OpenStreetMap is a collaborative project to create a free editable map of the world. Rather than the map itself, the data generated by the project is considered its primary output; the creation and growth of OSM has been motivated by restrictions on use or availability of map information across much of the world, the advent of inexpensive portable satellite navigation devices. OSM is considered a prominent example of volunteered geographic information. Created by Steve Coast in the UK in 2004, it was inspired by the success of Wikipedia and the predominance of proprietary map data in the UK and elsewhere. Since it has grown to over 2 million registered users, who can collect data using manual survey, GPS devices, aerial photography, other free sources; this crowdsourced data is made available under the Open Database License. The site is supported by the OpenStreetMap Foundation, a non-profit organisation registered in England and Wales; the data from OSM is available for use in both traditional applications, like its usage by Facebook, OsmAnd, MapQuest Open, JMP statistical software, Foursquare to replace Google Maps, more unusual roles like replacing the default data included with GPS receivers.
OpenStreetMap data has been favourably compared with proprietary datasources, although in 2009 data quality varied across the world. Steve Coast founded the project in 2004 focusing on mapping the United Kingdom. In the UK and elsewhere, government-run and tax-funded projects like the Ordnance Survey created massive datasets but failed to and distribute them; the first contribution, made in the British city of London in 2005, was thought to be a road by the Directions Mag. In April 2006, the OpenStreetMap Foundation was established to encourage the growth and distribution of free geospatial data and provide geospatial data for anybody to use and share. In December 2006, Yahoo! confirmed that OpenStreetMap could use its aerial photography as a backdrop for map production. In April 2007, Automotive Navigation Data donated a complete road data set for the Netherlands and trunk road data for India and China to the project and by July 2007, when the first OSM international The State of the Map conference was held, there were 9,000 registered users.
Sponsors of the event included Yahoo! and Multimap. In October 2007, OpenStreetMap completed the import of a US Census TIGER road dataset. In December 2007, Oxford University became the first major organisation to use OpenStreetMap data on their main website. Ways to import and export data have continued to grow – by 2008, the project developed tools to export OpenStreetMap data to power portable GPS units, replacing their existing proprietary and out-of-date maps. In March, two founders announced that they have received venture capital funding of €2.4 million for CloudMade, a commercial company that uses OpenStreetMap data. In November 2010, Bing changed their licence to allow use of their satellite imagery for making maps. In 2012, the launch of pricing for Google Maps led several prominent websites to switch from their service to OpenStreetMap and other competitors. Chief among these were Foursquare and Craigslist, which adopted OpenStreetMap, Apple, which ended a contract with Google and launched a self-built mapping platform using TomTom and OpenStreetMap data.
Map data is collected from scratch by volunteers performing systematic ground surveys using tools such as a handheld GPS unit, a notebook, digital camera, or a voice recorder. The data is entered into the OpenStreetMap database. Mapathon competition events are held by OpenStreetMap team and by non-profit organisations and local governments to map a particular area; the availability of aerial photography and other data from commercial and government sources has added important sources of data for manual editing and automated imports. Special processes are in place to avoid legal and technical problems. Editing of maps can be done using the default web browser editor called iD, an HTML5 application using D3.js and written by Mapbox, financed by the Knight Foundation. The earlier Flash-based application Potlatch is retained for intermediate-level users. JOSM and Merkaartor are more powerful desktop editing applications that are better suited for advanced users. Vespucci is the first full-featured editor for Android.
StreetComplete is a new, easy Android app launched in 2016, which allows users without any OpenStreetMap knowledge to answer simple quests for existing data in OpenStreetMap, thus contribute data. Maps.me is a mobile application offering offline maps which includes a limited OSM data editor. Go Map!! is an iOS app that lets you edit information in OpenStreetMap. Pushpin is another iOS app; the project has a geographically diverse user-base, due to emphasis of local knowledge and ground truth in the process of data collection. Many early contributors were cyclists who survey with and for bicyclists, charting cycleroutes and navigable trails. Others are GIS professionals. Contributors are predominately men, with only 3–5% being women. By August 2008, shortly after the second The State of the Map conference was held, there were over 50,000 registered contributors. In April 2012, OpenStreetMap cleared 600,000 registered contributors. On 6 January 2013, OpenStreetMap reached 1 million registered users.
