Youth (Leo Tolstoy novel)
Youth is the third novel in Leo Tolstoy's autobiographical trilogy, following Childhood and Boyhood. It was first published in the popular Russian literary magazine Sovremennik
A novel is a long work of narrative fiction written in prose form, and, published as a book. The entire genre has been seen as having "a continuous and comprehensive history of about two thousand years", with its origins in classical Greece and Rome, in medieval and early modern romance, in the tradition of the Italian renaissance novella. Murasaki Shikibu's Tale of Genji has been described as the world's first novel. Spread of printed books in China led to the appearance of classical Chinese novels by the Ming dynasty. Parallel European developments occurred after the invention of the printing press. Miguel de Cervantes, author of Don Quixote, is cited as the first significant European novelist of the modern era. Ian Watt, in The Rise of the Novel, suggested that the modern novel was born in the early 18th century. Walter Scott made a distinction between the novel, in which "events are accommodated to the ordinary train of human events and the modern state of society" and the romance, which he defined as "a fictitious narrative in prose or verse.
However, many such romances, including the historical romances of Scott, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, are frequently called novels, Scott describes romance as a "kindred term". This sort of romance is in turn different from the genre fiction love romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel: "a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, en roman." A novel is a fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. The novel in the modern era makes use of a literary prose style; the development of the prose novel at this time was encouraged by innovations in printing, the introduction of cheap paper in the 15th century. The present English word for a long work of prose fiction derives from the Italian novella for "new", "news", or "short story of something new", itself from the Latin novella, a singular noun use of the neuter plural of novellus, diminutive of novus, meaning "new". Most European languages use the word "romance" for extended narratives.
A fictional narrativeFictionality is most cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion. Throughout the early modern period authors of historical narratives would include inventions rooted in traditional beliefs in order to embellish a passage of text or add credibility to an opinion. Historians would invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the other hand, depict the social and personal realities of a place and period with clarity and detail not found in works of history. Literary proseWhile prose rather than verse became the standard of the modern novel, the ancestors of the modern European novel include verse epics in the Romance language of southern France those by Chrétien de Troyes, in Middle English. In the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byron's Don Juan, Alexander Pushkin's Yevgeniy Onegin, Elizabeth Barrett Browning's Aurora Leigh, competed with prose novels. Vikram Seth's The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel.
Content: intimate experienceBoth in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations. On the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, "conduct", "gallantry" spread with novels and the associated prose-romance. LengthThe novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella. However, in the 17th century, critics saw the romance as of epic length and the novel as its short rival. A precise definition of the differences in length between these types of fiction, is, not possible; the requirement of length has been traditionally connected with the notion that a novel should encompass the "totality of life." Although early forms of the novel are to be found in a number of places, including classical Rome, 10th– and 11th-century Japan, Elizabethan England, the European novel is said to have begun with Don Quixote in 1605.
Early works of extended fictional prose, or novels, include works in Latin like the Satyricon by Petronius, The Golden Ass by Apuleius, works in Ancient Greek such as Daphnis and Chloe by Longus, works in Sanskrit such as the 4th or 5th century Vasavadatta by Subandhu, 6th– or 7th-century Daśakumāracarita and Avantisundarīkathā by Daṇḍin, in the 7th-century Kadambari by Banabhatta, Murasaki Shikibu's 11th-century Japanese work The Tale of Genji, the 12th-century Hayy ibn Yaqdhan by Ibn Tufail, who wrote in Arabic, the 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus by Ibn al-Nafis, another Arabic novelist, Blanquerna, written in Catalan by Ramon Llull, the 14th-century Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Gua
Anna Karenina is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy, first published in book form in 1878. Many authors consider Anna Karenina the greatest work of literature written, Tolstoy himself called it his first true novel, it was released in serial installments from 1873 to 1877 in the periodical The Russian Messenger. A complex novel in eight parts, with more than a dozen major characters, it is spread over more than 800 pages contained in two volumes, it deals with themes of betrayal, family, Imperial Russian society and rural vs. city life. The plot centers on an extramarital affair between Anna and dashing cavalry officer Count Alexei Kirillovich Vronsky that scandalizes the social circles of Saint Petersburg and forces the young lovers to flee for Italy in a futile search for happiness. Returning to Russia, their lives further unravel. Trains are a recurring motif throughout the novel, which takes place against the backdrop of rapid transformations as a result of the liberal reforms initiated by Emperor Alexander II of Russia, with several major plot points taking place either on passenger trains or at stations in Saint Petersburg or elsewhere in Russia.
