The Senufo people known as Siena, Sene, Senoufo, Syénambélé, Bamana, are a West African ethnolinguistic group. They consist of diverse subgroups living in a region spanning the northern Ivory Coast, the southeastern Mali and the western Burkina Faso. One sub-group, the Nafana, is found in north-western Ghana; the Senufo people are predominantly animists, with some. They are regionally famous for their handicrafts, many of which feature their cultural themes and religious beliefs. In the 1980s, estimates placed the total ethnic group population of Senufo people somewhere between 1.5 and 2.7 million. A 2013 estimate places the total over 3 million, with majority of them living in Ivory Coast in places such as Katiola, some 0.8 million in southeastern Mali. Their highest population densities are found in the land between the Black Volta river, Bagoe River and Bani River, their kinship organization is matrilineal. The Senufo people are studied in three large subgroups that have been isolated; the northern Senufo are called "Supide or Kenedougou", found near Odienne, who helped found an important kingdom of West Africa and challenged Muslim missionaries and traders.
The southern Senufo are the largest group, numbering over 2 million, who allowed Muslim traders to settle within their communities in the 18th century who proselytized, about 20% of the southern Senufo are Muslims. The third group is small and isolated from both northern and southern Senufo; some sociologists such as the French scholar Holas mentions fifteen identifiable sub-groups of Senufo people, with thirty dialects and four castes scattered between them. The term Senufo refers to a linguistic group comprising thirty related dialects within the larger Gur language family, it belongs to the Gur-branch of the Niger-Congo language family, consists of four distinct languages namely Palaka and Senari in Côte d'Ivoire and Suppire in Mali, as well as Karaboro in Burkina Faso. Within each group, numerous subdivisions use their own names for language. Palaka separated from the main Senufo stock well before the 14th century ad; the Senufo speaking people range from 800,000 to one million and live in agricultural based communities predominately located in the Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, Africa.
Korhogo, an ancient town in northern Ivory Coast dating from the 13th century, is linked to the Senufo people. This separation of languages and sub-ethnic groups may be linked to the 14th-century migrations with its founding along with the Bambara trade-route; the Senufo people emerged as a group sometime within the 16th century. They were a significant part of the 17th to 19th-century Kénédougou Kingdom with the capital of Sikasso; this region saw many wars including the rule of Daoula Ba Traoré, a cruel despot who reigned between 1840 and 1877. The Islamisation of the Senufo people began during this historical period of the Kénédougou Kingdom, but it was the chiefs who converted, while the general Senufo population refused. Daoula Ba Traoré attempted to convert his kingdom to Islam, destroying many villages within the kingdom such as Guiembe and Nielle in 1875 because they resisted his views; the Kénédougou dynastic rulers attacked their neighbors as well, such as the Zarma people and they in turn counterattacked many times between 1883 and 1898.
The pre-colonial wars and violence led to their migration into Burkina Faso in regions that became towns such as Tiembara in Kiembara Department. The Kénédougou kingdom and the Traoré dynasty were dissolved in 1898 with the arrival of French colonial rule; the Senufo people were both victims of and perpetrators of slavery as they victimized other ethnic groups by enslavement. They were enslaved by various African ethnic groups as the Denkyira and Akan states were attacked or fell in the 17th and 18th centuries, they themselves sold slaves to Muslim merchants, Asante people and Baoulé people. As refugees from other West African ethnic groups escaped wars, states Paul Lovejoy, some of them moved into the Senufo lands, seized their lands and enslaved them; the largest demand for slaves came from the markets of Sudan, for a long time, slave trading was the most important economic activity across the Sahel and West Africa, states Martin Klein. Sikasso and Bobo-Dioulasso were important sources of slaves captured who were moved to Timbuktu and Banamba on their way to the Sudanese and Mauritanian slave markets.
