A balcony is a platform projecting from the wall of a building, supported by columns or console brackets, enclosed with a balustrade above the ground floor. The traditional Maltese balcony is a wooden closed balcony projecting from a wall. By contrast, a'Juliet balcony' does not protrude out of the building, it is part of an upper floor, with a balustrade only at the front, like a small Loggia. Modern Juliet balconies involve a metal barrier placed in front of a high window which can be opened. Juliet balconies are named after Shakespeare's Juliet, who, in traditional stagings of the play Romeo and Juliet, is courted by Romeo while she is on her balcony—though the play itself, as written, makes no mention of a balcony, but only of a window at which Juliet appears. Various types of balcony have been used in depicting this famous scene; the Julian Balcony is a larger version of the well-known Juliet Balcony, protruding from the wall, unlike the smaller Juliet balcony, spanning at least two windows rather than one.
Sometimes balconies are adapted for ceremonial purposes, e.g. that of St. Peter's Basilica at Rome, when the newly elected pope gives his blessing urbi et orbi after the conclave. Inside churches, balconies are sometimes provided for the singers, in banqueting halls and the like for the musicians. A unit with a regular balcony will have doors that open up onto a small patio with railings, a small Patio garden or Skyrise greenery. A French balcony is a false balcony, with doors that open to a railing with a view of the courtyard or the surrounding scenery below. In theatres, the balcony was a stage-box, but the name is now confined to the part of the auditorium above the dress circle and below the gallery. Balconies are part of the sculptural shape of the building allowing for irregular facades without the cost of irregular internal structures. One of the most famous uses of a balcony is in traditional stagings of the scene that has come to be known as the "balcony scene" in William Shakespeare's tragedy and Juliet.
Manufacturers' names for their balcony designs refer to the origin of the design, e.g. Italian balcony, Spanish balcony, Mexican balcony, Ecuadorian balcony, they refer to the shape and form of the pickets used for the balcony railings, e.g. knuckle balcony. Deck Jharokha Loggia Mashrabiya Mezzanine Minstrel's gallery Patio Porch Verandah Balconing Media related to Balconies at Wikimedia Commons "Balcony". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
A pergola is an outdoor garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained. The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula; as a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, with a green tunnel being a type of road under a canopy of trees. Pergolas are sometimes confused with arbours, the terms are used interchangeably. An arbour is regarded as a wooden bench seat with a roof enclosed by lattice panels forming a framework for climbing plants. A pergola, on the other hand, is a much larger and more open structure and does not include integral seating. A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained.
As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. Pergolas may link pavilions or extend from a building's door to an open garden feature such as an isolated terrace or pool. Freestanding pergolas, those not attached to a home or other structure, provide a sitting area that allows for breeze and light sun, but offer protection from the harsh glare of direct sunlight. Pergolas give climbing plants a structure on which to grow. Pergolas are more permanent architectural features than the green tunnels of late medieval and early Renaissance gardens, which were formed of springy withies—easily replaced shoots of willow or hazel—bound together at the heads to form a series of arches loosely woven with long slats on which climbers were grown, to make a passage, both cool and shaded and moderately dry in a shower. At the Medici villa, La Petraia and outer curving segments of such green walks, the forerunners of pergolas, give structure to the pattern, which can be viewed from the long terrace above it..
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula. The English term was borrowed from Italian, it was mentioned in an Italian context in 1645 by John Evelyn at the cloister of Trinità dei Monti in Rome He used the term in an English context in 1654 when, in the company of the fifth Earl of Pembroke, Evelyn watched the coursing of hares from a "pergola" built on the downs near Salisbury for that purpose. The artificial nature of the pergola made it fall from favor in the naturalistic gardening styles of the 18th and 19th centuries, yet handsome pergolas on brick and stone pillars with powerful cross-beams were a feature of the gardens designed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Gertrude Jekyll and epitomize their trademark of firm structure luxuriantly planted. A extensive pergola features at the gardens of The Hill, designed by Thomas Mawson for his client W. H. Lever. Modern pergola design material including wood, fiberglass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride rather than brick or stone pillars, are more affordable and are increasing in popularity.
