The swing is a type of hook, with the main difference being that in the swing the arm is more extended. Because swing has both the frontal & lateral vectors, swing can hit either side by choice. For example, some people get hung up on swing-slap hitting front, they claim. Consider half a banana with its tip hitting front & middle. Curve & circle are not the same. Curve's angle change can be different at a different point of flatter or curvier. There's no such thing as flailing in swing. That's not. Jack Dempsey is a reputable source for arc swing hitting front; the swing punching motion starts at Figure 22A the swing punching motion ends at Figure 23B. BoxRec.com
In combat sports where champions are decided by a challenge, the lineal championship of a weight class is a world championship title held by an undisputed champion and subsequently by a fighter who defeats the reigning champion in a match at that weight class. In professional boxing, the lineal champion is informally called "the man who beat the man". Champions recognized by sanctioning bodies such as the World Boxing Association, World Boxing Council, or the Ultimate Fighting Championship may vacate their title voluntarily, or be stripped of the title for breaching the sanctioning body's regulations or contracts. There will thus be a breach of continuity in the list of sanctioned champions which the lineal championship is intended to prevent. However, there is no single canonical list of lineal champions at any weight class, because there is no agreed upon method of determining the starting point for each lineage and conflicting opinions on what to do when the current champion retires or moves to a different weight class, although there is agreement that any stripping of a title be discounted.
The concept of a lineal champion was developed by boxing fans dissatisfied by the tendency of each of the various sanctioning bodies to recognize different champions, in particular to strip a champion of his title for refusing to fight its top-ranked contender. Prior to the 1970s, this happened. In this era, a title vacancy was filled by having a single-elimination tournament box-off between two or more top-ranked contenders; the lineal championship is intended as a return to that era. Several top boxers have specified holding the lineal championship as a personal accomplishment or goal. Many boxing experts view the lineal championship as a prestigious status which trumps the world titles being issued by the sanctioning bodies. In mixed martial arts, the lineal championship is of particular relevance because until the mid 2000s, the top-ranked fighters were spread out amongst a number of mixed martial arts promotions across the globe; this included Japanese promotions such as Pride Fighting Championships and Dream as well as US-based promotions such as the Ultimate Fighting Championship, World Extreme Cage Fighting and Strikeforce.
The UFC purchased most of the major promotions and, as a result, all of the lineal champions are signed with the promotion. Former UFC champion Jon Jones was suspended and stripped of the title for reasons resulting from an alleged hit and run felony charge. Daniel Cormier, whom Jones had just defeated, subsequently won the vacant UFC title; these events, however, do not affect the lineal title because Jon Jones was never defeated in the octagon. An issue in the implementation of a lineal championship is what to do if the lineal champion retires, dies, or moves to a different weight class. Different ways of resolving this vacancy mean the lineal championship may itself be subject to dispute. Since the modern lineal championship is a notional title tracked by fans, there is no money or organization to arrange a box-off to fill a vacant title, there may not be consensus on who the top contenders are – this is true both for boxing and MMA. One example given by Cliff Rold of BoxingScene is the light heavyweight title, considered vacant from the time Michael Spinks moved up to heavyweight in 1985 until some time in the 1990s.
While Rold considers Virgil Hill's defeat of Henry Maske as the beginning of the next line of succession, as does Cyber Boxing Zone, Ring magazine controversially traces the title through Roy Jones Jr. Another criticism of the lineal championship is that a fighter may defend it against inferior opponents. For example, George Foreman was considered lineal champion from 1994 until 1997, when Shannon Briggs beat him. After the WBA and IBF stripped him of their titles in 1995, Foreman fought only two, low-ranked opponents before Briggs; the lineal champion is not the boxer viewed as the best. Cyber Boxing Zone and BoxingScene considered Zsolt Erdei the lineal light-heavyweight champion from his 2004 defeat of Julio César González until 2009, when he vacated his title and moved up to cruiserweight. In mixed martial arts, most controversy centers on the proper method for determining the first lineal MMA champion within each weight class. Early fights did not follow the agreed upon weight classes determined by the Unified Rules of Mixed Martial Arts, a rule set, not finalized until the year 2000.