The novel has been adapted into various media including opera, television, figure skating and radio drama. The first of many film adaptations has not survived. Countess Anna Arkadyevna Karenina: Stepan Oblonsky's sister, Karenin's wife and Vronsky's lover. Count Alexei Kirillovich Vronsky: Lover of Anna, a cavalry officer Prince Stepan "Stiva" Arkadyevich Oblonsky: a civil servant and Anna's brother, a man about town, 34, his nickname is a Russianized form of Steve. Princess Darya "Dolly" Alexandrovna Oblonskaya: Stepan's wife, 33 Count Alexei Alexandrovich Karenin: a senior statesman and Anna's husband, twenty years her senior. Konstantin "Kostya" Dmitrievich Lëvin/Lyovin: Kitty's suitor, old friend of Stiva, a landowner, 32. Nikolai Dmitrievich Lëvin/Lyovin: Konstantin's elder brother, an impoverished alcoholic. Sergei Ivanovich Koznyshev: Konstantin's half-brother, a celebrated writer, 40. Princess Ekaterina "Kitty" Alexandrovna Shcherbatskaya: Dolly's younger sister and Levin's wife, 18. Princess Elizaveta "Betsy" Tverskaya: Anna's wealthy, morally loose society friend and Vronsky's cousin Countess Lidia Ivanovna: Leader of a high society circle that includes Karenin, shuns Princess Betsy and her circle.
She maintains an interest in the Russian Orthodox mystical and spiritual Countess Vronskaya: Vronsky's mother Sergei "Seryozha" Alexeyich Karenin: Anna and Karenin's son, 9. Anna "Annie": Anna and Vronsky's daughter. Anna Karenina is the tragic story of Countess Anna Karenina, a married noblewoman and socialite, her affair with the affluent Count Vronsky; the story starts when she arrives in the midst of a family broken up by her brother's unbridled womanizing—something that prefigures her own situation, though she would experience less tolerance by others. A bachelor, Vronsky is eager to marry Anna if she will agree to leave her husband Count Karenin, a senior government official, but she is vulnerable to the pressures of Russian social norms, the moral laws of the Russian Orthodox Church, her own insecurities, Karenin's indecision. Although Vronsky and Anna go to Italy, where they can be together, they have trouble making friends. Back in Russia, she is shunned, becoming further isolated and anxious, while Vronsky pursues his social life.
Despite Vronsky's reassurances, she grows possessive and paranoid about his imagined infidelity, fearing loss of control. A parallel story within the novel is that of Konstantin Lëvin or Ljovin, a wealthy country landowner who wants to marry Princess Kitty, sister to Princess Dolly and sister-in-law to Anna's brother Prince Oblonsky. Konstantin has to propose twice; the novel details Konstantin's difficulties managing his estate, his eventual marriage, his struggle to accept the Christian faith, until the birth of his first child. The novel explores a diverse range of topics throughout its one thousand pages; some of these topics include an evaluation of the feudal system that existed in Russia at the time—politics, not only in the Russian government but at the level of the individual characters and families, morality and social class. The novel is divided into eight parts, its epigraph is Vengeance. The novel begins with one of its most often-quoted lines: The novel opens with a scene that introduces Prince Stepan Arkadyevich Oblonsky, a Moscow aristocrat and civil servant, unfaithful to his wife, Princess Darya Alexandrovna.
Dolly has discovered his affair with the family's governess, the household and family are in turmoil. Stiva informs the household that his married sister, Countess Anna Arkadyevna Karenina, is coming to visit from Saint Petersburg in a bid to calm the situation. Meanwhile, Stiva's childhood friend, Konstantin Dmitrievich Levin, arrives in Moscow with the aim of proposing to Dolly's youngest sister, Princess Katerina Alexandrovna Shcherbatskaya. Levin is a passionate, but shy aristocratic landowner who, unlike his Moscow friends, chooses to live in the country on his large estate, he discovers t
"The Snowstorm" is a short story by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy. It was first published in the literary and political magazine Sovremennik; the idea for "The Snowstorm" dates back to January, 1854, when Tolstoy was lost all night in a snowstorm about 100 versts from Cherkassk and thought to write a story about the event. It was two years before he carried out his plan and wrote the story; the unnamed narrator of the story and his manservant Alyeshka start on an evening trip by sledge from Novocherkassk in the Caucasus to a destination in central Russia. As they ride, a winter storm begins, soon the road becomes covered with heavy, thick snow; the narrator becomes concerned about getting lost and queries his driver about their chances of making it safely to the next post station. The driver is somewhat vague and fatalistic concerning the rest of the journey, suggesting that they may or may not get through; the narrator has little confidence in the driver, who seems sullen. A few minutes the driver stops the sledge, gets down, starts searching for the road that they have lost.
