humble Comics imprint, it won him the Xeric Grant, a self-publishing grant for comic book creators. Yang published two more installments in the Gordon Yamamoto mini-series and a sequel, Loyola Chin and the San Peligran Order. In 2010, both Gordon Yamamoto and the King of the Geeks series and Loyola Chin and the San Pelgrino Order were published together as Animal Crackers by Slave Labor Graphics.
In 2006, Yang published American Born Chinese with First Second Publishing, winning the annual Michael L. Printz Award from the American Library Association, which recognizes the year's "best book written for teens, based on its literary merit", it was the first graphic novel to be a finalist for the National Book Award, Young People's Literature, won an Eisner Award for best new graphic album. American Born Chinese has been on the Booklist top Ten Graphic Novel for Youth. Yang's other works have been recognized as well. In 2009, Yang was awarded another Eisner Award for best short story for his collaborative work The Eternal Smile which he wrote and Derek Kirk Kim illustrated. Yang was nominated for his collaborative work Level Up. Yang writes the Avatar: The Last Airbender comics series for Dark Horse Comics, the first volume of, released in January 2012. Yang's graphic novel, Boxers & Saints, published by First Second Books in September 2013. In July 2016, DC Comics released the first issue of New Super-man, featuring a separate Chinese character in the Superman mold, written by Yang.
Yang advocates the graphic novels as educational tools in the classroom. In his final project for his master's degree at California State University, East Bay, he emphasized the educational strength of comics, claiming they are motivating, permanent and popular; as a part of his Master's project, Yang created an online comic called Factoring with Mr. Yang & Mosley the Alien as a method of teaching math; this idea came from a time. Due to the position of Director of Information Services he held at the school, he was forced to miss classes and used the comics to help the students learn the concepts in his absence. Positive student feedback inspired him to use the idea for his Master's project. American Born Chinese was released by First Second Books in 2006; the first story line is Yang's contemporary rendition of the Chinese story of a Kung Fu practicing Monkey King of Flower-Fruit Mountain, The Monkey King, his journey to the west. Yang, replaces the Buddha, from
Tianjin romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the nine national central cities of the People's Republic of China, with a total population of 15,621,200 as of 2016 estimation. Its built-up area, made up of 12 central districts, was home to 12,491,300 inhabitants in 2016 and is the world's 29th-largest agglomeration and 11th-most populous city proper, it is governed as one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of central government of the PRC and is thus under direct administration of the central government. Tianjin borders Hebei Province and Beijing Municipality, bounded to the east by the Bohai Gulf portion of the Yellow Sea. Part of the Bohai Economic Rim, it is the largest coastal city in northern China. In terms of urban population, Tianjin is the fourth largest in China, after Shanghai and Guangzhou. In terms of administrative area population, Tianjin ranks fifth in Mainland China; the walled city of Tianjin was built in 1404. As a treaty port since 1860, Tianjin has been a major gateway to Beijing.
During the Boxer Rebellion the city was the seat of the Tianjin Provisional Government. Under the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China, Tianjin became one of the largest cities in the region. At that time, numerous European-style buildings and mansions were constructed in concessions, many of which are well-preserved today. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, Tianjin suffered a depression due to the policy of the central government and Tangshan earthquake, but recovered from 1990s. Nowadays Tianjin is a dual-core city, with its main urban area located along the Hai River, which connects to the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers via the Grand Canal; as of the end of 2010, around 285 Fortune 500 companies have set up base in Binhai. Since 2010, Tianjin's Yujiapu Financial District has become known as China's Manhattan. Tianjin is the pinyin romanization of the Chinese characters 天津, which mean "Heavenly Ford" or "Ford of Heaven"; the origin of the name is obscure. One folk etymology is that it was an homage to the patriotic Chu poet Qu Yuan, whose "Li Sao" includes the verse "...departing from the Ford of Heaven at dawn...".
Another is that it honors a former name of the Girl, a Chinese constellation recorded under the name Tianjin in the Astronomical Record section of the Book of Sui. A third is; the most common are that it was bestowed by the Yongle Emperor of the Ming, who crossed Tianjin's Gu River on his way south to overthrow his nephew the Jianwen Emperor. The land where Tianjin is located today was created in ancient times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Gulf, including the Yellow River, which entered the open sea in this area at one point; the opening of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. During the Qing dynasty Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture or Zhou in 1725 with Tianjin County established under the prefecture in 1731, it was upgraded to an urban prefecture or Fu before becoming a relay station under the command of the Viceroy of Zhili. In 1856, Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, of being engaged in the opium trade.
They imprisoned them. In response, the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. At the end of the first part of the Second Opium War in June of the same year, the British and French prevailed, the Treaty of Tientsin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade; the treaties were ratified by the Xianfeng Emperor in 1860, Tianjin was formally opened to Great Britain and France, thus to the outside world. Between 1895 and 1900, Britain and France were joined by Japan and Russia, by countries without Chinese concessions such as Austria-Hungary and Belgium, in establishing self-contained concessions in Tianjin, each with its own prisons, schools and hospitals; these nations left many architectural reminders of their rule, notably churches and thousands of villas. The presence of foreign influence in Tianjin was not always peaceful. In June 1870, the orphanage held by the Wanghailou Church, in Tianjin, built by French Roman Catholic missionaries, was accused of the kidnapping and brainwashing of Chinese children.
On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. The furious protestors burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate and killed eighteen foreigners including ten French nuns, the French consul, merchants. France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, forced to pay compensation for the incident. In 1885 Li Hongzhang founded the Tianjin Military Academy for Chinese army officers, with German advisers, as part of his military reforms; the move was supported by Anhui Army commander Zhou Shengchuan. The academy was to serve Anhui Green Standard Army officers. Various practical military and science subjects were taught at the academy; the instructors were Germa