Around 30% of users have contributed at least one point to the OpenStreetMap database. Ground surveys are performed on foot, bicycle, or in a car, motorcycle or boat. Map data are
Milton Keynes, locally abbreviated to MK, is a large town in Buckinghamshire, about 50 miles north-west of London. It is the principal settlement of the Borough of a unitary authority. At the 2011 Census, its population was 229,000; the River Great Ouse forms its northern boundary. 25% of the urban area is parkland or woodland and includes an SSI. In the 1960s, the UK Government decided that a further generation of new towns in the South East of England was needed to relieve housing congestion in London; the New Town of Milton Keynes was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of about 22,000 acres. At designation, its area incorporated the existing towns of Bletchley and Stony Stratford, along with another fifteen villages and farmland in between; these settlements had an extensive historical record since the Norman conquest. The government established a Development Corporation to deliver this New City; the Corporation decided on a softer, more human-scaled landscape than in the earlier new towns but with an emphatically modernist architecture.
Recognising how traditional towns and cities had become choked in traffic, they established a'relaxed' grid of distributor roads about 1 kilometre between edges, leaving the spaces between to develop more organically. An extensive network of shared paths for leisure cyclists and pedestrians criss-crosses through and between them. Again rejecting the residential tower blocks, so fashionable but unloved, they set a height limit of three stories outside the planned centre. Facilities include a 1,400 seat theatre, an art gallery, multiplex cinemas, a 400 seat concert hall, a teaching hospital, a 30,500 seat football stadium and a 65,000 capacity open-air concert venue. There are five railway stations; the Open University is based here and there is a campus of the University of Bedfordshire. Most sports are represented at amateur level; the Peace Pagoda overlooking Willen Lake was the first such to be built in Europe. Milton Keynes has one of the more successful economies in the UK, ranked on a number of criteria.
As one of the UK's top five fastest growing centres, it has benefited from above-average economic growth. It has the fifth highest number of business startups per capita, it is home to several major international companies. However, despite this economic success and personal wealth for some, there are pockets of nationally significant poverty. In the 1960s, the UK Government decided that a further generation of new towns in the South East of England was needed to relieve housing congestion in London. Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several London boroughs had been constructed in Bletchley. Further studies in the 1960s identified north Buckinghamshire as a possible site for a large new town, a new city, encompassing the existing towns of Bletchley, Stony Stratford and Wolverton; the New Town was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of 21,883 acres The name "Milton Keynes" was taken from that of an existing village on the site. On 23 January 1967, when the formal new town designation order was made, the area to be developed was farmland and undeveloped villages.
The site was deliberately located equidistant from London, Leicester and Cambridge, with the intention that it would be self-sustaining and become a major regional centre in its own right. Planning control was taken from elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes Development Corporation. Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has exposed a rich history of human settlement since Neolithic times and has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of North Buckinghamshire; the Corporation's modernist designs were featured in the magazines Architectural Design and the Architects' Journal. MKDC was determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns, revisit the Garden City ideals, they set in place the characteristic grid roads that run between districts, as well as the intensive planting and parkland that are so evident today. Central Milton Keynes was not intended to be a traditional town centre but a central business and shopping district to supplement Local Centres in most of the grid squares.
This non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English New Towns tradition and envisaged a wide range of industry and diversity of housing styles and tenures across the city. The largest and the last of the British New Towns, Milton Keynes has'stood the test of time far better than most, has proved flexible and adaptable'; the radical grid plan was inspired by the work of Californian urban theorist Melvin M. Webber, described by the founding architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker, as the "father of the city". Webber thought that telecommunications meant that the old idea of a city as a concentric cluster was out of date an
A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows, headed by a prior or prioress. Priories may be monasteries of monks or nuns. Houses of canons regular and canonesses regular use this term, the alternative being "canonry". In pre-Reformation England, if an abbey church was raised to cathedral status, the abbey became a Cathedral Priory; the bishop, in effect, took the place of the abbot, the monastery itself was headed by a prior. Priories first came to existence as subsidiaries to the Abbey of Cluny. Many new houses were called Priories; as such, the priory came to represent the Benedictine ideals espoused by the Cluniac reforms as smaller, lesser houses of Benedictines of Cluny. There were many conventual priories in Germany and Italy during the Middle Ages, in England all monasteries attached to cathedral churches were known as cathedral priories; the Benedictines and their offshoots, the Premonstratensians, the military orders distinguish between conventual and simple or obedientiary priories.
