Yukon is the smallest and westernmost of Canada's three federal territories. It has the smallest population of any province or territory in Canada, with 35,874 people, although it has the largest city in any of the three territories. Whitehorse is Yukon's only city. Yukon was split from the Northwest Territories in 1898 and was named the Yukon Territory; the federal government's Yukon Act, which received royal assent on March 27, 2002, established Yukon as the territory's official name, though Yukon Territory is still popular in usage and Canada Post continues to use the territory's internationally approved postal abbreviation of YT. Though bilingual, the Yukon government recognizes First Nations languages. At 5,959 m, Yukon's Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second-highest on the North American continent. Most of Yukon has a subarctic climate, characterized by brief warm summers; the Arctic Ocean coast has a tundra climate. Notable rivers include the Yukon River, as well as the Pelly, Peel and Tatshenshini rivers.
The territory is named after the longest river in Yukon. The name itself is from a contraction of the words in the Gwich'in phrase chųų gąįį han, which means white water river and refers to "the pale colour" of glacial runoff in the Yukon River. Long before the arrival of Europeans and southern Yukon was populated by First Nations people, the area escaped glaciation. Sites of archeological significance in Yukon hold some of the earliest evidence of the presence of human habitation in North America; the sites safeguard the earliest First Nations of the Yukon. The volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill in 800 AD in what is now the U. S. state of Alaska blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway, which forms part of the oral tradition of First Nations peoples in Yukon and further south in Canada. Coastal and inland First Nations had extensive trading networks. European incursions into the area began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries.
By the 1870s and 1880s gold miners began to arrive. This drove a population increase that justified the establishment of a police force, just in time for the start of the Klondike Gold Rush in 1897; the increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U. S. state of Alaska to the west and northwest for 1,210 km along longitude 141° W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea, its ragged eastern boundary follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Most of the territory is in the watershed of the Yukon River; the southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system.
The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within Yukon. Canada's highest point, Mount Logan, is in the territory's southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of Yukon's southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Vuntut National Park in the north. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River, the Peel Watershed and the Alsek–Tatshenshini, a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea; the two main Yukon rivers flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within Yukon are white spruce. Many trees are stunted because of severe climate; the capital, Whitehorse, is the largest city, with about three-quarters of the population.
British Columbia Northwest Territories Alaska, United States While the average winter temperature in Yukon is mild by Canadian arctic standards, no other place in North America gets as cold as Yukon during extreme cold snaps. The temperature has dropped down to −60 °C three times, 1947, 1954, 1968; the most extreme cold snap occurred in February 1947 when the abandoned town of Snag dropped down to −63.0 °C. Unlike most of Canada where the most extreme heat waves occur in July and September, Yukon's extreme heat tends to occur in June and May. Yukon has recorded 36 °C three times; the first time was in June 1969 when Mayo recorded a temperature of 36.1 °C. 14 years this record was beaten when Forty Mile recorded 36 °C in May 1983. The old record was broken 21 years in June 2004 when the Mayo Road weather station, located just northwest of Whitehorse, recorded a temperature of 36.5 °C. The 2016 census reported a Yukon population of 35,874, an increase of 5.8% from 2011. With a land area of 474,712.64 km2, it had a population de
Boeing Field King County International Airport, is a public airport owned and operated by King County, five miles south of downtown Seattle, Washington. The airport is sometimes referred to as KCIA; the airport has some passenger service, but is used by general aviation and cargo. It is named for the founder of William E. Boeing; the airport's property is in Seattle just south of Georgetown, with its southern tip extending into Tukwila. It has more than 375,000 operations yearly. Except for the World War II period, when it was taken over by the U. S. government, Boeing Field was Seattle's main passenger airport from its construction in 1928 until Seattle-Tacoma International Airport began operations in the late 1940s. The Boeing Company continues to use the field for testing and delivery of its airplanes, it is still a major regional cargo hub, it is used by Air Force One when the President of the United States visits the Seattle area. The August 1946 OAG lists 24 United Airlines weekday departures, 10 weekly flights on Northwest Airlines and several Pan Am Douglas DC-3s a week to Juneau via Annette Island Airport, which served Ketchikan.
