In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
A parish register in an ecclesiastical parish is a handwritten volume kept in the parish church in which certain details of religious ceremonies marking major events such as baptisms, marriages and burials are recorded. Along with these vital details, church goods, the parish’s response to briefs, notes on various happenings in the parish were recorded; these elaborate records existed for the purpose of preventing consanguineous marriage. The information recorded in registers was considered significant for secular governments’ own recordkeeping, resulting in the churches supplying the state with copies of all parish registers. A good register permits the family structure of the community to be reconstituted as far back as the sixteenth century. Thus, these records were distilled for the definitive study of the history of several nations’ populations, they provide insight into the lives and interrelationships of parishioners. Parish registers were formally introduced in England on 5 September 1538 following the split with Rome, when Thomas Cromwell, minister to Henry VIII, issued an injunction requiring the registers of baptisms and burials to be kept.
Before this, a few Roman Catholic religious houses and parish priests had kept informal notes on the baptisms and burials of the prominent local families. This injunction was addressed to the vicar of every parish in England. However, this order had nothing to do with religious doctrine or the papacy and rather indicated the desire of the central government to have full knowledge of the population of the country. Church historian Diarmaid MacCulloch suggests that the measure may have been introduced as a means to identify infiltration into England by members the outlawed Anabaptist sects: their adherents did not baptise unmindful infants; the book was to be kept in a "sure coffer" with keys. A fine of 3 shillings, 4 pence was to be levied for failure to comply. Many parishes ignored this order as it was thought that it presaged a further tax. In 1597, both Queen and Convocation reaffirmed the injunction, adding that the registers were of ‘permagnus usus’ and must be kept in books of parchment leaves.
Previous records had to be copied into the new books and copies of each year’s entries had to be sent to the bishop’s registrar. The parish clerk was paid to copy the old records into a new parchment book in order to keep the record up to date. During the English Civil War and in the following Commonwealth period, records were poorly kept and many are now missing after being destroyed or hidden by the clergy; this parsimony and neglect was remedied by depositing the registers in county record offices where they were safeguarded and made accessible. On the other hand, the accurate parish registers of New France were damaged by external events such as war and fire. Thus, 300,00 entries were available for the time period 1621 to 1760. In 1812 England, an "Act for the better regulating and preserving Parish and other Registers of Birth, Baptisms and Burials, in England" was passed It stated that "amending the Manner and Form of keeping and of preserving Registers of Baptisms and Burials of His Majesty's Subjects in the several Parishes and Places in England, will facilitate the Proof of Pedigrees of Persons claiming to be entitled to Real or Personal Estates, otherwise of great public Benefit and Advantage".
Separate, printed registers were to be supplied by the King's Printer, used for baptisms and burials. These are less unchanged to this day. In the United States, at least the parishes in the Roman Catholic dioceses maintained a similar practice of recording baptisms, marriages and also confirmations and first communions. From the earliest pioneer churches ministered by itinerant priests, the records were written in ecclesiastical Latin, but after the Second Vatican Council and its reforms that included translating the Mass into local languages, most register entries came to be written in English. In Protestant communions with stronger similarities to Roman Catholicism, parish registers are important sources that document baptisms and funerals. In Protestant and Evangelical churches, individual ministers kept records of faith-related events among the congregation, but under much less guidance from any central governing body; the parish register became mandatory in Italy for baptisms and marriages in 1563 after the Council of Trent and in 1614 for burials when its rules of compilation were as well normalised by the Church.