Conventual priories are those autonomous houses which have no abbots, either because the canonically required number of twelve monks has not yet been reached, or for some other reason. Simple or obedientiary priories are dependencies of abbeys, their superior, subject to the abbot in everything, is called a "prior". These monasteries are satellites of the mother abbey; the Cluniac order is notable for being organised on this obedientiary principle, with a single abbot at the Abbey of Cluny, all other houses dependent priories. Priory is used to refer to the geographic headquarters of several commanderies of knights. Media related to Priories at Wikimedia Commons
A physic garden is a type of herb garden with medicinal plants. Botanical gardens developed from them. Modern botanical gardens were preceded by medieval physic gardens that originated at the time of Emperor Charlemagne. Gardens of this time included various sections including one for medicinal plants called the herbularis or hortus medicus. Pope Nicholas V set aside part of the Vatican grounds in 1447 for a garden of medicinal plants that were used to promote the teaching of botany, this was a forerunner to the University gardens at Padua and Pisa established in the 1540s; the founding of many early botanic gardens was instigated by members of the medical profession. The naturalist William Turner established physic gardens at Cologne and Kew; the 1597 Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes by herbalist John Gerard was said to be the catalogue raisonné of physic gardens, both public and private, which were instituted throughout Europe. It listed 1,030 plants found in his physic garden at Holborn, was the first such catalogue printed.
The garden in Oxford, founded by Henry Danvers, 1st Earl of Danby, with Jacob Bobart the Elder as Superintendent, dates to 1632. Begun in Westminster and moved to Chelsea, the Apothecaries founded the Chelsea Physic Garden in 1673, of which Philip Miller, author of The Gardeners Dictionary, was the most notable Director. By 1676, the position of "Keeper of the Physic Garden" was held by the Professor of Botany at the University of Edinburgh; some of the earliest physic gardens included: 1334, Venice.
The Benedictines the Order of Saint Benedict, are a monastic Catholic religious order of monks and nuns that follow the Rule of Saint Benedict. They are sometimes called the Black Monks, in reference to the colour of the members' religious habits. Despite being called an order, the Benedictines do not operate under a single hierarchy but are instead organised as a collection of independent monastic communities, with each community within the order maintaining its own autonomy. Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines do not have a superior general or motherhouse with universal jurisdiction. Instead, the order is represented internationally by the Benedictine Confederation, an organisation, set up in 1893 to represent the order's shared interests; the monastery at Subiaco in Italy, established by Saint Benedict of Nursia c. 529, was the first of the dozen monasteries he founded. He founded the Abbey of Monte Cassino. There is no evidence, that he intended to found an order and the Rule of Saint Benedict presupposes the autonomy of each community.
When Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, it seems probable that this constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism. It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that Augustine, the prior, his forty companions set forth in 595 on their mission for the evangelization of England. At various stopping places during the journey, the monks left behind them traditions concerning their rule and form of life, also some copies of the Rule. Lérins Abbey, for instance, founded by Honoratus in 375 received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Augustine and his companions in 596. Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay Abbey, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian and other fathers and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them. In Gaul and Switzerland, it supplemented the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by Columbanus and others.
In many monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes. By the ninth century, the Benedictine had become the standard form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two. Through the work of Benedict of Aniane, it became the rule of choice for monasteries throughout the Carolingian empire. Monastic scriptoria flourished from the ninth through the twelfth centuries. Sacred Scripture was always at the heart of every monastic scriptorium; as a general rule those of the monks who possessed skill as writers made this their chief, if not their sole active work. An anonymous writer of the ninth or tenth century speaks of six hours a day as the usual task of a scribe, which would absorb all the time available for active work in the day of a medieval monk. In the Middle Ages monasteries were founded by the nobility. Cluny Abbey was founded by William I, Duke of Aquitaine in 910; the abbey was noted for its strict adherence to the Rule of St. Benedict.