Those enslaved in Senufo lands worked the land and served within the home. Their owner and his dependents had the right to have sexual intercourse with female domestic slaves; the children of a female slave inherited her slave status. The Senufo are predominantly an agricultural people cultivating corn, millet and peanut. Senufo villages consist of small mud-brick homes. In the rainy southern communities of Senufo, thatched roofs are common, while flat roofs are prevalent in dry desert-like north; the Senufo is a patriarchal extended family society, where arranged cousin marriage and polygyny has been common, however and property inheritance has been matrilineal. As agriculturalists, they cultivate a wide variety of crops, including cotton and cash crops for the international market; as musicians, they are world renowned, playing a multitude of instruments from: wind instruments, stringed instruments and percussive instruments (Membra
The Bobo are an ethnic group living in Burkina Faso, with some living north in Mali. Bobo is a shortened name of the second-largest city in Burkina Faso, Bobo-Dioulasso. In much of the literature on African art, the group that lives in the area of Bobo-Dioulasso is called Bobo-Fing "black Bobo"; these people speak the Bobo language, a Mande language. The Bambara people call another ethnic group "Bobo", the Bobo-Oule/Wule, more called the Bwa. While the Bwa are a Gur people, speaking Gur languages, the true Bobo are a Mande people; the Bobo number about 110,000 people, with the great majority in Burkina Faso. The major Bobo community in the south is Bobo-Dioulasso, the second-largest city of Burkina Faso and the old French colonial capital. Further north are large towns, with Boura in the extreme north in Mali; the Bobo are far from homogeneous. They are an ancient aggregation of several peoples who have assembled around a number of core clans that do not preserve any oral traditions of immigration into the area.
Their language and culture are more related to those of their Mandé neighbours to the north and west, the Bamana than to their Voltaic neighbours the Gurunsi and Mossi, but they should be thought of as a southern extension of the Mandé people who live in what is now Burkina Faso, rather than an intrusive Mandé group that has penetrated the region. Although over 41% of Bobo lineages claim a foreign origin, they say that they are autochthonous. Farming among the Bobo is of primary importance. Agricultural activity is not a way of providing for subsistence among the Bobo, it is the essential component of their day-to-day existence; the major food crops are red sorghum, pearl millet and maize. They cultivate cotton, sold to textile mills in Koudougou; the imposition of colonial rule and the construction of these mills led to the disintegration of the local co-operative labor systems, which had served to bond the members of Bobo society together. The Bobo lineage is the fundamental social building-block.
The Bobo are an inherently decentralized group of people. The concept of placing political power in the hands of an individual is foreign to the Bobo; each village is organized according to the relationship among individual patriline. The lineage unites all descendants of a common ancestor, called the wakoma, a word whose stem, wa-, is a contraction of the Bobo word for house wasa; the Bobo lineage comprises the people. The head of a lineage is called the father of the lineage, he may be called the sapro, the term for ancestors. As among other peoples in Burkina, each clan has a totem, so that when a Bobo introduces himself he gives his given name his clan name, followed by the totem that he respects; the creator god is called Wuro. He is not represented by sculptures. Bobo cosmogony describes the creation of the ordering of his creations, he is responsible for the ordering of all things in the world into opposing pairs: man/spirits, male/female, village/bush, culture/nature and so on. The balances between forces as they were created by Wuro are precarious, it is easy for men to throw the forces out of balance.
Farming, for instance, can unbalance the precarious equilibrium between culture/nature and village/bush when the crops are gathered in the bush and brought into the village. For the Bobo people there are two important epochs; the time of Wuro, when the universe was created and the historical time, when Wuro gave man his son Dwo. Christopher Roy: Art of the Upper Volta Rivers. Traduction et adaptation en francais F. Chaffin. Alain et Françoise Chaffin, Meudon, 1987 Guy Le Moal: Les Bobo. Nature et fonction des masques. Musée royale de l'Afrique centrale, Tervuren, 1999; the Art of Burkina Faso by Christopher D. Roy
Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 2,009,109. In 2006, it was estimated to sixth-fastest in the world, it is located on the Niger River, near the rapids that divide the upper and middle Niger valleys in the southwestern part of the country. Bamako is the nation's administrative centre; the city proper is a cercle in its own right. Bamako's river port is located in nearby Koulikoro, along with a major regional trade and conference center. Bamako is the seventh-largest West African urban center after Lagos, Kano, Ibadan and Accra. Locally manufactured goods include textiles, processed meat, metal goods. Commercial fishing occurs on the Niger River; the name Bamako comes from the Bambara word meaning "crocodile tail". The area of the city has evidence of settlements since the Palaeolithic era; the fertile lands of the Niger River Valley provided the people with an abundant food supply and early kingdoms in the area grew wealthy as they established trade routes linking across west Africa, the Sahara, leading to northern Africa and Europe.