Prior to 1563, the oldest registers of baptisms are preserved since 1379 in Gemona del Friuli, 1381 in Siena, 1428 in Florence or 1459 in Bologna. In France, parish registers have been in use since the Middle Ages; the oldest surviving are posted in Givry. Other existing registers prior to orders of civil legislation in 1539 reside in Roz-Landrieux 1451, Paramé 1453, Lanloup 1467, Trans-la-Forêt 1479 and Signes 1500; the parish register became mandatory in France for baptisms with the Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts signed into law by Francis I of France on August 10, 1539 for marriages and burials with the Ordinance of Blois in 1579. They had to be sent every year to the sénéchaussée in the south of France. In April 1667, the Ordinance of Saint-Germain-en-Laye ordered a copy to be kept by the parish clergy as before th
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
North East Lincolnshire
North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire in England. It borders the unitary authority of North Lincolnshire and the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire, the three areas making up the ceremonial county; the population of the Unitary Authority at the 2011 Census was 159,616. North East Lincolnshire is part of the Humber region. North East Lincolnshire was created from the boroughs of Cleethorpes and Great Grimsby on 1 April 1996 with the abolition of Humberside; the area lies within the Parts of a historic subdivision of Lincolnshire. The north part of the authority has a flat landscape. Ashby cum Fenby Aylesby Barnoldby le Beck Beelsby Bradley Brigsley Cleethorpes East Ravendale Great Coates Grimsby Habrough Hatcliffe Healing Humberston Immingham Irby upon Humber Laceby Little Coates New Waltham Old Clee Scartho Stallingborough Waltham Weelsby Wold Newton Waltham Windmill Cleethorpes Coast Light Railway Pleasure Island Blundell Park The Greenwich Meridian passes through the county.
North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority that has operated a cabinet-style council since 2003. There are 42 councillors, they elect the cabinet in May each year. Each cabinet member is responsible for making decisions within their portfolio area; the governance of North East Lincolnshire Council has come under scrutiny from the audit commission on two occasions leading to special public interest reports for its failings. During this time it was run politically as a coalition between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats. In June 2011 it became. In 2012, Labour gained a majority on the authority, before losing it two years and have run it as a minority since. North East Lincolnshire council was the council subject to the Kelly report for Ian Huntley involvement and the Soham murders; the radio station for the area is called Compass FM, takes its logo from the logo of North East Lincolnshire, being based south of Grimsby railway station. BBC Radio Humberside have a small studio to the east of Grimsby town centre.
Grimsby Institute have the innovative Estuary TV television, based at the Grimsby Institute of Further & Higher Education. Propeller TV was part of Grimsby Institute; the Grimsby Telegraph is a daily newspaper. The North East Lincolnshire towns of Grimsby and Cleethorpes, form the economic area known as Greater Grimsby; the main sectors of the Greater Grimsby economy are drink. This is a table of trend of regional gross value added of North and North East Lincolnshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling; the area has one power station, the South Humber Bank Power Station, owned and operated by Centrica sited at Stallingborough. Similar to North Lincolnshire, the area has its fire and police run by Humberside Fire and Rescue Service and Humberside Police. There are four main roads that link to the unitary authority - the A180, built in 1984, the A46 from Lincoln; the A46 terminates in Cleethorpes terminating at the Laceby roundabout, follows the former route of the A18 through Grimsby and Cleethorpes.
The A18 which runs from Doncaster to Laceby past the Humberside Airport. And the A16 from southern Lincolnshire through Louth, Entering the town at toll bar roundabout Waltham There are good connections by railway from Doncaster and Sheffield, which start at Manchester Airport - the TransPennine Express, it is transport by sea. The two ports of Immingham and Grimsby, when combined, have the largest tonnage of freight of any UK port. Immingham has many DFDS freight routes to Europe; the local LEA has comprehensive schools, becoming comprehensive in the early 1970s when part of the County Borough of Grimsby, the Lindsey Education Committee, based in Lincoln. However, due to the proximity of West and East Lindsey which have grammar schools, some children capable of passing the eleven-plus are bussed over the border to places such as Caistor and Alford. Previous to this Cleethorpes had girls' and boys' grammar schools, Grimsby had the girls' and boys' Wintringham grammar schools; the local secondary schools have improved in recent years, but Grimsby still has some of the worst GCSE results in the country.
