The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
The components of rapping include content and delivery. Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that rap is performed in time to a beat. Rapping is often associated with and an ingredient of hip-hop music. Rapping is used in Kwaito music, a genre originated in Johannesburg, South Africa. Another form of rap that predates hip hop was boxer Muhammad Alis rhythmic poetry used to taunt his opponents in the 1960s and 1970s, rapping can be delivered over a beat, typically provided by a DJ, turntablist or Beatboxer, or without accompaniment. Stylistically, rap occupies an area between speech, prose and singing. The word, as used to describe quick speech or repartee, the word had been used in British English since the 16th century. It was part of the African American dialect of English in the 1960s meaning to converse, the terms rap and rapping are so closely associated with hip-hop music that many writers use the terms interchangeably. The English verb rap has various meanings, such as to strike, especially with a quick, smart, or light blow, as well to utter sharply or vigorously, to rap out a command.
The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary gives a date of 1541 for the first recorded use of the word with the meaning to utter sharply, vigorously and it is these meanings from which the musical form of rapping derives, and this definition may be from a shortening of repartee. A rapper refers to a performer who raps, by the late 1960s, when Hubert G. Brown changed his name to H. Rap was used to describe talking on records as early as 1971, on Isaac Hayes album Black Moses with track names such as Ikes Rap, Ikes Rap II, Ikes Rap III, Hayes husky-voiced sexy spoken raps became key components in his signature sound. Del the Funky Homosapien similarly states that rap was used to refer to talking in a manner in the early 1970s. Back what rapping meant, was you trying to convey something—youre trying to convince somebody, thats what rapping is, its in the way you talk. Rapping can be traced back to its African roots, centuries before hip-hop music existed, the griots of West Africa were delivering stories rhythmically, over drums and sparse instrumentation.
Such connections have been acknowledged by modern artists, modern day griots, spoken word artists, mainstream news sources. Grammy-winning blues musician/historian Elijah Wald and others have argued that the blues were being rapped as early as the 1920s, Wald went so far as to call hip hop the living blues. A notable recorded example of rapping in blues music was the 1950 song Gotta Let You Go by Joe Hill Louis, not just jazz music and lyrics but jazz poetry
Hip hop is a subculture and art movement developed by African-Americans and Latinos from the inner-city South Bronx neighbourhood in New York City in the late 1970s. Jamaican immigrant DJ Kool Herc played a key role in developing hip hop music, at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, Herc mixed samples of existing records and DJed percussion breaks, mixing this music with his own Jamaican-style toasting to rev up the crowd and dancers. These youths mixed these influences with existing musical styles associated with African Americans prior to the 1970s, Hip hop music became popular outside of the African-American community in the late 1980s, with the mainstream commercial success of gangsta rap. Critic Greg Tate described the hip hop movement as the only avant-garde still around, Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world. These elements were adapted and developed considerably, particularly as the art spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s.
Sampling older culture and re-using it in a new context or a new format is called flipping in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time, cowboy worked the hip hop cadence into his stage performance. The group frequently performed with artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them hip hoppers. The name was meant as a sign of disrespect, but soon came to identify this new music. The song Rappers Delight, by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase I said a hip, hop the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, and you dont stop. Lovebug Starski, a Bronx DJ who put out a single called The Positive Life in 1981, and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, There was hardly ever a moment when rap music was underground, one of the very first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Lovebug Starski as the first to use the hip hop.
Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades gang, did much to popularize the term. In the 1970s, an urban movement known as Hip Hop began to develop in the South Bronx in New York City. It focused on emceeing over breakbeats, house parties and neighbourhood block party events, Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities, particularly police and prisons. Jamaican-born DJ Clive Kool Herc Cindy Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion breaks in hip hop music, beginning at Hercs home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. Herc created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture by building upon the Jamaican tradition of impromptu toasting, on August 11,1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at his sisters back-to-school party
Outlandish is a hip-hop music group based in Denmark. Formed in 1997, it consists of Isam Bachiri, Waqas Ali Qadri, All three members are religious, with Isam and Waqas being Muslims and Lenny being Catholic. The group started out in the early 90s, initially the music was a creative blend of hip hop and folk, whilst maintaining influences from the backgrounds of the members. Their first single Pacific to Pacific was used in connection with an Amnesty International charity event, next came the single Saturday Night, a song that was included on the soundtrack for the Danish film Pizza King. The video is based around the fairy-tale Little Red Riding Hood and it portrays an Israeli soldier as the Wolf and the Palestinian girl, wearing a Kaffiyeh, as Little Red Riding Hood. Guantanamo made an impression on the European charts. Their single Kom Igen is featured on EAs FIFA07, sound of a Rebel, Outlandishs fifth album was released on 11 May 2009. Its first single was Rock All Day, Isam Bachiri features on the single Still Strong on Native Deens album, Not Afraid To Stand Alone.
