Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Le Havre AC
Le Havre Athletic Club is a French association football club based in Le Havre, Normandy. The club was founded as an athletics and rugby club in 1872. Le Havre plays in Ligue 2, the second level of French football, plays its home matches at the Stade Océane. Le Havre made its football debut in France's first-ever championship in 1899 and, on its debut, became the first French club outside Paris to win the league; the club won the league the following season in 1900. Le Havre has yet to win the current first division of French football, Ligue 1, but has participated in the league 24 times; the club's highest honour to date was winning the Coupe de France in 1959. The main rivalries of Le Havre are the "Derby Normand" with SM Caen and an always heated clash with Lens, located in the region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais, it was in 1872 that a group of British residents formed Le Havre Athlétique, which played a hybrid form of football, a cross between rugby and association football, called "combination".
Association football began being played on a regular basis in 1894. In 1899, Le Havre became the first club from outside Paris to become French football champions. At the time the championship was organised by the USFSA. After being awarded a win over Iris Club Lillois in the semi-final by walkover, they were awarded the title after receiving a walkover in the final against Club Français, they would win the following year, with the final being a "re-match" of the forfeited 1899 final. The club is famous for its notable youth investment program which develops and nurtures young talent, with the vision of using them in the first team if they show enough promise. A vast amount of good young talent has gone on to make an impact at international level including Benjamin Mendy, Ibrahim Ba, Jean-Alain Boumsong, Lassana Diarra, Riyad Mahrez, Steve Mandanda, Vikash Dhorasoo, Paul Pogba and Dimitri Payet; the club was on the receiving end of some high-profile illegal transfers, by which Charles N'Zogbia, Matthias Lepiller and Paul Pogba were signed by other clubs without the proper compensation being paid.
The first two were arbitrated by FIFA, who ordered Newcastle United and Fiorentina to pay training compensation. Le Havre is known as'les ciel et marine' in France, which translates as'the sky and navy blues'; these colours were chosen by the club's English founders as they were those of their alma maters, the universities of Oxford and Cambridge: the anthem of the club is played to the melody of "God Save the Queen" to mark the English origins of the club: "A jamais le premier de tous les clubs français ô H. A. C. Fiers de tes origins Fils d'Oxford et Cambridge deux coulours font nôtre prestige Ciel et marine!" English translation: "The first of all French clubs The H. A. C Proud of your roots Son of Oxford and Cambridge two colors make our prestige sky and the sea!" As of 5 March 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
As of 10 October 2018. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Ligue 2 Winners: 1938, 1959, 1985, 1991, 2008 Runners-up: 1950 Coupe de France Winners: 1959 Runners-up: 1920 USFSA Championnat Winners: 1899, 1900, 1919 Challenge international du Nord Winners: 1900 Coupe Nationale Winners: 1918, 1919 Challenge des Champions Winners: 1959 Official site
Jérémy Ménez is a French professional footballer who plays as a forward for Mexican club América. Ménez has been described as an ambidextrous, technically skilled, pacy playmaker. Ménez began his career spending time with various clubs in the Île-de-France region such as the Centre de Formation de Paris and CSF Brétigny. In 2001, he spent four years in the club's youth academy. In March 2004, Ménez became the youngest professional football player in the history of Ligue 1 after signing a professional contract and made his professional debut in the 2004–05 season. With Sochaux, he played European football for the first time after participating in the 2004–05 edition of the UEFA Cup. After two seasons at the club, he joined Monaco. At Monaco, Ménez developed into a playmaking midfielder under the tutelage of Brazilian manager Ricardo Gomes. After two successful seasons in Monaco, he signed for Serie A club Roma on a four-year contract. With Roma, Ménez featured in the UEFA Champions League for the first time and scored 12 goals in over 100 appearances with the club.
In July 2011, after three seasons with Roma, Ménez returned to France signing a three-year contract with Paris Saint-Germain. He was signed by A. C. Milan on a free transfer in June 2014, signing a three-year contract. Ménez is a former French youth international and has represented his nation at every level for which he was eligible. Prior to playing for the senior team, he played in the under-17 team that won the 2004 UEFA European Under-17 Football Championship. Ménez made his senior international debut in August 2010 in a friendly match against Norway, he represented his country at the Euro 2012. Ménez was born on 7 May 1987 in Longjumeau, a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, to a family, from Brittany; as a child, he grew up in Vitry-sur-Seine, not far from his birthplace, supported hometown club Paris Saint-Germain. Ménez became attracted to football through his father and older brother who were football players themselves. Ménez began his career at local club CA Vitry. After a year at the club, Ménez joined the Centre de Formation de Paris, a youth sporting club designed to cater only to football players under the age of 19.