Boeing Field has no scheduled passenger jet airline service. The last jet service was on Hughes Airwest in 1971 and before that by predecessors Air West and West Coast Airlines, all using DC-9s. A proposal by Southwest Airlines in June 2005 was submitted to King County to relocate from Seattle-Tacoma International Airport to Boeing Field, but was rejected by King County Executive Ron Sims in October. A similar proposal by Alaska Airlines was rejected. Southwest Airlines said; the transfer of ownership of Boeing Field from King County to the Port of Seattle was proposed in 2007 as part of a land swap with land owned by the Port. The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 called it a primary commercial service airport. Federal Aviation Administration records say the airport had 34,597 passenger boardings in calendar year 2008, 35,863 in 2009 and 33,656 in 2010; the airport covers 634 acres at an elevation of 21 feet. It has two asphalt runways: 14R/32L is 10,007 by 200 feet and 14L/32R is 3,709 by 100 feet.
In the year ending January 1, 2018 the airport had 184,182 aircraft operations, average 504 per day: 78% general aviation, 16% air taxi, 5% airline, <1% military. 384 aircraft were based at this airport: 229 single-engine, 40 multi-engine, 88 jet, 26 helicopter, 1 glider. The runway numbers were updated from 13/31 to 14/32 in August 2017, due to shifting magnetic headings; the Boeing Company has facilities at the airport. Final preparations for delivery of Boeing 737 aircraft after the first test flight are made at Boeing Field. Boeing facilities at the airport have included a paint hangar and flight test facilities; the initial assembly of the 737 was at Boeing Field in the 1960s because the factory in Renton was at capacity building the Boeing 707 and Boeing 727. After 271 aircraft, production moved to Renton in late 1970. Production of military airborne early warning and control aircraft based on the 737, such as Project Wedgetail aircraft and Peace Eagle aircraft is located at Boeing Field.
The Museum of Flight is on the southwest corner of the field. Among the aircraft on display is an ex-British Airways Concorde, lent to the museum from BA, a supersonic airliner that landed at Boeing Field on its first visit to Seattle on November 15, 1984. Aircraft on the airfield can be seen from the museum; the King County International Airport contracts with the King County Sheriff's Office for police services. Deputies assigned to the airport wear a mix of both Police and Fire uniforms, turnouts etc. which includes single Police, Fire/ARFF patch, drive King County International Airport Police patrol cars. There are 17 patrol officers/sergeants and one chief assigned full-time to the airport. Officers assigned to the airport are required to obtain a Washington State Fire Fighter One certification and an Emergency Medical Technician certification. Boeing Field had scheduled passenger flights on West Coast Airlines Douglas DC-9-10s, Fairchild F-27s and Douglas DC-3s to Idaho, Washington state, northern California, western Montana, northern Utah and Calgary in Alberta.
The April 28, 1968 West Coast timetable shows nonstop flights to Aberdeen, WA/Hoquiam, WA, Boise, ID, Olympia, WA, Pasco, WA, Portland, OR, Salt Lake City, UT, Spokane, WA, Tacoma, WA, Wenatchee, WA and Yakima, WA. West Coast DC-9s flew nonstop to Boise, Portland, Salt Lake City and Yakima, direct to San Francisco and Medford. F-27s flew to Alberta. West Coast, which had its headquarters in the Seattle area and operated all of its flights from Boeing Field, merged with Pacific Air Lines and Bonanza Air Lines to form Air West which continued at Boeing Field until it moved to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport in 1971. Aeroamerica, an airline based at Boeing Field from 1971 to 1982 which operated Boeing 707s and Boeing 720s, flew nonstop to Spokane, Washington. Air Oregon, a commuter airline, scheduled Swearingen Metros in 1979 to its hub in Oregon. Helijet, a helicopter airline based at Vancouver International Airport in British Columbia, operated scheduled Sikorsky S-76 twin engine helicopter flights to the Victoria Harbour Heliport in British Columbia with direct one stop service to Helijet's Vancouver Harbour Heliport next to downtown Vancouver, B.
C. before ceasing flights on the route. Washing
Mountaineering is the set of activities that involves ascending mountains. Mountaineering-related activities include traditional outdoor climbing, hiking and traversing via ferratas. Indoor climbing, sport climbing and bouldering are considered mountaineering as well. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed big mountains, it has branched into specializations that address different aspects of mountains, depending on whether the route chosen is over rock, snow, or ice or on level ground. All require various degrees of experience, athletic ability, technical knowledge to maintain safety, it is still common to seek the summits of peaks, whether unclimbed or not. Mountaineering is called alpinism, mountain climbers are sometimes called alpinists, although use of the term may vary between countries and eras; the word "alpinism" was born in the 19th century to refer to climbing for the purpose of enjoying climbing itself as a sport or recreation, distinct from climbing while hunting or as a religious pilgrimage, done at that time.