Disturbed by this situation, the narrator orders the phlegmatic driver to turn back, giving the horses their head to seek out the post station from which they started out. To add to the anxiety, the driver tells a story of some recent travelers who got lost and froze to death in a similar storm. Soon they hear the balls of three men sledges coming toward them and going in the opposite direction; the narrator orders his driver to turn around and follow the fresh tracks of the courier sledges. The tracks and road markers disappear in the drifting snow; the narrator himself now gets out of the sledge to look for the road, but soon loses sight of the sledge. After finding his driver and sledge, a decision is again made to turn back and return to the station from which they started out. Again they hear the bells of the courier troika, now returning to their original starting point, having delivered the mail and changed horses; the narrator's driver suggests. As the narrator's driver tries to turn around, his shafts hit the horses tied to the back of the third mail troika, making them break their straps and run.
The post driver goes off in search of the runaway horses while the narrator follows the first two sledges at full gallop. In better spirits now that he has somebody to follow, the narrator's driver converses with his passenger affably, telling about his life and family circumstances. Soon they run across a caravan of wagons, led by a mare without help from the driver, sleeping, they lose sight of the courier sledges, the driver wants to turn around again, but they go on. The old driver who went to get the runaway horses returns with all three and loses little time in reprimanding the narrator's driver, whose inexperience created the problem in the first place; the narrator begins to daydream, losing himself in the monotonous and desolate snowstorm and musing lyrically about the snow and wind: “Memories and fancies followed one another with increased rapidity in my imagination.” The narrator conjures up stream-of-consciousness images of his youth: the old family butler on their baronial estate, summers in the country, languid July afternoons, a peasant drowning in their pond and nobody being able to help.
The narrator's driver announces that his horses are too tired to go on, he proposes that the narrator and his servant go with the post sledges. The baggage is transferred, the narrator is glad to get into the warm, snug sledge. Inside, two old men are telling stories to pass the time, they give short, blunt answers to the narrator's suggestion that they all might freeze to death if the horses give out: “To be sure, we may.” After driving a while longer, the men in the sledge begin arguing about whether what they see on the horizon is an encampment. The narrator thinks that he is freezing to death, he has hallucinations about what it must be like to freeze to death and waking alternately. The narrator wakes in the morning to find that the snow has stopped and he has arrived at a post station, he treats all the men to a glass of vodka and, having received fresh horses, continues on the next leg of his journey. Unlike other text that Tolstoy published at this time, reception of "The Snowstorm" among the literati of contemporary Russia, was favorable."The Snow Storm" still benefited from his high reputation and was seen by its early reviewers less as prose as such, more as poetry in prose in its tonalities and in its structure.
Herzen thought it marvellous and Alexander Druzhinin wrote in the Biblioteka dlya chteniya that there had been nothing quite like it since the days of Pushkin and Gogol. In Modern Language Studies 1987, Sydney Schultze writes: This slender story serves as the vehicle for a beautiful description of a snowstorm surrounding an more vivid description of a blistering day in July, but there appears to be no point to the story, no message of the sort one expects from Tolstoj in his early works. Early commentators like Druzinin praised Tolstoj's descriptive powers in "The Snowstorm", but did not have much to say about other aspects of the story. Critics have paid little attention to "The Snowstorm" beyond a complimentary reference to the description of the storm. Typical is Ernest J. Simmons, who in his biography of Tolstoy says, "There is no plot; the repeated motifs of the snow and
The Gospel in Brief
The Gospel in Brief is a 1902 synthesis of the four gospels of the New Testament into one narrative of the life of Jesus by Russian author Leo Tolstoy. Included in a larger volume in 1892, the 1902 account published as The Gospel in Brief is notable in that it excludes much of the supernatural aspects of the original gospels, such as their claims of Jesus's divine origins and ability to perform miracles. Instead, the work focuses on Jesus's teachings to his followers those which Tolstoy found most compelling; the Gospel in Brief is thought by some to be reflective of Tolstoy's own interpretation of Christianity. The Gospel in Brief is said to be the result of Tolstoy's close study of the original Koine Greek New Testament; the account presented in Tolstoy's gospel is notable in its sharp contrast with the contemporaneous views of the Russian Orthodox Church. Tolstoy was a fierce critic of the Russian Orthodox Church, which went so far as to excommunicate him for his writings on Christianity in 1901.