The early inhabitants traded gold, kola nuts, salt. By the 11th century, the Empire of Ghana became the first kingdom to dominate the area. Bamako had become a major market town, a centre for Islamic scholars, with the establishment of two universities and numerous mosques in medieval times; the Mali Empire grew during the early Middle Ages and replaced Ghana as the dominant kingdom in west Africa, dominating Senegal, Gambia and Mauritania. In the 14th century, the Mali Empire became wealthy because of the trade of cotton and salt; this was succeeded by the Songhai Empire and in the 16th century Berber invaders from Morocco destroyed what remained of the kingdoms in Mali and trans-Saharan trade was taken over by sailors. By the late 19th century, the French dominated much of western Africa, in 1883, present-day Mali became part of the colony of French Sudan, was its capital in 1908. Cotton and rice farming was encouraged through large irrigation projects and a new railroad connected Mali to Dakar on the Atlantic coast.
Mali was annexed into French West Africa, a federation which lasted from 1895 to 1959. Mali gained independence from France in April 1960, the Republic of Mali was established. At this time, Bamako had a population of around 160,000. During the 1960s, the country became socialist and Bamako was subject to Soviet investment and influence. However, the economy declined as state enterprises collapsed and unrest was widespread. Moussa Traoré led a successful coup and ruled Mali for 23 years; however his rule was characterised by severe droughts and poor government management and problems of food shortages. In the late 1980s the people of Bamako and Mali campaigned for a free-market economy and multiparty democracy. In 1990, the National Congress for Democratic Initiative was set up by the lawyer Mountaga Tall, the Alliance for Democracy in Mali by Abdramane Baba and historian Alpha Oumar Konaré; these with the Association des élèves et étudiants du Mali and the Association Malienne des Droits de l'Homme aimed to oust Moussa Traoré.
Under the old constitution, all labor unions had to belong to one confederation, the National Union of Malian Workers. When the leadership of the UNTM broke from the government in 1990, the opposition grew. Groups were driven by paycuts and layoffs in the government sector, the Malian government acceding to pressure from international donors to privatise large swathes of the economy that had remained in public hands after the overthrow of the socialist government in 1968. Students children, played an increasing role in the protest marches in Bamako, homes and businesses of those associated with the regime were ransacked by crowds. On 22 March 1991, a large-scale protest march in central Bamako was violently suppressed, with estimates of those killed reaching 300. Four days a military coup deposed Traoré; the Comité de Transition pour le Salut du Peuple was set up, headed by General Amadou Toumani Touré. Alpha Oumar Konari became president on 26 April 1992. On 20 November 2015, two gunmen took 170 people hostage in the Radisson Blu hotel.
Twenty-one people‚ including three Chinese businessmen were killed in the "Bamako hotel attack" along with the two gunmen during the seven-hour siege. Bamako is situated on the Niger River floodplain, which hampers development along the riverfront and the Niger's tributaries. Bamako is flat, except to the immediate north where an escarpment is found, being what remains of an extinct volcano; the Presidential Palace and main hospital are located here. The city developed on the northern side of the river, but as it grew, bridges were developed to connect the north with the south; the first of these was the King Fahd Bridge. Additionally, a seasonal causeway between the eastern neighborhoods of Sotuba and Misabugu was inherited from colonial times; the Sotuba Causeway is under water from July to January. A third bridge is being built at the same location to reduce downtown congestion, notably by trucks. Under the Köppen climate classification, Bamako features a tropical savanna climate. Located between the Sahara to the north and the Gulf of Guinea
The Dogon are an ethnic group living in the central plateau region of Mali, in West Africa, south of the Niger bend, near the city of Bandiagara and in Burkina Faso. The population numbers between 400,000 and 800,000, they speak the Dogon languages, which are considered to constitute an independent branch of the Niger–Congo language family. The Dogon are best known for their religious traditions, their mask dances, wooden sculpture and their architecture; the past century has seen significant changes in the social organisation, material culture and beliefs of the Dogon because Dogon country is one of Mali's major tourist attractions. The principal Dogon area is bisected by the Bandiagara Escarpment, a sandstone cliff of up to 500 m high, stretching about 150 km. To the southeast of the cliff, the sandy Séno-Gondo Plains are found, northwest of the cliff are the Bandiagara Highlands. Dogon villages were established in the Bandiagara area in consequence of the Dogon people's collective refusal to convert to Islam a thousand years ago.
