Boyden Observatory is an astronomical research observatory and science education centre located in Maselspoort, 20 kilometres north-east of the city of Bloemfontein in Free State, South Africa. The observatory is managed by the Physics Department of the University of the Free State; the Friends of Boyden assist the observatory as a public support group, organising open evenings and protecting its public interest. Boyden makes use of members of ASSA Bloemfontein Centre, the amateur astronomy club of the city, for presenters and telescope assistants; the Boyden Station of Harvard Observatory was founded in 1889 by Harvard University at Mount Harvard near Lima, Peru. It was relocated to Arequipa, Peru in October 1890, it was named after Uriah A. Boyden, who in 1879 left in his will $238,000 to Harvard Observatory to be used for astronomical purposes. Significant work done at Arequipa include the discovery of Phoebe, an outer moon of Saturn, by William Henry Pickering using photographic plates captured with the 24 in Bruce Astrograph.
In 1927, the observatory was moved to its present location in South Africa. This was done because it was expected that Bloemfontein would be less cloudy than Arequipa, which after two years of recording proved to be true; the site near the settlement of Mazelspoort was formally dedicated in 1933. Its first and longtime director in South Africa was John S. Paraskevopoulos, who held the post from 1927 to 1951. Financial issues at Harvard led to the closure of Boyden in 1954, but several European countries became partners in funding and using the observatory. In 1975 Harvard, which had transferred the title to the Smithsonian Institution, announced it would withdraw its support in the following year. UFS agreed to support the facility, it was donated to UFS in 1976; the Boyden-UFS Telescope, known as the Rockefeller Reflector, is a 60 in Cassegrain reflector. The Watcher Robotic Telescope is a 40 cm f/14.25 robotic telescope developed by the University College Dublin and UFS. The primary function of the telescope is visual spectrum observation following Gamma-ray bursts.
The Nishimura Telescope is a 16 in reflector commissioned by the Nagoya University and constructed by Nishimura Co. Ltd. in 2000. It was not in use as of 2009; the Alvan Clark Telescope is a 13 in refractor named after Alvan Clark. The telescope was first installed at Mount Wilson Observatory in 1889, it is used for outreach purposes. The 10 in Metcalf Photographic Triplet Refractor is a display item. A 20 cm coelostat is used for outreach purposes. Andrew Ainslie Common figured a mirror in 1885 for a 60 in Newtonian reflecting telescope, but the telescope fell into disuse and was bought by the Harvard College Observatory from Common's estate; the primary mirror was re-figured in 1933, along with a new mount it was installed at Boyden. In the mid-1960s the Hamburg engineering firm of Heidenreich and Harbeck was contracted to build a new mirror cell for the telescope to reduce the problems experienced due to the thinness of the mirror and the fact its back surface was not flat. Shortly afterward the old Common primary mirror was replaced by a new 60 in mirror from Loomis made of low-expansion glass.
In 2001 the telescope received a major upgrade by DFM Engineering. This upgrade included a new control system, modifications to the mirror cell, a new primary light shield. From 2005 to 2009 it was part of the Probing Lensing Anomalies Network; the 0.9 m Armagh-Dunsink-Harvard Telescope was a Schmidt–Cassegrain telescope built in 1949 by Perkin-Elmer. Three organisations were involved: Armagh Observatory, Dunsink Observatory, Harvard, it was installed at Bloemfontein in 1950. However, it never worked well, after several attempts to fix it, the mirrors and lens were removed in 1981 and sent to Dunsink; the 0.6 m Bruce Astrograph was a refracting telescope built in 1893 by Alvan Sons. After being used for many years in Arequipa, it was brought to Bloemfontein and housed in a building with a roll-off roof. With plates taken by this telescope, Harlow Shapley discovered the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf galaxies, the first of their kind. In 1950, it was replaced by the Armagh-Dunsink-Harvard Telescope. Boyden Observatory performs professional astrophysics research using the 1.5 meter reflector.
In addition to the research program, the observatory runs an active educational program for school children from all backgrounds as well as for members of the public, attracting thousands of visitors each year. In 1966, this observatory discovered four asteroids. Facilities include the main building where the original offices were and where the library is, the resident astronomer's house, a state-of-the-art auditorium seating 100 people inside and 200 people on its roof for open-air sky shows, the main telescope buildings, smaller telescope buildings, a lecture room, store room, the ASSA Bloemfontein clubhouse, observation platforms, various vantage points; the observatory is experiencing growth in visitor numbers and the extension of its facilities. Medium term plans call for e.g. the establishment of an educational walking route for visitors to appreciate the diverse natural life in the area, a museum and science exhibition areas, upgrading of the educational telescope facilities etc. Long term plans include the construction of a digital planetarium and the completion of the fully-fledged Science Hall.