In 1892, Tolstoy published A Translation Analysis of the Gospels. Concerned that the complexity of this volume would alienate it from laypeople, Tolstoy collected just the introductions and summaries of the 12 chapters of A Translation Harmony; this much shorter volume was published in 1902 as The Gospel in Brief. German philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein was profoundly influenced by The Gospel in Brief, which he described as a "magnificent work." After stumbling upon the book in a Polish bookstore, Wittgenstein carried the book around with him "constantly, like a talisman." He took the book with him into World War I. Wittgenstein's enthusiasm about the book during this period was so great that he became known as the "man with the Gospels" among the soldiers. In a letter to Ludwig von Ficker, Wittgenstein wrote of The Gospel in Brief: "Are you acquainted with Tolstoy's The Gospel in Brief? At its time, this book kept me alive... If you are not acquainted with it you cannot imagine what an effect it can have upon a person."Some modern scholars hypothesize that the 12-part organization of The Gospel in Brief influenced the numbering layout of Wittgenstein's landmark philosophical work, the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus.
In 2014, playwright Scott Carter wrote The Gospel According to Thomas Jefferson, Charles Dickens and Count Leo Tolstoy: Discord, a play that depicts Thomas Jefferson, Charles Dickens, Leo Tolstoy stuck in purgatory together, as all three men wrote his own interpretation of a biblical text. In the play, the trio must come to a theological agreement before they are allowed to enter heaven
The Kingdom of God Is Within You
The Kingdom of God Is Within You is a non-fiction book written by Leo Tolstoy. A philosophical treatise, the book was first published in Germany in 1894 after being banned in his home country of Russia, it is the culmination of thirty years of Tolstoy's thinking, lays out a new organization for society based on an interpretation of Christianity focusing on universal love. The Kingdom of God is Within You is a key text for Tolstoyan proponents of nonviolence, of nonviolent resistance, of the Christian anarchist movement; the title of the book is taken from Luke 17:21. In the book Tolstoy speaks of the principle of nonviolent resistance when confronted by violence, as taught by Jesus Christ; when Christ says to turn the other cheek, Tolstoy asserts that Christ means to abolish violence the defensive kind, to give up revenge. Tolstoy rejects medieval scholars who attempted to limit its scope. “How can you kill people, when it is written in God’s commandment: ‘Thou shalt not murder’?” Tolstoy took the viewpoint that all governments who waged war are an affront to Christian principles.
As the Russian Orthodox Church was—at the time—an organization merged with the Russian state and supporting state's policy, Tolstoy sought to separate its teachings from what he believed to be the true gospel of Christ the Sermon on the Mount. Tolstoy advocated nonviolence as a solution to nationalist woes and as a means for seeing the hypocrisy of the church. In reading Jesus' words in the Gospels, Tolstoy notes that the modern church is a heretical creation: “Nowhere nor in anything, except in the assertion of the Church, can we find that God or Christ founded anything like what churchmen understand by the Church.” Tolstoy presented excerpts from magazines and newspapers relating various personal experiences, gave keen insight into the history of non-resistance from the foundation of Christianity, as being professed by a minority of believers. In particular, he confronts those who seek to maintain status quo: “That this social order with its pauperism, prisons, gallows and wars is necessary to society.