Dogon insecurity in the face of these historical pressures caused them to locate their villages in defensible positions along the walls of the escarpment. The other factor influencing their choice of settlement location is water; the Niger River is nearby and in the sandstone rock, a rivulet runs at the foot of the cliff at the lowest point of the area during the wet season. Among the Dogon, several oral traditions have been recorded as to their origin. One relates to their coming from Mande, located to the southwest of the Bandiagara escarpment near Bamako. According to this oral tradition, the first Dogon settlement was established in the extreme southwest of the escarpment at Kani-Na. Archaeological and ethnoarchaeological studies in the Dogon region were revealing about the settlement and environmental history, about social practices and technologies in this area over several thousands of years. Over time, the Dogon moved north along the escarpment, arriving in the Sanga region in the 15th century.
Other oral histories place the origin of the Dogon to the west beyond the river Niger, or tell of the Dogon coming from the east. It is that the Dogon of today combine several groups of diverse origin who migrated to escape Islamization, it is difficult to distinguish between pre-Muslim practices and practices, though Islamic law classified them and many other ethnicities of the region, as being within the non-canon dar al-harb and fair game for slave raids organized by merchants. As the growth of cities increased, the demand for slaves across the region of West Africa increased; the historical pattern has included the murder of indigenous males by raiders and enslavement of women and children. Dogon art is sculpture. Dogon art revolves around religious values and freedoms. Dogon sculptures are not made to be seen publicly, are hidden from the public eye within the houses of families, sanctuaries, or kept with the Hogon; the importance of secrecy is due to the symbolic meaning behind the pieces and the process by which they are made.
Themes found throughout Dogon sculpture consist of figures with raised arms, superimposed bearded figures, stools with caryatids, women with children, figures covering their faces, women grinding pearl millet, women bearing vessels on their heads, donkeys bearing cups, dogs, quadruped-shaped troughs or benches, figures bending from the waist, mirror-images, aproned figures, standing figures. Signs of other contacts and origins are evident in Dogon art; the Dogon people were not the first inhabitants of the cliffs of Bandiagara. Influence from Tellem art is evident in Dogon art because of its rectilinear designs; the blind Dogon elder, Ogotemmêli, taught the main symbols of the Dogon religion to the French anthropologist Marcel Griaule in October 1946. Griaule had lived amongst the Dogon people for fifteen years before this meeting with Ogotemmêli had taken place. Ogotemmêli taught Griaule the religious stories in the same way that Ogotemmêli had learned them from his father and grandfather. What makes the record so important from a historical perspective is that the Dogon people were still living in their oral culture at the time their religion was recorded.
They were one of the last people in west Africa to lose their independence and come under French rule. The Dogon people with whom the French anthropologists Griaule and Germaine Dieterlen worked during the 1930s and 40s had a system of signs which ran into the thousands, including "their own systems of astronomy and calendrical measurements, methods of calculation and extensive anatomical and physiological knowledge, as well as a systematic pharmacopoeia"; the religion embraced many aspects of nature, which some researchers associate with a traditional African religion. The key spiritual figures in the religion were the Nummo/Nommo twins. According to Ogotemmêli's description of them, the Nummo, whom he referred to as the Serpent, were amphibians that were compared to serpents, lizards and even sloths, they were described as fish capable of walking on land. The Nummos' skin was green, like the chameleon, it sometimes changed colours, it was said to at times have all the colours of the rainbow.
In other instances, the Nummo were referred to as "Water Spirits". Although the Nummo were identified as being "Dieu d'eau" by Marcel Griaule, Ogotemmêli identified
Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad; the majority of Muslims follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad as recorded in traditional accounts. "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims; the beliefs of Muslims include: that God is eternal and one. The religious practices of Muslims are enumerated in the Five Pillars of Islam: the declaration of faith, daily prayers, fasting during the month of Ramadan and the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. To become a Muslim and to convert to Islam, it is essential to utter the Shahada, one of the Five Pillars of Islam, a declaration of faith and trust that professes that there is only one God and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
It is a set statement recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh "There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the messenger of God."In Sunni Islam, the shahada has two parts: la ilaha illa'llah, Muhammadun rasul Allah, which are sometimes referred to as the first shahada and the second shahada. The first statement of the shahada is known as the tahlīl. In Shia Islam, the shahada has a third part, a phrase concerning Ali, the first Shia Imam and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam: وعليٌ وليُّ الله, which translates to "Ali is the wali of God; the word muslim is the active participle of the same verb of which islām is a verbal noun, based on the triliteral S-L-M "to be whole, intact". A female adherent is a muslima; the plural form in Arabic is muslimūn or muslimīn, its feminine equivalent is muslimāt. The ordinary word in English is "Muslim", it is sometimes transliterated as "Moslem", an older spelling. The word Mosalman is a common equivalent for Muslim used in South Asia.