Wooden pergolas are either made from a weather-resistant wood, such as western redcedar or of coast redwood, are painted or stained, or use wood treated with preservatives for outdoor use. For a low maintenance alternative to wood, fiberglass, aluminum and CPVC can be used; these materials do not require yearly paint or stain like a wooden pergola and their manufacture can make them stronger and longer-lasting than a wooden pergola. Breezeway Brise soleil Latticework Patio Trellis Vine training systems Media related to Pergolas at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of pergola at Wiktionary
A parapet is a barrier, an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, balcony, walkway or other structure. The word comes from the Italian parapetto; the German equivalent Brüstung has the same meaning. Where extending above a roof, a parapet may be the portion of an exterior wall that continues above the edge line of the roof surface, or may be a continuation of a vertical feature beneath the roof such as a fire wall or party wall. Parapets were used to defend buildings from military attack, but today they are used as guard rails and to prevent the spread of fires. Parapets may be plain, perforated or panelled, which are not mutually exclusive terms. Plain parapets are upward extensions of the wall, sometimes with a coping at the top and corbel below. Embattled parapets may be panelled, but are pierced, if not purely as stylistic device, for the discharge of defensive projectiles. Perforated parapets are pierced in various designs such as trefoils, or quatrefoils. Panelled parapets are ornamented by a series of panels, either oblong or square, more or less enriched, but not perforated.
These are common in the Perpendicular periods. The teachings of Moses prescribed parapets on roof edges for newly constructed houses as a safety measure; the Mirror Wall at Sigiriya, Sri Lanka built between 477 and 495 AD is one of the few surviving protective parapet walls from antiquity. Built onto the side of Sigiriya Rock it ran for a distance of 250 meters and provided protection from inclement weather. Only about one hundred meters of this wall exists today, but brick debris and grooves on the rock face along the western side of the rock show where the rest of this wall once stood. Parapets surrounding roofs are common in London; this dates from the Building Act of 1707 which banned projecting wooden eaves in the cities of Westminster and London as a fire risk. Instead an 18-inch brick parapet was required, with the roof set behind; this was continued in many Georgian houses, as it gave the appearance of a flat roof which accorded with the desire for classical proportions. Many firewalls are required to have a portion of the wall extending above the roof.
The parapet is required to be as fire resistant as the lower wall, extend a distance prescribed by building code. Parapets on bridges and other highway structures prevent users from falling off where there is a drop, they may be meant to restrict views, to prevent rubbish passing below, to act as noise barriers. Bridge parapets may be made from any material, but structural steel, aluminium and reinforced concrete are common, they may be of framed construction. In European standards, parapets are defined as a sub-category of "vehicle restraint systems" or "pedestrian restraint systems". In terms of fortification, a parapet is a wall of stone, wood or earth on the outer edge of a defensive wall or trench, which shelters the defenders. In medieval castles, they were crenellated. In artillery forts, parapets tend to be higher and thicker, they could be provided with embrasures for the fort's guns to fire through, a banquette or fire-step so that defending infantry could shoot over the top. The top of the parapet slopes towards the enemy to enable the defenders to shoot downwards.
In śilpaśāstra, the ancient Indian science of sculpture, a parapet is known as hāra. It is optionally added while constructing a temple; the hāra can be decorated according to the Kāmikāgama. Attic style Breastwork Merlon Redoubt Senani Ponnamperuma; the Story of Sigiriya, Panique Pty Ltd, 2013 pp 124–127, 179. ISBN 978-0987345141. Victorian Forts glossary Parapet What is a Parapet
In architecture a corbel is in medieval architecture a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket. A corbel is a solid piece of material in the wall, whereas a console is a piece applied to the structure. A piece of timber projecting in the same way was called a "bragger" in England; the technique of corbelling, where rows of corbels keyed inside a wall support a projecting wall or parapet, has been used since Neolithic times. It is common in medieval architecture and in the Scottish baronial style as well as in the vocabulary of classical architecture, such as the modillions of a Corinthian cornice, Hindu temple architecture and in ancient Chinese architecture. A console is more an "S"-shaped scroll bracket in the classical tradition, with the upper or inner part larger than the lower or outer. Keystones are often in the form of consoles. Whereas "corbel" is used outside architecture, "console" is used for furniture, as in console table, other decorative arts where the motif appears.