For example: Some consider Mark Coleman's victory in 1997, when he became the first UFC Heavyweight champion, to be the beginning of the Heavyweight lineage. Others argue that Royce Gracie's victory at UFC 1 in 1993 is the true heavyweight starting point due to the Open-weight nature of the tournament. In this case, the lineal titles converge and unify with the current UFC Heavyweight title, so the champion remains the same regardless of which lineage one chooses to follow; the boxing magazine The Ring has its own lineal championship. The original sequence was from its first publication in the 1920s until its hiatus in 1989, continuing as late as 1992 in some divisions; when it started awarding titles again in 2001, it did not calculate retrospective lineages to fill in the gap years, instead nominating a new champion. CBZ
A cutman is a person responsible for preventing and treating physical damage to a fighter during the breaks between rounds of a full contact match such as a boxing, kickboxing or a mixed martial arts bout. Cutmen handle swelling and lacerations. In addition to degrading a fighter's performance, the rules of combat sports stipulate that these injuries can be a cause for premature match stoppage, counting as a loss to the injured fighter; the cutman is therefore essential to the fighter, can be a decisive factor in the outcome of the match. The compensation for cutmen varies staying within 10–15% of fighter's prize money. For many fighters on a low budget, the cutman duties are performed by their cornerman. While most athletic commissions require cutmen to be licensed, there is no formal training or certification required. Most cutmen learn their trade through self-education. Unlike boxing, cutmen for mixed martial arts events are provided by the promotion, rather than the fighter's corner; this is to prevent allegations of "greasing".
Cutmen should not be confused with the fight physician, an official who monitors the health of the fighters and whose task is closer to that of a neutral referee. The fight physician provides medical advice, monitors the safety of both fighters in accordance with regulations or law, evaluates their ability to continue fighting. Before the fight, cutmen will put petroleum jelly on the most areas of impact the fighter's face, making the skin more elastic and slippery, hence less to tear, it is not considered good practice to use large amounts of petroleum jelly, since during the fight it is to end up on the gloves of the opponent, in the eyes of the fighter if the opponent lands a punch close to their eyes. Cutmen might tape fighters' hands, which helps protect the bones and tendons. Wraps are used during training but are illegal during competition, though people still use the term "wrap" in error to describe the taping method of using gauze and tape. During the fight, cutmen try to control any bleeding during the breaks between rounds.
Since cutmen are not doctors, have a short period of time to treat the fighter, their treatments are limited to advanced first aid treatments. Swelling is associated with facial hematomas, is traditionally reduced by applying firm pressure with a chilled enswell or an ice bag on top of the area of trauma; the cutman presses the enswell against a fighter's skin to cool and reduce swelling from injuries in areas around the eyes where swelling can impair vision. Since the time between rounds is short, cutmen try to apply the enswell right away and hold it as long as they can, but a common mistake is using the enswell to push directly on the swollen area in an attempt to disperse it or move it into a safer place such as away from the eye; such treatment will not move the hematoma, may disrupt the microscopic blood vessels under the skin, thus causing an increase in bleeding and enlargement of the swelled area. Cuts are the primary focus of the cutman because unless the bleeding is stopped promptly, the fight physician may stop the fight and declare that the injured fighter has lost the match.
Physicians will stop a match for a laceration, perpendicular to the eye. The most common area of the face to be cut is around the eye. Cuts are treated by applying a cold towel to clean and cool the area of the cut, causing a decrease in blood flow. A cotton swab soaked in epinephrine is applied with pressure to decrease blood flow more, Avitene is put into the cut to coagulate the blood. A cutman might cover the area with petroleum jelly to prevent further damage. Most nosebleeds occur near the opening of the nose. To stop the bleeding, cutmen apply a cotton swab soaked in adrenaline hydrochloride to the damaged area, while pressing the nostril against the cotton swab with the other hand. Once the bleeding has stopped, the area is chilled with an enswell; the fighter is instructed to breathe through the mouth during the treatment. A broken nose is a more difficult case, can be detected by a heavy flow of dark colored blood from the nose; the bleeding is treated the same way. Enswell, sometimes called end-swell, stop-swell, no-swell or simple eye iron, is a small piece of metal with a handle.
It is traditionally kept on ice and is used to cool the area of a bruise or a cut by applying direct pressure to decrease the blood flow to the area. Cotton swabs are used to apply medications to the fighter's wounds. While some cutmen use ready-made cotton swabs, others make their own, it has been suggested that the practice of past cutmen's in keeping cotton swabs behind their ears or in their mouths is unsanitary and unprofessional. Ice packs are used to cool bruises and sprains, to keep the enswell cold. Petroleum jelly is put on the cuts and most areas of impact to make the skin more elastic and slippery, hence less to tear; some cutmen cover cuts with homemade salve containing a mix of petroleum jelly and adrenaline chloride, so that adrenaline keeps getting applied to the wound during the bout. Perspiration from above the eyes will be prevented from reaching the eyes by applying petroleum jelly to the eyebrows. Gauze pads are used to dry cuts. Medical gloves are wor
The short straight punch is an offensive hand technique used in some fighting sports. Georges Blanchet, Boxe et sports de combat en éducation physique, Ed. Chiron, Paris, 1947 Alain Delmas, 1. Lexique de la boxe et des autres boxes, Aix-en-Provence, 1981-2005 – 2. Lexique de combatique, Toulouse, 1975-1980. Jack Dempsey, Championship fighting, Ed. Jack Cuddy, 1950 Gabrielle & Roland Habersetzer, Encyclopédie des arts martiaux de l'Extrême-Orient, Ed. Amphora, Paris, 2000 Louis Lerda, J. C. Casteyre, Sachons boxer, Ed. Vigot, Paris, 1944
Amateur boxing is a variant of boxing practised at the collegiate level, at the Olympic Games, Pan American Games and Commonwealth Games, as well as many associations. Amateur boxing bouts are short in duration, comprising three rounds of three minutes in men, four rounds of two minutes in women, each with a one-minute interval between rounds. Men's senior bouts changed in format from four two-minute rounds to three three-minute rounds on January 1, 2009; this type of competition prizes point-scoring blows, based on number of clean punches landed, rather than physical power. This short format allows tournaments to feature several bouts over several days, unlike professional boxing, where fighters rest several months between bouts. A referee monitors the fight to ensure. Referees ensure that the boxers do not use holding tactics to prevent the opponent from punching. Referees will stop the bout if a boxer is injured, or if one boxer is dominating the other. Bouts which end this way may be noted as "RSC", RSCI, RSCH, or KO.