Until at least the mid-1960s, many English-language writers used the term Mahometans. Although such terms were not intended to be pejorative, Muslims argue that the terms are offensive because they imply that Muslims worship Muhammad rather than God. Other obsolete terms include Muslimist. Musulmán/Mosalmán is modified from Arabic, it is the origin of the Spanish word musulmán, the German Muselmann, the French word musulman, the Polish words muzułmanin and muzułmański, the Portuguese word muçulmano, the Italian word mussulmano or musulmano, the Romanian word musulman and the Greek word μουσουλμάνος. In English it has become archaic in usage. Apart from Persian, Polish, Portuguese and Greek, the term could be found, with obvious local differences, in Armenian, Pashto, Hindi, Marathi, Turkish, Uzbek, Azeri, Hungarian, Bosnian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Sanskrit; the Muslim philosopher Ibn Arabi said: A Muslim is a person who has dedicated his worship to God... Islam means making one's religion and faith God's alone.
The Qur'an describes many prophets and messengers within Judaism and Christianity, their respective followers, as Muslim: Adam, Abraham, Jacob and Jesus and his apostles are all considered to be Muslims in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states that these men were Muslims because they submitted to God, preached His message and upheld His values, which included praying, charity and pilgrimage. Thus, in Surah 3:52 of the Qur'an, Jesus' disciples tell him, "We believe in God. In Muslim belief, before the Qur'an, God had given the Tawrat to Moses, the Zabur to David and the Injil to Jesus, who are all considered important Muslim prophets; the most populous Muslim-majority country is Indonesia, home to 12.7% of the world's Muslims, followed by Pakistan and Egypt. About 20 % of the world's Muslims lives in the Middle North Africa. Sizable minorities are found in India, Russia, the Americas and parts of Europe; the country with the highest proportion of self-described Muslims as a proportion of its total population is Morocco.
Converts and immigrant communities are found in every part of the world. Over 75–90% of Muslims are Sunni; the second and third largest sects and Ahmadiyya, make up 10–20%, 1% respectively. With about 1.8 billion followers a quarter of earth's population, Islam is the second-largest and the fastest-growing religion in the world. Due to the young age and high fertilit
The Kountas or Kuntas are described as Arabs, descendants of Uqba ibn Nafi as berber Zenata. Established in Mauritania since the eleventh century, the Kounta were instrumental in the expansion of Islam into sub-Saharan West Africa in the 15th century, formed an urban elite in cities such as Timbuktu which were on the southern end of the Trans-Saharan trade."Kunta" is an Arabic word, meaning, "you were,". While the nomadic Kunta clans were "pacified" early by French colonial forces,the urban Kounta trading and religious groups to the east were instrumental in the Fulani Jihad States of the Sokoto Caliphate and the Segou Tijaniyya Jihad state of Umar Tall; some leaders of the Kunta in north east Mali have come into conflict with Tuareg and Bambara populations in towns where they once held a near monopoly on political power. In 1998–1999 and again in 2004 there were brief flare-ups of intercommunal violence between these groups near Gao and Timbuktu a rare event in postcolonial Mali. There has been a small ethnic Kounta insurgency, begun in 2004 by a former army colonel, though few attacks have been staged and the leadership has been rejected by the Kunta community.
Kunta family: an ethnic Kounta clan network influential in the history of religion and politics of the western Sahel. July 2007 translation of French Wikipedia entry. Nord-Mali: les Kounta désavouent Fagaga. Le Républicain, 14 March 2006
Bozo the Clown
Bozo the Clown is a fictional clown character and introduced in the United States in 1946, to television in 1949, whose broad popularity peaked locally in the 1960s as a result of widespread franchising in early television. The character was created by Alan W. Livingston and portrayed by Pinto Colvig for a children's storytelling record album and illustrative read-along book set in 1946, he served as the mascot for Capitol Records. The character first appeared on US television in 1949 portrayed by Colvig. After the creative rights to Bozo were purchased by Larry Harmon in 1956, the character became a common franchise across the United States, with local television stations producing their own Bozo shows featuring the character. Harmon bought out his business partners in 1965 and produced Bozo's Big Top for syndication to local television markets not producing their own Bozo shows in 1966, while Chicago's Bozo's Circus, which premiered in 1960, went national via cable and satellite in 1978. Performers who have portrayed Bozo, aside from Colvig and Harmon, include Willard Scott, Frank Avruch, Bob Bell, Joey D'Auria.