The UIAA, the International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation, is the International Olympic Committee-recognized world governing body for mountaineering and climbing, addressing issues like access, mountain protection, safety and ice climbing. Many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they regarded as sacred due to their perceived proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. On April 26, 1336 famous Italian poet Petrarch climbed to the summit of 1,912 m Mount Ventoux overlooking the Bay of Marseilles, claiming to be inspired by Philip V of Macedon's ascent of Mount Haemo, making him the first known alpinist. One of the first European mountains visited by many tourists was Sněžka; this was due to the minor technical difficulties ascent and the fact that since the sixteenth century, many resort visitors flocked to the nearby Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój and visible Sněžka, visually dominant over all Krkonoše was for them an important attraction. The first confirmed ascent took place in the year 1456.
In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a little team, using ladders and ropes. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, has been said to mark the beginning of mountaineering. In 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains. During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, many mountain summits were surmounted for the first time.. In 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. In 1757 Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure made the first of several unsuccessful attempts on Mont Blanc in France offering a reward, claimed in 1786 by Jacques Balmat and Michel-Gabriel Paccard. By the early 19th century many of the alpine peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812, the Breithorn in 1813.
In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc, followed in 1838 by Henriette d'Angeville. The beginning of mountaineering as a sport in the UK is dated to the ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 by English mountaineer Sir Alfred Wills, who made mountaineering fashionable in Britain; this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Prominent figures of the period include Lord Francis Douglas, Florence Crauford Grove, Charles Hudson, E. S. Kennedy, William Mathews, A. W. Moore, Leslie Stephen, Francis Fox Tuckett, John Tyndall, Horace Walker and Edward Whymper. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, Johannes Zumtaugwald. In the early years of the "golden age", scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and alpine mountaineering overall.
One of the most dramatic events was the spectacular first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865 by a party led by English illustrator Edward Whymper, in which four of the party members fell to their deaths. This ascent is regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age. By this point the sport of mountaineering had reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides and fixed guidelines. Mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James and two others in 1820. Though lower than Pikes Peak, the glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842. Pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Denali, the tallest peak in North America, was climbed
Golden is the Home Rule Municipality, the county seat of Jefferson County, United States. Golden lies along Clear Creek at the base of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Founded during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush on June 16, 1859, the mining camp was named "Golden City" in honor of Thomas L. Golden. Golden City served as the capital of the provisional Territory of Jefferson from 1860 to 1861, capital of the official Territory of Colorado from 1862 to 1867. In 1867, the territorial capital was moved about 12 miles east to Denver City; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 18,867. The Colorado School of Mines, offering programs in engineering and science, is located in Golden. There are the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Earthquake Information Center, Coors Brewing Company, CoorsTek, Software Bisque, American Mountaineering Center, Colorado Railroad Museum, it is the birthplace of the Jolly Rancher, a candy bought out by the Hershey Foods Corporation. Famous western showman William F.
"Buffalo Bill" Cody is buried nearby on Lookout Mountain, as well as the city being home to Spot Bikes and Yeti Cycles. Established during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, Golden City became a leading economic and political center of the region, its geographic location made it a center of trade between the gold fields to the west and settlements to the east. Golden City was established on June 1859, along Clear Creek west of Denver; the city is named after Thomas L. Golden. Other important businessmen and prospectors like William A. H. Loveland and George West were among the first people to settle in Golden. By the end of 1860, Golden City had been popularly elected the seat of Jefferson County and was capital of the provisional Jefferson Territory; as drafted in the territorial constitution, the capital of the Jefferson Territory was proposed to be Golden with a population of 700, as a result of its proximity to mountain mining towns, greater ability to hold a congressional quorum than had Denver. Golden City was temporarily removed from the status of territory capital as a result of an act passed on November 5, 1861, by the territorial government.