There is a clear cut dichotomy of education up to 16, with schools on the edge of Grimsby and Cleethorpes performing with respectable results, leaving the centre of these towns with struggling schools that have faced closure. Most schools have converted to Academy status, with some lucky enough to move into brand new spacious buildings, it is more the case that affluent parents would refuse to send their children to schools in central Grimsby, hence the schools on the outer edge do much better. Franklin College has a good reputation at A level, produces the best A level results for state schools in the former area of Humberside, it was formed based in Beverly. Sixth formers travelled from East and West Lindsey to attend this college, such was its reputation; the main FE college in Grimsby is the Grimsby Institute. This has links with the fishing industry, it offers higher education courses, has done for many years - HNDs, for vocational subjects. It has the long-term ambition to become a university.
The University of Humberside used to have its food science campus at t
Humberside Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing an area covering the East Riding of Yorkshire, the city of Kingston upon Hull, North East Lincolnshire and North Lincolnshire. The current Chief Constable is Lee Freeman, the Assistant Chief Constable Lincolnshire from 2013 - 2015 before transferring to Humberside in May 2015. Following the sudden departure of Justine Curran, he took over as the Deputy Chief Constable in February 2017 before being appointed into the role as a Chief Constable In June 2017. Humberside Police was created in 1974 following a merger of previous forces under the Local Government Act 1972, along with the non-metropolitan county of Humberside, it was a successor to the Hull City Police, part of the areas of the York and North East Yorkshire Police, the old Lincolnshire Constabulary and the West Yorkshire Constabulary. Proposals made by the Home Secretary on 21 March 2006 would have seen the force merge with North Yorkshire Police, South Yorkshire Police and West Yorkshire Police to form a strategic police force for the entire region.
These proposals have since been'put on hold' by the government. Following the abolition of Humberside in 1996, the local council members of the Police Authority were appointed by a joint committee of the councils of the East Riding of Yorkshire, Kingston upon Hull, North Lincolnshire, North East Lincolnshire. On 21 November 2012 the Police Authority was made redundant by the introduction of the Police and Crime Commissioner; the Humberside Police Authority, at the time it ceased to exist, had 17 members in total. 1974–1976: Robert Walton 1976–1991: David Hall 1991–1999: D. Anthony Leonard 1999–2005: David Westwood 2005–2013: Timothy Stancliffe Hollis 2013–2017: Justine Curran 2017–: Lee Freeman From March 2013 to February 2017 the Chief Constable of Humberside Police was Justine Curran Chief Constable of Tayside Police in Scotland before the introduction of the national Police Scotland service on 1 April 2013, her appointment was unanimously approved by the Humberside Police and Crime panel after Humberside Police and Crime Commissioner, Matthew Grove, proposed her for the post.
Curran took over the position from Tim Hollis CBE QPM who retired from the service in March 2013. On 11 November 2015, it was revealed that Curran had claimed for more than £39,000 in expenses for her relocation from Tayside to Humberside in March 2013. After Keith Hunter was elected as Police and Crime Commissioner in May 2016, Curran was given six months to improve the force after it was rated inadequate by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary. Nine months after a further HMIC inspection which identified further "significant failings", Hunter asked Curran to consider her position, she announced her retirement, she left on 20 February 2017. In August 2017, it was revealed that Hunter had "lost confidence" in Curran and was "completely undermined" by her when it was decided to withhold the findings of an HMIC investigation which revealed further inadequacies within the force. Hunter sought legal advice, Curran was allowed to retire before the statutory procedure to remove a Chief Constable was started.
Lee Freeman, a former Assistant Chief Constable in Lincolnshire from August 2013 who had joined Humberside in May 2015, took over as Deputy Chief Constable on Curran's departure. He was appointed temporary Chief Constable in May 2017 and the position was made permanent on 26 June 2017. Humberside uses a wide variety of vehicles and unmarked. ProViDa is the standard in-car video unit used. All of the vehicles within the force have now changed to the recognisable Battenberg livery as opposed to the traditional livery. All vehicles within the force now use LED lightbar technology, as opposed to the older halogen rotating light bars; the LED lightbars are much clearer to see, provide a lot more illumination, along with front spots and rear reds. The main vehicles used are: • Peugeot Cars – A recent addition to the fleet in late 2016, multiple Peugeot 308 vehicles have been introduced across the force for general patrol and purposes replacing the aging Proton Impian, not being converted to run on LPG to save money.