While at C. F. F. P, Ménez developed and honed his technical skills and was placed into the playmaker position by his coaches. After five years at the academy, he departed the club after developing friction with the academy coaches. After leaving CFFP, Ménez joined CSF Brétigny, a local Parisian club that trained French internationals Patrice Evra and Jimmy Briand, he spent only a year at the club before securing a move to professional club Sochaux in Franche-Comté. Upon his arrival at Sochaux, Ménez entered the club's youth academy and began attending the sports department's elite high school, Vignes de Seloncourt, with ambitions of becoming an accountant. While in the club's academy, Ménez was adept both on and off the field earning good grades in school. On 24 March 2004, at the age of 16, he signed his first professional contract with Sochaux, agreeing to a three-year deal until June 2007. Upon signing the contract, he became the youngest professional football player in the history of Ligue 1.
Ménez was subsequently promoted to the club's senior team and assigned the number 26 shirt by manager Guy Lacombe. Prior to signing his contract, Ménez drew strong interest from English clubs Arsenal and Manchester United; the latter club's manager at the time, Sir Alex Ferguson, was accused by Sochaux's former president Jean-Claude Plessis of tapping up Ménez. Manchester United denied the accusations. Ménez travelled to Manchester and visited the team's facilities and Old Trafford, the club's stadium, before deciding to remain in France. On 7 August 2004, Ménez made his professional debut in the club's opening match of the 2004–05 season against Ajaccio, he started the match and played 57 minutes before being substituted for in a 1–0 win. Despite being so young, Ménez was a regular within the team rotating between the bench and starting XI. On 20 November, he scored his first professional goal in a 3–1 victory over Monaco. Two months Ménez became the youngest player in league history to score a hat-trick after recording one in the team's 4–0 victory over Bordeaux.
He scored the goals in a seven-minute span to assure Sochaux of victory. Ménez was a regular during the team's 2004–05 UEFA Cup campaign, appearing in six matches with the club. Sochaux suffered elimination in the Round of 32 at the hands of Greek club Olympiakos. Following the season, Ménez was nominated for the UNFP Young Player of the Year award but lost out to Nantes midfielder Jérémy Toulalan. For the 2005–06 season, Ménez switched to the number 11 shirt and was given a more prominent role within the team by new manager Dominique Bijotat, he appeared in 31 league matches, fifth-best on the team, scored three goals. Ménez scored his first goal on 15 October 2005 in a 1–1 draw against Bordeaux. At the beginning of the new year, Ménez scored his final two goals in another 1–1 draw with Nice and a 4–0 victory over Saint-Étienne. Sochaux finished the season in a disappointing 15th position after finishing the four previous seasons in the top ten; this led Ménez to declare his desire to leave the club.
On 8 June 2006, Sochaux chairman Dassier announced that he would consider offers for the player with Ligue 1 clubs Paris Saint-Germain, Bordeaux and English club Arsenal reported to be interested. On 22 June 2006, Sochaux announced on its website that it had reached an agreement with fellow Ligue 1 club Monaco for the transfer of Ménez, he signed a four-year contract, wit
Boissy-le-Sec is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. Inhabitants of Boissy-le-Sec are known as Boissyons. Communes of the Essonne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use
Abbéville-la-Rivière is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern France. Inhabitants are known as Abbevillois. Communes of the Essonne department INSEE 1999 Land Use
Athis-Mons is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 16.5 km from the center of Paris. Inhabitants are called Athégiens. A small part of Orly International Airport lies on the territory of the commune of Athis-Mons. Athis-Mons was formed in 1817 by joining two villages and Mons. Nowadays the lower area of the commune is called Athis-Val. A significant portion of Athis-Mons was destroyed during the Allied bombing raid of 18 April 1944. 300 people died and 4,000 people were left homeless. Athis-Mons had to be rebuilt after the war. Athis-Mons is located at the confluence of Orge and Seine rivers, at the southern edge of the international airport of Orly; the canton of Athis-Mons has 36,615 inhabitants. Athis-Mons is a twin town of Ballina in Ireland. Athis-Mons is served by Athis-Mons station on Paris RER line C; the commune has eight elementary schools. Preschools: Albert Calmette, Jules Ferry, Jean de la Fontaine, Pauline Kergomard, La Rougette, Charles Perrault, Jacques Prévert, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Elementary schools: Édouard Branly, Pierre et Marie Curie, Jules Ferry, Camille Flammarion, Jean Jaurès, Louis Pasteur, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Combined preschools and elementary schools: Jean-Baptiste de la SalleThere is a private Catholic school, Groupe scolaire Saint-Charles d'Athis-Mons.
Ballina, Republic of Ireland Filingué, Niger Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Germany Sinaia, Romania Sora, Italy Communes of the Essonne department INSEE Official website Mérimée database - Cultural heritage Land use
Angerville is a commune in the Essonne department in Île-de-France in northern. Inhabitants are known as Angervillois. Communes of the Essonne department INSEE Official website Mérimée database - Cultural heritage 1999 Land Use