Amateur boxing emerged as a sport during the mid-to-late 19th century as a result of the moral controversies surrounding professional prize-fighting. Lampooned as an effort by upper and middle-class gentlemen to co-opt a traditionally working class sport, the safer, "scientific" style of boxing found favor in schools, universities and in the armed forces, although the champions still came from among the urban poor; the Queensberry Amateur Championships continued from 1867 to 1885, so, unlike their professional counterparts, amateur boxers did not deviate from using gloves once the Queensberry Rules had been published. In England, the Amateur Boxing Association was formed in 1880, it held its first championships the following year. Four weight classes were contested: Featherweight, Lightweight and Heavyweight. By 1902, American boxers were contesting the titles in the A. B. A. Championships, therefore, took on an international complexion. By 1924, the A. B. A. had 105 clubs in affiliation. Boxing first appeared at the Olympic Games in 1904 and, apart from the Games of 1912, has always been part of them.
From 1904 to 2016, the United States and Cuba won the most gold medals. S. and 21 for Cuba. Internationally, amateur boxing spread throughout the first half of the 20th century, but when the first international body, the Fédération Internationale de Boxe Olympique was formed in Paris in 1920, there were only five member nations. In 1946, when the International Amateur Boxing Association was formed in London, twenty-four nations from five continents were represented, the A. I. B. A. has continued to be the official world federation of amateur boxing since. The first World Amateur Boxing Championships were staged in 1974. Computer scoring was introduced to the Olympics in 1992; each of the five judges had a keypad with a blue button. The judges pressed a button for which corner they felt landed a scoring blow. Three out of the five judges had to press the button for the same boxer within a one-second window in order for the point to score. A legal scoring blow was that, landed cleanly with the knuckle surface of the glove, within the scoring area from the middle of the head, down the sides and between the hips through the belly button.
The AIBA introduced a new scoring system in January 2011. Each judge gives an individual score for each boxer; the score given to each boxer would be taken from 3 out of 5 judges either by similar score or trimmed mean. Scores are instead given at the end of each round. In March 13, 2013, the computer scoring system was abandoned, with amateur boxing instead using the ten point must system, similar to professional boxing. In March 2016, protective headgear, in use since 1982 was removed from men's competition due to higher concussion rates occurring in fights using headgear than in fights without the headgear. Women's competition was unaffected, as the AIBA announced that there wasn't enough data on its effects on women; this ruling was in place at the 2016 Summer Olympics. In June 2016, professional boxers were admitted in the Olympic Games and other tournaments sanctioned by the AIBA; this was done in part to level the playing field and give all of the athletes the same opportunities government-sponsored boxers from socialist countries and post-Soviet republics have.
However, professional organizations opposed that decision. There are several different amateur sanctioning bodies in the United States, including the Golden Gloves Association of America and USA Boxing; the Golden Gloves is an amateur boxing tournament, fought at both the national level and the regional level. Although the Golden Gloves refers to the National Golden Gloves, it can refer to the Intercity Golden Gloves, the Chicago Golden Gloves, the New York Golden Gloves, other regional Golden Gloves tournaments; the winners of the regional tournaments fight in a national competition annually. USA Boxing sanctions a national tournament to determine who will compete o
Boxing styles and technique
Throughout the history of gloved boxing styles and strategies have changed to varying degrees. Ring conditions, promoter demands, teaching techniques, the influence of successful boxers are some of the reasons styles and strategies have fluctuated. There are four accepted boxing styles that are used to define fighters; these are the swarmer, out-boxer and boxer-puncher. Many boxers do not always fit into these categories, it's not uncommon for a fighter to change their style over a period of time; the swarmer is a fighter who attempts to overwhelm his opponent by applying constant pressure — taking away an opponent's spacing and timing. Swarmers tend to have a good bob and weave, good power, a good chin, a tremendous punch output; this style favors closing inside an opponent, overwhelming them with intensity and flurries of hooks and uppercuts. They tend to be fast on their feet, they tend to have a good "chin" because this style involves being hit with many jabs before they can maneuver inside where they are more effective.