A digital planetarium is open in the nearby city of Bloemfontein on Naval Hill, inside the original dome of the Lamont-Hussey observatory. Astronomical Society of Southern Africa List of astronomical observato
The Numurkah Football Club, nicknamed the Blues, is an Australian rules football and netball club based in the town of Numurkah located in north east Victoria. The club teams compete in the Murray FNL, which Numurkah was a founding member in 1931. Goulburn Valley Football Association 1920, 1921, 1922, 1924, 1925, 1926 Murray Football League: 1932, 1933, 1937, 1938, 1950, 1951, 1953, 1962, 1970, 1977, 1979, 1999, 2000 1934 - G. Bourke 1935 - G. Bourke 1938 - G. Bourke 1939 - G. Bourke 1946 - M. Dudley 1949 - S. Stewart 1950 - S. Stewart 1952 - V. T. Davies 1970 - Peter Dealy 1981 - G. Ralph 1965 - Darryl Twitt 1966 - Darryl Twitt 1967 - Darryl Twitt 1968 - Darryl Twitt 1977 - D. Rudd 1994 - Perry Meka 1995 - Perry Meka Adam Rudd St Kilda - 0 games Mark Brown Sydney - 0 games Facebook page Twitter page
The Confirmation dress is a traditional style of dress, designed to be worn by girls partaking in the Christian ritual of Confirmation. Confirmation is the public declaration, made by children or young adults who have been baptized in their infancy, to follow the Christian faith in their adult life; the traditions of this ritual vary between the different branches of the Christian religion, the dress has remained similar across all of the denominations. The traditional design of the dress mimics the design of a bride's wedding dress relating to the historic view of young women in the church. Today, wearing the traditional Confirmation dress is not always enforced or expected. Rather, simple white garments, robes, or white dresses that vary from the traditional design are worn; the main feature of the traditional Confirmation dress was to be'perfectly plain' and'simple'. In 1868, Harper's Bazaar described the ideal style as: "Swiss muslin dress with high neck and long sleeves; the bottom of the skirt is trimmed with a flounce a quarter of a yard wide.
Bias folds simulate a Pompadour waist. White silk buttons close the corsage... A white veil completes the costume."Other common traditional designs included a visible lack of shaping in the bodice to de-emphasize the female figure, with waist definition provided by a belt and gathered skirts. In April 1874, Harper's Bazaar stated that white dresses of white silk and tulle were being made in abundance in New York for Confirmations and First Communions; these designs featured'puffs' in the skirt and sleeves, ruffle trims. A black dress was worn in the 19th century by many in the Netherlands as a somber recognition of the'gravity' of Confirmation on the participants' lives. In 1868, Harper's Bazaar described a common fashion of Confirmation dresses as black with a high neck and "close sleeves", worn with a black shawl, embroidered and trimmed with either a black satin ribbon or a fringe. In the Christian religion, white garments are significant because the color symbolizes being pure and clean. In Confirmation, Christians are transformed by God and now share in His Holy Spirit, which makes them clean, the white garment signifies that the wearer has been transformed.
The white dress theologically aligns with a Bible passage in Revelation 7:9, that describes a great multitude of people coming before the Lamb of God, wearing white garments. The color white is symbolic of virginity. Traditionally, the white dress and veil, are symbolic of the wearer's chastity and obedience to God; because Confirmation is a ritual that symbolizes the child's'coming-of-age' and their dedication to Christ in their adult life, the bride-like design of the traditional Confirmation dress was symbolic of women's purity before marriage - as well as the theological concept that, while commitment to marriage is good, virginity is better. As the traditional design of the girls' Confirmation dress was styled after a bride, the same significance is true in wearing of the veil; because Christian virgin women were seen as a bride of Christ and wear veils, that accessory was considered appropriate for Confirmation. The amount that the child's parents spend on Confirmation garments is indicative of their socio-economic status.
In the Catholic group performance of Confirmation, the more conspicuous styles and higher quality fabrics and accessories will make those children stand out from other confirmands. Confirmation is a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood is symbolized in the Confirmation dress. Girls still in their childhood wear clothing such as knee-length skirt which allows them to run and play. However, in Confirmation, young girls wear floor-length skirts or dresses symbolizing a transition from their old childhood garments to the attire of grown women. Today, some parishes suggest Confirmation participants wear identical, gender-neutral clothing; this is the case for white gowns which are to be worn over, covering, discreet outfits in the Roman Catholic churchesThe traditional white dress, however, is still used in the ritual today with the same symbolic intent as previously. Participants wear simple and elegant white garments that include the symbols of traditional design but follow modern but modest fashion styles.
Many churches introduced a'Confirmation dress code' for both males and females that involves wearing their'Sunday best' or'Christmas/Easter best'. Dress codes are regulated by the individual churches or dioceses, with restrictions as follows: No sleeveless dresses or blouses. No "backless" blouses. No jeans, shorts or tight-fitting pants. Dresses or skirts should be knee-length, or not more than 1-2 inches above the knee. Dresses or blouses which leave the shoulders bare should be worn with a matching jacket. Dresses or blouses should not have a low neckline. Dresses or blouses should not be tight-fitting. Dresses or blouses should not be made from a transparent fabric. In fictitious representations of the Confirmation, or First Communion, the dress is a traditional symbol. In these representations, the dressing of the girl before Confirmation symbolizes the parents grooming the girl into the traditions of the belief system. In the literary work of Olive Senior the traditional Confirmation dress is likened to the Biblical parable of the Ten Virgins.
In Senior's writing, the similarity between the wisdom or foolishness of the women in the parable is compared to the innocence or maturity of the main character as she is prepared for First Communion. The Confirmation dress is featured several times in M. NourbeSe Phillip's 1989 poetry anthology She Tries Her Tongue, Her Silence Softly Breaks, espec