• Vauxhall Cars – There are several Vauxhall Astra vehicles within the force which are used for general patrol and by IRT. All Vauxhall vehicles are marked with the Battenberg livery and have LED lights. There are several Vauxhall Vivaro vans which are used for patrol and prisoner transport; these are fully marked with the Battenberg livery and LED lights. Vauxhall vehicles are used for the dog section, however these are Vauxhall Zafira models; some community teams have a Vauxhall Corsa as a marked up patrol vehicle. • Proton Cars – These are used for general patrol and by IRT, these are nearly all phased out as of January 2018. The majority are Impians, with the Proton Persona phased out some years ago. Proton vehicles are being replaced across the force by Vauxhall and now Peugeot vehicles and much of the Proton fleet are now vehicles bought in 2010. All Proton vehicles have the Battenberg livery and LED lights. Humberside Police won the top award in the National Energy Efficiency Awards by running the vast majority of its fleet on Liquified Petroleum Gas.
Most Protons are dual fuel, running unleaded petrol. • Mercedes Benz Sprinter – These vans are used for Public Order and crowd situations as well as for transporting prisoners. The latest shape vans are now coming onto divisions to re
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Wesleyan Methodist Church (Great Britain)
The Wesleyan Methodist Church was the name used by the majority Methodist movement in Great Britain following its split from the Church of England after the death of John Wesley and the appearance of parallel Methodist movements. The word Wesleyan was added to the title to differentiate it from the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, founded by George Whitefield who, like Wesley and his brother Charles, had been a member of the Holy Club in Oxford to which the epithet Methodist was first applied, from the Primitive Methodist movement, which separated from the Wesleyans in 1807; the Wesleyan Methodist Church followed the Wesleys in holding to an Arminian theology, as against Whitefield's Calvinism. The title "Wesleyan Methodist Church" remained in use until the Methodist Union of 1932, when the church re-united with the Primitive Methodist Church and the United Methodist Church to form the current Methodist Church of Great Britain. In 1898, Robert Perks, MP for Louth, proposed the creation of the Wesleyan Methodist Twentieth Century Fund which aimed to raise one million guineas from one million Methodists to build a Central London church to build a world centre of Wesleyan Methodism and to expand the mission of the Wesleyan Church at home and overseas.
On 8 November, 1898, the fund was launched at Wesley's Chapel in City Road, London. The fund had raised £1,073,682 by the time it closed in 1909, part of, used to purchase the former Royal Aquarium site for the construction of the Methodist Central Hall, Westminster and to support construction and extension of other Wesleyan Methodist churches and Sunday schools around the UK and overseas. John Wesley was convinced of the importance of education and, following the advice of his friend Dr. Philip Doddridge, opened schools at The Foundery in London, at Newcastle and Kingswood. Following the upsurge in interest in education which accompanied the extension of franchise in 1832, the Methodist Conference commissioned William Atherton, Richard Treffry and Samuel Jackson to report on Methodist schools, coming to the conclusion that if the Church were to prosper the system of Sunday schools should be augmented by day-schools with teachers educated to high school level; the Rev. John Scott proposed in 1843 that 700 new Methodist day-schools be established within seven years.
Though a steady increase was achieved, that ambitious target could not be reached, in part limited by the number of suitably qualified teachers coming from the institution founded in Glasgow by David Stow. The outcome of the Wesleyan Education Report for 1844 was that planning began for permanent Wesleyan teacher-training college, resulting in the foundation of Westminster Training College in Horseferry Road, Westminster in 1851, with the Rev. Scott as its first Principal. Wesleyanism Manchester and Salford Wesleyan Methodist Mission