Outlandish at the Internet Movie Database Outlandish at AllMusic
Sivas Torbati, better known by the mononym Sivas stylized as S. VAS, is a Danish rapper of Iranian origin. He is signed to Sony Music and he resided in Brøndby Strand famous for a number of rap and hip hop acts in Denmark. He moved to Smørum near Tingbjerg and finally Copenhagen, released on Forbandet Ungdom, a sub-label of Disco and distributed by Sony
Burhan Genç Koç, known as Burhan G, is a Danish R&B and pop singer and producer. He has released three albums including Burhan G in 2010 and Din for evigt, both certified platinum in Denmark. Hit singles include the five number one hits Mest ondt featuring Medina, Tættere på himlen featuring Nik & Jay, Din for evigt, Kalder mig hjem, Burhan Genç is of Kurdish origin. His parents are from Haymana, Turkey and he lived in Brøndby Strand 13 kilometers south-west of central Copenhagen and sang in the Københavns Drengekor as a solo soprano. He was a singer for the popular Danish hip hop group Outlandish. Collaborations followed with other acts including Funk Flush, Cas. Burhan Gs solo debut was with the signature track Burhan G, on 24 May 2004, Burhan G released his debut album Playground on BMG, with a further track featured on Danish Radio P3s Uundgåelige with single Take U Home. The album Playground got Burhan G nominated in 2005 to 3 categories in the Danish Music Awards and he won the award for Best Danish Newcomer.
He was nominated for Danish P3 Radios P3 Prisen and P3 Gennembrudet at P3 Guld ceremonies, same year he won award for Best Danish Album at the Danish DeeJay Awards. In the summer of 2008, Burhan G released his new single Kun dig and it was written in collaboration with Claus Seest and produced by Majid and Saqib. The song was Burhan Gs first hit in Danish followed by a Danish-language album, parts of the lyrics came from Nik & Jays song I Love Ya and in November 2009, that version was released by Nik & Jay providing vocals. In April 2010, Burhan G collaborated with Rasmus Seebach again alongside Sarah West and this Danish venture proved quite well as it gave Burhan G his first ever Danish No.1 in Mest ondt released on 8 March 2010 and reaching the Tracklisten top spot for 1 week. The single features the Danish singer Medina, the follow-up single Tættere på himlen featuring Nik & Jay topped the charts for three weeks in October 2010. Both were certified platinum in addition to a preceding single Jeg vil ha dig for mig selv certified platinum, who Is He and Kun dig singles have been certified gold in Denmark.
He had guest appearances with artists including Majid, Kisa. Burhan co-wrote and contributed in the vocals of Let Me Think About It in Ida Corrs album Robosoul in 2006. In September 2007 he appeared in Dutch House DJ Fedde le Grand remixed album that was an international hit for Fedde le Grand, including Europe. He worked with American DJ Roger Sanchez in Bang That Box and he co-wrote and produced the song Domino Effect to the English dancepop duo Addictive released in October 2009
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
The S-train is a type of hybrid urban-suburban rail serving a metropolitan region. Some of the larger S-train systems provide service similar to transit systems. There is no definition of an S-train system. S-trains are, where they exist, the most local type of railway stopping at all existing stations inside and they are slower than mainline railways but usually serve as fast crosstown services within the city. Most S-train systems are built on older local railways, or in some cases parallel to an existing dual track railway. Most use existing local mainline railway trackage, but a few branches can be purpose built S-train lines, S-trains typically use overhead lines or a third rail for traction power. In Hamburg the S-trains use both the methods, depending on which line is powered. Busy S-train corridors sometimes have sections of exclusive trackage of their own, a good example of this is the part of Berlins S-Bahn, which is regarded as a tourist attraction and has a special name, Berliner Stadtbahn.
However, in more lightly used sections outside the city center, the S-trains stop at all stations, while other mainline trains only stop at the largest stations. S-trains are generally service the hinterland of a city, rather than connecting different cities. The S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland constitutes the main railway system for Leipzig but connects to Halle. The Rostock S-Bahn is an example of a smaller S-Bahn system, many of the larger S-train systems have central sections that individual suburban branches feed into, creating high frequency corridors. For instance, on weekdays, the section of the Copenhagen S-train has five services connecting to. Further out from the parts of a city the individual services branch off into lines with distances between stations can exceed 5 km, similar to commuter rail. This allows the S-train to serve a dual purpose, local transport within a city center. The rolling stock used in S-Trains reflect its hybrid purpose. The interior is designed for short journeys with provision for standing passengers but may have space allocated to larger.
Integration with other local transport for ticketing and easy interchange between lines or other system like metros is typical for S-trains