Colorado City, a small town to the south of Denver, became the new temporary territorial capital, but saw only one short event at this location. This status was revoked, however, as on August 4, 1862, the territorial government voted formally to move back to Golden. While the town lost much of its populace and leading citizenry during the Civil War for several reasons, Golden City became capital of the federally recognized Colorado Territory on August 2, 1862, continuing as such until 1867, it was the time period between 1862 and the early 1870s that a fierce railroad competition developed between Denver, ten miles to the east, Golden. By the mid-1860s, Golden held only an honorific status as territorial capital, rather than serving as the legitimate source of territorial power. Denver, the larger and more developed city, was the focused core of important territorial occasions, with the Governor residing in Denver, territorial government meetings occurring there as well; the citizens and supporters of Golden realized that a spur from Golden to the new transcontinental railroad, running through Cheyenne, Wyoming, 100 miles to the north, was the only possibility for Golden to reemerge as the dominant heart of commerce in the territory.
W. A. H. Loveland founded the Colorado Central Railroad on February 1865, to do just this. With Golden beginning talk of creating a railroad, prominent Denver residents raced to do the same. In an appeal to the residents of Denver, The Rocky Mountain News, based in Denver itself, wrote an article imploring the citizens of Denver to vote to fund a railroad. If we defeat those bonds, all hope of a railroad for the next two years is gone... Gentlemen of Denver, what will you do? The fate of your city is in your own hands.” The residents of Denver voted for the bonds. By 1869, the railroad race to Cheyenne was becoming less and less of a race, as the Denver Pacific Railway pulled ahead of the struggling Colorado Central Railroad. Realizing they were going to lose the race to Cheyenne, the Colorado Central began expanding west into mountain communities such as Georgetown, Black Hawk, Central City, all areas founded on and focused in silver mining. Golden, having sidetracked into servicing various close-by mountain communities, continued to fall behind the pace set by the Denver railroad, by 1870 lost the race to Cheyenne.
However, The Colorado Central Railroad connected directly with Cheyenne seven years in 1877, but by that point, the race with Denver had been lost. Although Golden’s Colorado Central Railroad offered a challenge to Denver's railroad, the better funded Denver Pacific Railway was able to connect to Cheyenne far more than Golden, securing for Denver its long term status as both capital and prominent city. Golden City became the "Lowell of the West", a regional center of trade and industry that boasted at certain times three flour mills, five smelters, the first railroad into the Colorado mountains, the Coors Brewery, brick works, the only paper mill west of Missouri and coal mines, more. During the 1870s, it became home to three institutions of higher education, the Colorado University Schools, of which the Colorado School of Mines remains today. Golden was home to an opera house and seven churches, including Colorado's third church, oldest Baptist church oldest Christian church, first Swedish immigrant churc
The Wrangell Mountains are a high mountain range of eastern Alaska in the United States. Much of the range is included in Preserve; the Wrangell Mountains are entirely volcanic in origin, they include the second and third highest volcanoes in the United States, Mount Blackburn and Mount Sanford. The range takes its name from Mount Wrangell, one of the largest andesite shield volcanoes in the world, the only presently active volcano in the range; the Wrangell Mountains comprise most of the Wrangell Volcanic Field, which extends into the neighboring Saint Elias Mountains and the Yukon Territory in Canada. The Wrangell Mountains are just to the northwest of the Saint Elias Mountains and northeast of the Chugach Mountains, which are along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska; these ranges have the combined effect of blocking the inland areas from warmer moist air over the Pacific Ocean. The inland areas to the north of the Wrangell Mountains are therefore among the coldest areas of North America during the winter.