Many swarmers are either shorter fighters or fighters with shorter reaches in the heavier classes, that have to get in close to be effective. Tommy Burns was the shortest Heavyweight champion at 5 ft 7 in, while Rocky Marciano had the shortest reach at 67–68 inches. One exception is Jack Dempsey, nearly 6 ft 1 in with a 77-inch reach. Famous swarmers include Henry Armstrong, Carmen Basilio, Melio Bettina, Joe Calzaghe, Joe Frazier, Kid Gavilán, Gennady Golovkin, Román González, Harry Greb, Emile Griffith, Fighting Harada, Ricky Hatton, Beau Jack, Jake LaMotta, Battling Nelson, Bobo Olson, Manny Pacquiao, Floyd Patterson, Aaron Pryor, Wilfredo Gomez, Mickey Walker, Julio Cesar Chavez, Shawn Porter, Marcos Maidana and Mike Tyson.. The fictional boxer Makunouchi Ippo is considered a swarmer; the out-boxer is the opposite of the swarmer. The out-boxer seeks to maintain a gap from their opponent and fight with faster, longer range punches. Out-boxers are known for being quick on their feet, which makes up for a lack of power.
Since they rely on the weaker jabs and straights, they tend to win by points decisions rather than by knockout, although some out-boxers can be aggressive and effective punchers. Out-boxers such as Benny Leonard and Larry Holmes can still have many notable knockouts and punching power, but preferred to wear down their opponents and outclass them rather than just knock them out. Out-boxers cross over with counter-punch and/or swarming techniques, such as Naseem Hamed, who used his speed on his feet to avoid injury and his precision and power to carve his opponents down. Notable out-boxers include Muhammad Ali, Gabriel Elorde, Wilfred Benitez, Cecilia Brækhus, Ezzard Charles, Kid Chocolate, Billy Conn, James J. Corbett, George Dixon, Chris Eubank, Tiger Flowers, Tommy Gibbons, Holly Holm, Jack Johnson, Junior Jones, Sugar Ray Leonard, Tommy Loughran, Floyd Mayweather Jr. Amir Khan, Philadelphia Jack O'Brien, Willie Pep, Barney Ross, Michael Spinks, Gene Tunney, Jersey Joe Walcott, Oleksandr Usyk, Vasyl Lomachenko and Pernell Whitaker.
The fictional boxer Apollo Creed is considered an out-boxer. If the out-boxer represents everything elegant about boxing, the slugger embodies everything brutal about the sport. Many sluggers tend to lack finesse in the ring, but make up for it in raw power able to knock any opponent out with a single punch. Most sluggers lack mobility in the ring and may have difficulty pursuing fighters who are fast on their feet but that's not always the case. Compared to swarmers and out-boxers, sluggers throw fewer but harder shots and rely less on combinations. Sluggers throw predictable punching patterns which can leave them open for counterpunching. Sluggers can be fast and unpredictable fighters, such as the case with Terry McGovern and Stanley Ketchel. While sluggers are considered the most crude boxers, Bob Fitzsimmons was considered by many boxing historians to be scientific in his slugging techniques; because of their similar brawling tactics and sluggers are confused with each other.. Famous sluggers include Max Baer, Paul Berlenbach, Riddick Bowe, Gerry Cooney, George Foreman, Bob Foster, Gene Fullmer, Ceferino Garcia, Rocky Graziano, Arturo Gatti, Wilfredo Gomez, James J. Jeffries, Vitali Klitschko, Sonny Liston, Ron Lyle, Anne Sophie Mathis, Ricardo Mayorga, John L. Sullivan, Vonda Ward, Barbados Joe Walcott, Deontay Wilder, Ann Wolfe.
Fictional boxers Rocky Balboa and Clubber Lang are considered to be sluggers. The boxer-puncher possesses many of the qualities of the out-boxer: hand speed an outstanding jab, combination and/or counter-punching skills, better defense and accuracy than a slugger, while possessing slugger type power; the Boxer-puncher may be more willing to fight in an aggressive swarmer-style than an out-boxer. In general the boxer-puncher lacks the defensive expertise of the pure boxer. Boxer-punchers do well against out-boxers if they can match their speed and mobility, they tend to match up well against swarmers, because the extra power discourages the swarmer's aggression. Boxer-punchers can be hard to categorize since they can be closer in style to a slugger, swarmer, or an out-boxer. Notable boxer-punchers include Laila Ali, Canelo Álvarez, Alexis Arguello, Marco Antonio Barrera, Charley Burley, Marcel Cer