The word "corbel" comes from Old French and derives from the Latin corbellus, a diminutive of corvus, which refers to the beak-like appearance. The French refer to a bracket-corbel a load-bearing internal feature, as a corbeau. Norman corbels have a plain appearance, although they may be elaborately carved with stylised heads of humans, animals or imaginary "beasts", sometimes with other motifs. In the Early English period corbels were sometimes elaborately carved, as at Lincoln Cathedral, sometimes more so. Corbels sometimes end with a point growing into the wall, or forming a knot, are supported by angels and other figures. In the periods the carved foliage and other ornaments used on corbels resemble those used in the capitals of columns. Throughout England, in half-timber work, wooden corbels abound, carrying window-sills or oriel windows in wood, which are carved; the corbels carrying balconies in Italy and France were sometimes of great size and richly carved, some of the finest examples of the Italian "Cinquecento" style are found in them.
Taking a cue from 16th-century practice, the Paris-trained designers of 19th-century Beaux-Arts architecture were encouraged to show imagination in varying corbels. A corbel table is a projecting moulded string course supported by a range of corbels. Sometimes these corbels carry a small arcade under the string course, the arches of which are pointed and trefoiled; as a rule the corbel table carries the gutter, but in Lombard work the arcaded corbel table was utilized as a decoration to subdivide the storeys and break up the wall surface. In Italy sometimes over the corbels will form a moulding, above a plain piece of projecting wall forming a parapet; the corbels carrying the arches of the corbel tables in Italy and France were elaborately moulded, sometimes in two or three courses projecting over one another. In modern chimney construction, a corbel table is constructed on the inside of a flue in the form of a concrete ring beam supported by a range of corbels; the corbels can be either in-situ or pre-cast concrete.
The corbel tables described here are built at ten-metre intervals to ensure stability of the barrel of refractory bricks constructed thereon. Corbelling, where rows of corbels build a wall out from the vertical, has long been used as a simple kind of vaulting, for example in many Neolithic chambered cairns, where walls are corbelled in until the opening can be spanned by a slab. In medieval architecture the technique was used to support upper storeys or a parapet projecting forward from the wall plane to form machicolation; this became a decorative feature, without the openings. Corbelling supporting upper stories and supporting projecting corner turrets subsequently became a characteristic of the Scottish baronial style. Medieval timber-framed buildings employ jettying, where upper stories are cantilevered out on projecting wooden beams in a similar manner to corbelling. Atlas Dentil Eave Fireplace mantel Modillion Muqarna Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Corbel". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press.
The CRSBI website has many examples of James Stevens. A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Oxford University Press. Pp. 880 pages. ISBN 0-19-860678-8. Beyond-the-pale A discursive and richly-illustrated website showing corbels on hundreds of churches in the British Isles and Spain, depicting the sins of the flesh and their punishment An illustrated glossary of the terms used masonry construction
Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
Greenwich Hospital, London
Greenwich Hospital was a permanent home for retired sailors of the Royal Navy, which operated from 1692 to 1869. Its buildings were used by the Royal Naval College and the University of Greenwich, are now known as the Old Royal Naval College; the word "hospital" was used in its original sense of a place providing hospitality for those in need of it, did not refer to medical care, although the buildings included an infirmary which, after Greenwich Hospital closed, operated as Dreadnought Seaman's Hospital until 1986. The foundation which operated the hospital still exists, for the benefit of former Royal Navy personnel and their dependants, it now provides sheltered housing on other sites. The hospital was created as the Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich on the instructions of Queen Mary II, inspired by the sight of wounded sailors returning from the Battle of La Hogue in 1692, she ordered the King Charles wing of the palace—originally designed by architect John Webb for King Charles II in 1664—to be remodelled as a naval hospital to provide a counterpart for the Chelsea Hospital for soldiers.