The Wrangell Mountains include 12 of the 40+ Alaskan peaks over 13,000 feet: Mount Blackburn, 16,390 feet, East Summit, 16,286 ft Mount Sanford, 16,237 feet, South Peak, 13,654 ft Mount Wrangell, 14,163 feet, West Summit, 14,013 ft Atna Peaks, 13,860 ft Regal Mountain, 13,845 ft Mount Jarvis, 13,421 feet, North Peak, 13,025 ft Parka Peak, 13,280 ft Mount Zanetti, 13,009 ft Other prominent mountains include: Mount Drum, 12,010 ft The mountains are named after explorer, president of Russian-American Company, admiral Ferdinand von Wrangel. American folk singer John Denver wrote a song, "The Wrangell Mountain Song", in reference to the range. Wrangellia Terrane Wrangell-St. Elias National Park & Preserve Wrangell Mountains Center
Primatology is the scientific study of primates. It is a diverse discipline at the boundary between mammalogy and anthropology, researchers can be found in academic departments of anatomy, biology, psychology, veterinary sciences and zoology, as well as in animal sanctuaries, biomedical research facilities and zoos. Primatologists study both living and extinct primates in their natural habitats and in laboratories by conducting field studies and experiments in order to understand aspects of their evolution and behaviour; as a science, primatology has many different sub-disciplines which vary in terms of theoretical and methodological approaches to the subject used in researching extant primates and their extinct ancestors. There are two main centers of Western primatology and Japanese primatology; these two divergent disciplines stem from their unique cultural backgrounds and philosophies that went into their founding. Although, both Western and Japanese primatology share many of the same principles, the areas of their focus in primate research and their methods of obtaining data differ widely.
Western primatology stems from research by North American and European scientists. Early primate study focused in medical research, but some scientists conducted "civilizing" experiments on chimpanzees in order to gauge both primate intelligence and the limits of their brainpower; the study of primatology looks at the psychological aspects of non-human primates. The focus is on studying the common links between primates, it is believed that by understanding our closest animal relatives, we might better understand the nature shared with our ancestors. Primatology is a science; the general belief is that the scientific observation of nature must be either limited, or controlled. Either way, the observers must be neutral to their subjects; this allows for the subjects to be uninfluenced by human interference. There are three methodological approaches in primatology: field study, the more realistic approach, laboratory study, the more controlled approach, semi-free ranging, where primate habitat and wild social structure is replicated in a captive setting.
Field is done in natural environments, in which scientific observers watch primates in their natural habitat. Laboratory study is done in controlled lab settings. In lab settings, scientists are able to perform controlled experimentation on the learning capabilities and behavioral patterns of the animals. In semi-free ranging studies, scientists are able to watch how primates might act in the wild but have easier access to them, the ability to control their environments; such facilities include the Living Links Center at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Georgia and the Elgin Center at Lion Country Safari in Florida. All types of primate study in the Western methodology are meant to be neutral. Although there are certain Western primatologists who do more subjective research, the emphasis in this discipline is on the objective. Early field primatology tended to focus on individual researchers. Researchers such as Dian Fossey and Jane Goodall and Birute Galdikas are examples of this.
In 1960, Jane Goodall traveled to the forest at Gombe Stream in Tanzania where her determination and skill allowed for her to observe behaviors of the chimpanzees that no researcher had seen prior. Chimpanzees used. Additionally, Dian Fossey’s work conducted at the Karisoke Research station in Rwanda proved the possibility of habituation among the mountain gorillas. Fossey learned that female gorillas are transferred between groups and gorillas eat their own dung to recycle nutrients; the third “trimate”, Birute Galdikas spent over 12 years becoming habituated to the orangutans in Borneo, Indonesia. Galdikas utilized statistics and modern data collection to conclude her 1978 doctoral thesis regarding orangutan behavior and interactions. Long-term sites of research tend to be best associated with their founders, this led to some tension between younger primatologists and the veterans in the field; the discipline of Japanese primatology was developed out of animal ecology. It is credited to Kinji Imanishi and Junichiro Itani.
Imanishi was an animal ecologist who began studying wild horses before focusing more on primate ecology. He helped found the Primate Research Group in 1950. Junichiro was a professor at Kyoto University, he is the Centre for African Area Studies. The Japanese discipline of primatology tends to be more interested in the social aspects of primates. Social evolution and anthropology are of primary interest to them; the Japanese theory believes that studying primates will give us insight into the duality of human nature: individual self vs. social self. The traditional and cultural aspects of Japanese science lend themselves to an “older sibling” mentality, it is believed that animals should be treated with respect, but a firm authority. This is not to say that the Japanese study of primatology is cruel – far from it – just that it does not feel that their subjects should be given reverential treatment. One particular Japanese primatologist, Kawai Masao, introduced the concept of kyokan; this was the theory that the only way to attain reliable scientific knowledge was to attain a mutual relation, personal attachment and shared life with the animal subjects.