Bozo TV shows were produced in other countries including Mexico, Greece and Thailand. Bozo appeared in the animated series Bozo: The World's Most Famous Clown. Bozo was created as a character by Livingston, who produced a children's storytelling record-album and illustrative read-along book set, the first of its kind, titled Bozo at the Circus for Capitol Records and released in October 1946. Colvig portrayed the character on subsequent Bozo read-along records; the albums were popular and the character became a mascot for the record company and was nicknamed "Bozo the Capitol Clown." Many non-Bozo Capitol children's records had a "Bozo Approved" label on the jacket. In 1948, Capitol and Livingston began setting up royalty arrangements with manufacturers and television stations for use of the Bozo character. KTTV in Los Angeles began broadcasting the first show, Bozo's Circus, in 1949 featuring Colvig as Bozo with his blue-and-red costume, oversized red hair and whiteface clown makeup on Fridays at 7:30 p.m.
In 1956, Larry Harmon, one of several actors hired by Livingston and Capitol Records to portray Bozo at promotional appearances, formed a business partnership and bought the licensing rights to the character when Livingston left Capitol in 1956. Harmon renamed the character "Bozo, The World's Most Famous Clown" and modified the voice and costume, he worked with a wig stylist to get the wing-tipped bright orange style and look of the hair that had appeared in Capitol's Bozo comic books. He started his own animation studio and distributed a series of cartoons to television stations, along with the rights for each to hire its own live Bozo host, beginning with KTLA-TV in Los Angeles on January 5, 1959 and starring Vance Colvig, Jr. son of the original "Bozo the Clown," Pinto Colvig. Unlike many other shows on television, "Bozo the Clown" was a franchise as opposed to being syndicated, meaning that local TV stations could put on their own local productions of the show complete with their own Bozo.
Another show that had used this model was fellow children's program Romper Room. Because each market used a different portrayer for the character, the voice and look of each market's Bozo differed slightly. One example is the voice and laugh of Chicago's WGN-TV Bob Bell, who wore a red costume throughout the first decade of his portrayal; the wigs for Bozo were manufactured through the Hollywood firm Emil Corsillo Inc. The company manufactured toupees and wigs for the entertainment industry. Bozo's headpiece was made from yak hair, adhered to a canvas base with a starched burlap interior foundation; the hair was styled and formed sprayed with a heavy coat of lacquer to keep its form. From time to time, the headpiece needed freshening and was sent to the Hollywood factory for a quick refurbishing; the canvas top would slide over the actor's forehead. With the exception of the Bozo wigs for WGN-TV Chicago, the eyebrows were permanently painted on the headpiece. In 1965, Harmon became the sole owner of the licensing rights.
Thinking that one national show that he owned would be more profitable for his company, Harmon produced 130 of his own half-hour shows from 1965 to 1967 titled Bozo's Big Top which aired on Boston's WHDH-TV with Boston's Bozo, Frank Avruch, for syndication in 1966. Avruch's portrayal and look of Bozo resembled Harmon's more so than most of the other portrayer's at the time. Avruch was enlisted by UNICEF as an international ambassador and was featured in a documentary, Bozo's Adventures in Asia; the show's distribution network included New York City, Los Angeles, Washington, D. C. and Boston at one point, though most television stations still preferred to continue producing their own versions. The most popular local version was Bob Bell and WGN-TV Chicago's Bozo's Circus, which went national via cable and satellite in 1978 and had a waiting list for studio audience reservations that reached ten years. Bell was replaced by Joey D'Auria; the WGN version survived competition from syndicated and network children's programs until 1994, when WGN management decided to get out of the weekday children's television business and buried The Bozo Show in an early Sunday timeslot as The Bozo Super Sunday Show.
It suffered another blow in 1997, when its format became educational following a Federal Communications Commission mandate requ