Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
It is surrounded by the neighbourhoods Brønshøj, Utterslev, Søborg and Emdrup. It is known for its bird life and has a dense network of walking and cycling trails. Utterslev Mose was originally one big, shallow-watered lake which formed at the end of the last Ice Age and it was used in Copenhagens water supply from the 16th century until 1849. It has used for peat harvesting. Utterslev Mose was formally part of the West Wall a defensive line around Copenhagen that was part of the fortifications of Copenhagen, the west wall was closed in 1920 and turned into a recreational area. Utterslev Mose was converted into a park between 1939 and 1943. Lakes were dug out, canals established and a number of reed islands created to provide nesting grounds for wild birds, the park was protected in 2000. Utterslev Mose has an area of 200 hectares of which 97 hectares are covered by water, a circuit of the three lakes Vestmosen, Midtmosen and Østmosen as well as Højmosen in the northeastern corner is about nine kilometres long.
Utterslev Mose has a population of wild birds. Utterslev Utteslev Mose - Copenhagen Municipality Website
Gladsaxe Kommune is a municipality near Copenhagen in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 25 km2, and has a population of 66,693. Its mayor is Karin Søjberg Holst, a member of the Social Democrats political party, the site of its municipal council is the town of Buddinge. Other towns in the municipality are Gladsaxe, Bagsværd, and Mørkhøj –, Mørkhøj, Værebro in Bagsværd and Høje-Gladsaxe are larger housing projects and home to many immigrants and being typical for many concrete highrise suburbs in Copenhagen. Picture of Gladsaxe Heights, At Gladsaxe, there is a 206.5 metres tall guyed TV mast and it was the first TV transmission site in Denmark. Since 2014, Gladsaxe been home to Copenhagen gem and mineral show, the show is an annual two-day event that attracts exhibitors from all around the world and an audience of thousands from Denmark and Sweden. Gladsaxe municipality was not merged with other municipalities by 1 January 2007 as the result of nationwide Kommunalreformen, Gladsaxe municipality is home to many company headquarters, including those of Novo Nordisk and Scandinavian Tobacco Group and MT Højgaard
Bispebjerg, more commonly referred to as Nordvest, is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located on the border of the municipality, it covers an area of 5.39 km². More specifically, Bispebjerg refers to a neighbourhood within the district. Bispebjerg covers an area of 5.39 km² and has a population of 40,033, the name Bispebjerg is known from 1681 as Biszebierg. A windmill was built in the area in 1808, Bispebjerg was together with the rest of Brønshøj merged with Copenhagen in 1901. Bispebjerg Cemetery opened in 1903 and Bispebjerg Hospital was built between 1908 and 1913, the district was generally built over with a combination of residential neighbourhoods and industry in the 1920s and 1930s. Bispebjerg station Bispebjerg Hospital City of Copenhagen’s statistical office Map of so-called ghetto areas in central Copenhagen
A green belt or greenbelt is a policy and land use designation used in land use planning to retain areas of largely undeveloped, wild, or agricultural land surrounding or neighbouring urban areas. Similar concepts are greenways or green wedges which have a linear character, in essence, a green belt is an invisible line designating a border around a certain area, preventing development of the area and allowing wildlife to return and be established. The green belt has many benefits for people, camping, contiguous habitat network for wild plants and wildlife. Cleaner air and water Better land use of areas within the bordering cities, the effectiveness of green belts differs depending on location and country. The Old Testament outlines a proposal for a belt around the Levite towns in the Land of Israel. Moses Maimonides expounded that the plan from the Old Testament referred to all towns in ancient Israel. In the 7th century, Muhammad established a green belt around Medina and he did this by prohibiting any further removal of trees in a 12-mile long strip around the city.
In 1580 Elizabeth I of England banned new building in a 3-mile wide belt around the City of London in an attempt to stop the spread of plague, this was not widely enforced and it was possible to buy dispensations which reduced the effectiveness of the proclamation. Green belt policy was pioneered in the United Kingdom, various proposals were put forward from 1890 onwards but the first to garner widespread support was put forward by the London Society in its Development Plan of Greater London 1919. Alongside the CPRE they lobbied for a belt to prevent urban sprawl. There are fourteen green belt areas, in the UK covering 16,716 km², or 13% of England, other notable examples are the Ottawa Greenbelt and Golden Horseshoe Greenbelt in Ontario, Canada. Ottawas 20,350 hectare greenbelt is managed by the National Capital Commission, the more general term in the United States is green space or greenspace, which may be a very small area such as a park. The dynamic Adelaide Park Lands, measuring approximately 7.6 km², on the fringe of the eastern suburbs, an expansive natural greenbelt in the Adelaide Hills acts as a growth boundary for Adelaide, cooling the region in the hottest months.
The European Commissions COST Action C11 is undertaking Case studies in Greenstructure Planning involving 15 European countries. An act of the Swedish parliament from 1994 has declared a series of parks in Stockholm, the stated motivation and benefits of the green belt might be well-intentioned, but these benefits do not accrue as intentioned or claimed. Examples commonly cited are the Ottawa suburbs of Kanata and Orleans and this leads to other problems, as residents of these areas have a longer commute to work places in the city and worse access to public transport. It means people have to commute through the green belt, not only is the merit of a green belt subverted, but the green belt may heighten the problem and make the city unsustainable. There are many examples whereby the actual effect of green belts is to act as a reserve for future freeways
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Tingbjerg is a large housing project designed and built from 1950 to 1972 by Steen Eiler Rasmussen as principal architect. It is located in Copenhagen County,6 km northwest of the center of Copenhagen in Denmark, the area is idyllic in its own green pocket surrounded by Vestvolden and Utterslev Mose. There is plenty of light and air, beautiful nature and rich wildlife, the inhabitants are mixed with Danes and immigrants. Of 6,566 inhabitants, 42% are native Danes, 37% are immigrants, there have been several instances of harassment and criminality in Tingbjerg. The local priest was harassed by young Muslim males from the neighborhood, there have been violence against Muslims in Tingbjerg. On August 14,2008, Osman Nuri Dogan, a 19-year-old Turk, was shot and killed by an AK81 member in Tingbjerg