Sir Christopher Wren and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor gave their services free of charge as architects of the new Royal Hospital. Sir John Vanbrugh succeeded Wren as architect. An early controversy arose when it emerged that the original plans for the hospital would have blocked the riverside view from the Queen's House. Queen Mary II therefore ordered that the buildings be split, providing an avenue leading from the river through the hospital grounds up to the Queen's House and Greenwich Hill beyond; this gave the hospital its distinctive look, with its buildings arranged in a number of quadrants. Its four main buildings are bisected north-south by a Grand Square and processional route, east-west by an internal road from the East Gate to the West Gate by Greenwich Market in Greenwich town centre; the Grand Square and processional route running north-south maintained access to, a river view from, the Queen's House and Greenwich Park beyond. Construction was financed through an endowment, financed through the transfer of ₤19,500 in fines paid by merchants convicted of smuggling in 1695, a public fundraising appeal which brought in ₤9,000, a ₤2,000 annual contribution from Treasury.
Parliament passed etc.. Act 1695, long titled An Act for the Increase and Encouragement of Seamen, which established the basic rules of use and benefits for seamen, amended it the following year by the Greenwich Hospital, etc. Act 1696. In 1705 an additional ₤6,472 was paid into the fund, comprising the liquidated value of estates belonging to the hanged pirate Captain William Kidd; the first of the principal buildings constructed was the King Charles Court, completed in 1705. The first governor, Sir William Gifford, took up office in 1708; the other principal buildings constructed included Queen Mary Court, completed in 1742, Queen Anne Court, King William Court. Queen Mary Court houses the hospital's chapel, its present appearance dates from 1779–89, when it was rebuilt to a design by James "Athenian" Stuart after a devastating fire. King William Court is famous for its baroque Painted Hall, painted by Sir James Thornhill in honour of King William III and Queen Mary II, of Queen Anne and her husband, Prince George of Denmark and George I.
The Painted Hall was deemed too magnificent for the pensioned seamen's refectory and was never used as such. It became a tourist destination, opened for viewing. On 5 January 1806, Lord Nelson's body lay in state in the Painted Hall of the Greenwich Hospital before being taken up the river Thames to St Paul's Cathedral for a state funeral. In 1824 a National Gallery of Naval Art was created in the Painted Hall, where it remained until 1936, when the collection was transferred to the National Maritime Museum, newly established in the Queen's House and adjacent buildings. On the riverside front of the north-east corner of King Charles Court is an obelisk, designed by Philip Hardwick and unveiled in 1855, erected in memory of the Arctic explorer Joseph René Bellot, who died in an unsuccessful attempt to rescue the members of John Franklin's ill-fated expedition to open a Northwest Passage in northern Canada. A Royal Hospital School opened on the site in 1712 to provide assistance and education to the orphans of seafarers in the Royal and Merchant Navies.
In 1933 it moved to Suffolk. The Greenwich Hospital buildings included an infirmary, constructed in the 1760s to a design by James Stuart, where pensioners were attended by trained medical staff. After some adaptation and rebuilding this became the Dreadnought Seamen's Hospital in 1870; the treatment for tropical diseases moved in 1919 to the Seamen's Hospital Society hospital near Euston Square, in central London, to form the Hospital for Tropical Diseases. The Dreadnought Seaman's Hospital closed in 1986, with special services for seamen and their families provided by the Dreadnought Unit at St Thomas's Hospital in Lambeth. Greenwich Hospital closed in 1869; the remains of tho
A window box is a type of flower container for live flowers or plants in the form of a box attached on or just below the sill of a window. It may be used for growing herbs or other edible plants. A window box is placed on a window sill, or fixed to the wall below it, so the owner can access the plants in it; when installed under a window, it is supported by brackets on the wall below. Some materials, such as PVC or fibreglass, use a cleat mounting system from behind to attach it to the building, or it may be bolted directly to the building without the use of support brackets. Wood, terracotta, fibre glass and cellular PVC may all be used in window box construction. A typical wooden window box lasts 3–5 years before showing deterioration, though with painting and maintenance can last 10–15 years. Window boxes are accessed from indoors, are used by people who live on upper floors without access to gardens or other plantable areas, they enable plants to be seen by those inside as well as outside.
Larger boxes, 10–12 inches in height, can be used to plant items that need more root space, to allow flowers and plants to be grown in multiple rows. Container Flower box Flower pot Urban horticulture Container garden List of gardening topics Windowfarm Mrs. F. A. Bardswell; the book of town & window gardening. London: J. Lane – via HathiTrust. Winning Window Boxes