Though Kawai is the only Japanese primatologist associated with the use of this term, the underlying principle is part of the foundation of Japanese primate research. Japanese primatology is a disciplined subjective science, it is believed that the be
Denali is the highest mountain peak in North America, with a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level. With a topographic prominence of 20,156 feet and a topographic isolation of 4,629 miles, Denali is the third most prominent and third most isolated peak on Earth, after Mount Everest and Aconcagua. Located in the Alaska Range in the interior of the U. S. state of Alaska, Denali is the centerpiece of Preserve. The Koyukon people who inhabit the area around the mountain have referred to the peak as "Denali" for centuries. In 1896, a gold prospector named it "Mount McKinley" in support of then-presidential candidate William McKinley. In August 2015, following the 1975 lead of the State of Alaska, the United States Department of the Interior announced the change of the official name of the mountain to Denali. In 1903, James Wickersham recorded the first attempt at climbing Denali, unsuccessful. In 1906, Frederick Cook claimed the first ascent, proven to be false; the first verifiable ascent to Denali's summit was achieved on June 7, 1913, by climbers Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, Robert Tatum, who went by the South Summit.
In 1951, Bradford Washburn pioneered the West Buttress route, considered to be the safest and easiest route, therefore the most popular in use. On September 2, 2015, the U. S. Geological Survey announced that the mountain is 20,310 feet high, not 20,320 feet, as measured in 1952 using photogrammetry. Denali is a granitic pluton lifted by tectonic pressure from the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate; the forces that lifted Denali cause many deep earthquakes in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The Pacific Plate is seismically active beneath Denali, a tectonic region, known as the "McKinley cluster". Denali has a summit elevation of 20,310 feet above sea level, making it the highest peak in North America and the northernmost mountain above 6,000 meters elevation in the world. Measured from base to peak at some 18,000 ft, it is among the largest mountains situated above sea level. Denali rises from a sloping plain with elevations from 1,000 to 3,000 ft, for a base-to-peak height of 17,000 to 19,000 ft.
By comparison, Mount Everest rises from the Tibetan Plateau at a much higher base elevation. Base elevations for Everest range from 13,800 ft on the south side to 17,100 ft on the Tibetan Plateau, for a base-to-peak height in the range of 12,000 to 15,300 ft. Denali's base-to-peak height is little more than half the 33,500 ft of the volcano Mauna Kea, which lies under water. Denali has two significant summits: the South Summit is the higher one, while the North Summit has an elevation of 19,470 ft and a prominence of 1,270 ft; the North Summit is sometimes counted as sometimes not. Five large glaciers flow off the slopes of the mountain; the Peters Glacier lies on the northwest side of the massif, while the Muldrow Glacier falls from its northeast slopes. Just to the east of the Muldrow, abutting the eastern side of the massif, is the Traleika Glacier; the Ruth Glacier lies to the southeast of the mountain, the Kahiltna Glacier leads up to the southwest side of the mountain. With a length of 44 mi, the Kahiltna Glacier is the longest glacier in the Alaska Range.
The Koyukon Athabaskans who inhabit the area around the mountain have for centuries referred to the peak as Dinale or Denali. The name is based on a Koyukon word for "high" or "tall". During the Russian ownership of Alaska, the common name for the mountain was Bolshaya Gora, the Russian translation of Denali, it was called Densmore's Mountain in the late 1880s and early 1890s after Frank Densmore, an Alaskan prospector, the first European to reach the base of the mountain. In 1896, a gold prospector named it McKinley as political support for then-presidential candidate William McKinley, who became president the following year; the United States formally recognized the name Mount McKinley after President Wilson signed the Mount McKinley National Park Act of February 26, 1917. In 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson declared the north and south peaks of the mountain the "Churchill Peaks", in honor of British statesman Winston Churchill; the Alaska Board of Geographic Names changed the name of the mountain to Denali in 1975, how it is called locally.
However, a request in 1975 from the Alaska state legislature to the United States Board on Geographic Names to do the same at the federal level was blocked by Ohio congressman Ralph Regula, whose district included McKinley's hometown of Canton. On August 30, 2015, just ahead of a presidential visit to Alaska, the Barack Obama administration announced the name Denali would be restored in line with the Alaska Geographic Board's designation. U. S. Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell issued the order changing the name to Denali on August 28, 2015, effective immediately. Jewell said the change had been "a long time coming"; the renaming of the mountain received praise from Alaska's senior U. S. senator, Lisa Murkowski, who had introduced legislation to accomplish the name change, but it drew criticism from several politicians from Pres