In 1894 Constance Garnett, who translated the work into English, wrote the following in her translator's preface:"One cannot of course anticipate that English people, slow as they are to be influenced by ideas, instinctively distrustful of all, logical, will take a leap in the dark and attempt to put Tolstoi's theory of life into practice. But one may at least be sure that his destructive critcism of the present social and political regime will become a powerful force in the work of distintegration and social reconstruction, going on around us." Mohandas Gandhi wrote in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth that this book "overwhelmed" him and "left an abiding impression." Gandhi listed Tolstoy's book, as well as John Ruskin's Unto This Last and the poet Shrimad Rajchandra, as the three most important modern influences in his life. Reading this book opened up the mind of the world-famous Tolstoy to Gandhi, still a young protester living in South Africa at the time. In 1908 Tolstoy wrote, Gandhi read, A Letter to a Hindu, which outlines the notion that only by using love as a weapon through passive resistance could the native Indian people overthrow the colonial British Empire.
This idea came to fruition through Gandhi's organization of nationwide nonviolent strikes and protests during the years 1918–1947. In 1909, Gandhi wrote to Tolstoy seeking advice and permission to republish A Letter to a Hindu in his native language, Gujarati. Tolstoy responded and the two continued a correspondence until Tolstoy's death a year in 1910; the letters concern practical and theological applications of nonviolence, as well as Gandhi's wishes for Tolstoy's health. Tolstoy's last letter to Gandhi "was one of the last, if not the last, writings from his pen." The Kingdom of God is Within You had a great effect upon James Bevel, a major 1960s strategist of the civil rights movement. After reading the book while serving in the U. S. Navy, Bevel came to the conclusion, he thereafter sought and was granted an honorable discharge, entered a seminary for religious training. Divine presence Kingdom of God The Gospel in Brief Milivojevic, D. Leo Tolstoy and the Oriental Religious Heritage
Family Happiness is an 1859 novella written by Leo Tolstoy, first published in The Russian Messenger. The story concerns the love and marriage of a young girl and the much older Sergey Mikhaylych, an old family friend; the story is narrated by Masha. After a courtship that has the trappings of a mere family friendship, Masha's love grows and expands until she can no longer contain it, she reveals it to Sergey Mikhaylych and discovers that he is in love. If he has resisted her it was because of his fear that the age difference between them would lead the young Masha to tire of him, he likes to be still and quiet, he tells her, while she will want to explore and discover more and more about life. Ecstatically and passionately happy, the pair engages to be married. Once married they move to Mikhaylych's home, they are both members of the landed Russian upper class. Masha soon feels impatient with the quiet order of life on the estate, notwithstanding the powerful understanding and love that remains between the two.
To assuage her anxiety, they decide to spend a few weeks in St. Petersburg. Sergey Mikhaylych agrees to take Masha to an aristocratic ball, he hates "society" but she is enchanted with it. They go again, again, she becomes a regular, the darling of the countesses and princes, with her rural charm and her beauty. Sergey Mikhaylych, at first pleased with Petersburg society's enthusiasm for his wife, frowns on her passion for "society". Out of respect for her, Sergey Mikhaylych will scrupulously allow his young wife to discover the truth about the emptiness and ugliness of "society" on her own, but his trust in her is damaged. They confront each other about their differences, they do not treat their conflict as something that can be resolved through negotiation. Both are shocked and mortified that their intense love has been called into question. Something has changed; because of pride, they both refuse to talk about it. The trust and the closeness are gone. Only courteous friendship remains. Masha yearns to return to the passionate closeness they had known before Petersburg.
They go back to the country. Though she gives birth to children and the couple has a good life, she despairs, they can be together by themselves. She asks him to explain why he did not try to guide and direct her away from the balls and the parties in Petersburg. Why did they lose their intense love? Why don't they try to bring it back? His answer is not the answer she wants to hear, but it settles her down and prepares her for a long life of comfortable "Family Happiness". A passage of the book is quoted in the book and film Into the Wild: "I have lived through much, now I think I have found what is needed for happiness. A quiet secluded life in the country, with the possibility of being useful to people to whom it is easy to do good, who are not accustomed to have it done to them, and on top of all that, you for a mate, children perhaps—what more can the heart of man desire?" Another passage is quoted in the book Into the Wild: The last page of the story is quoted in full in the Philip Roth novel The Counterlife.
The Mountain Goats song "Family Happiness" takes its name from the novella and includes the line "Started quoting Tolstoy into the machine/I had no idea what you meant". Theater Atelier Piotr Fomenko in Moscow adapted the novella to the stage; the play remains part of the theater's repertoire. Full text of Семейное счастье in the original Russian