The abbot of Cluny was the superior of all the daughter houses, through appointed priors. One of the earliest reforms of Benedictine practice was that initiated in 980 by Romuald, who founded the Camaldolese community; the dominance of the Benedictine monastic way of life began to decline towards the end of the twelfth century, which saw the rise of the Franciscans and Dominicans. Benedictines took a fourth vow of "stability". Not being bound by location, the mendicants were better able to respond to an "urban" environment; this decline was further exacerbated by the practice of appointing a commendatory abbot, a lay person, appointed by a noble to oversee and to protect the goods of the monastery. Oftentimes, this resulted in the appropriation of the assets of monasteries at the expense of the community which they were intended to support; the English Benedictine Congregation is the oldest of the nineteen Benedictine congregations. Augustine of Canterbury and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597.
Other foundations followed. Through the influence of Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, in the North it was adopted in most of the monasteries, founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona. Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, no fewer than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them. Monasteries served as places of refuge for the weak and homeless; the monks studied the healing properties of plants and minerals to alleviate the sufferings of the sick. Germany was evangelized by English Benedictines. Willibrord and Boniface preached there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several abbeys. In the English Reformation, all monasteries were dissolved and their lands confiscated by the Crown, forcing their Catholic members to flee into exile on the Continent. During the 19th century they were able to return to England, including to Selby Abbey in Yorkshire, one of the few great monastic churches to survive the Dissolution.
St. Mildred's Priory, on the Isle of Thanet, was built in 1027 on the site of an abbey founded in 670 by the daughter of the first Christian King of Kent; the priory is home to a community of Benedictine nuns. Five of
Thames Valley Police
Thames Valley Police known as Thames Valley Constabulary, is the territorial police force responsible for policing the Thames Valley area covered by the counties of Berkshire and Oxfordshire. It is one of the largest territorial police forces in England covering 2,200 square miles and a population of over 2.1 million people. The police force consists of 4,244 constables, 506 special constables, 466 Police Community Support Officers and 2,576 police staff. Policing in Thames Valley dates back to 1773 when Newbury Borough Police were operating as a small police force; the force was one of around twenty borough forces. These were Buckinghamshire Constabulary, Oxfordshire Constabulary, Berkshire Constabulary, Reading Borough Police and Oxford City Police founded in 1857, 1857, 1856, 1836 and 1868 respectively. Under the Police Act 1964 these five forces were amalgamated on 1 April 1968 to form Thames Valley Constabulary. Thomas Charles Birkett Hodgson, David Holdsworth Peter Imbert Colin Smith Sir Charles Pollard Peter Neyroud Sara Thornton Francis Habgood John Campbell Thames Valley Police is overseen by a locally elected Thames Valley Police and Crime Commissioner.
The incumbent commissioner is Anthony Stansfeld, a Conservative Party candidate elected with 34.7% of the votes in the first round of voting and 57.2% of the votes after the second round. The police and crime commissioner is scrutinised by the Thames Valley Crime Panel. Thames Valley was overseen by a police authority consisting of 19 members, made up of councillors, members from unitary authorities, independents and a magistrate. In April 2011, the force adopted a Local Policing Model; as a result, the force is now split into each led by a superintendent. These consist of two local authority areas; these are in turn split into a number of neighbourhoods which are based off ward and parish boundaries. This alignment is to ensure. Aylesbury Bracknell and Wokingham* Cherwell and West Oxfordshire Chiltern and South Bucks Milton Keynes Oxford Reading South Oxfordshire and Vale of White Horse Slough West Berkshire Windsor and Maidenhead Wycombe Each area is responsible for delivering response policing, neighborhood policing teams and a local priority crime and Criminal Investigation Department.
Other functions that used to be held at Basic Command Unit level are now delivered at Force Headquarters level using a shared service approach. A number of teams are run from Force Headquarters with their staff deployed at various locations around the Force area: Major Investigation Team Control and Communications Police Dog Section Counter Terrorism Squad Intelligence Agency Thames Valley Police has a local policing team working from every police station; these teams consist of officers, community support, special constables and police staff who work to patrol and attend local incidents. They use marked vans which read neighbourhood policing on the side rear panel under the Thames Valley Police corporate logo; these officers will be unarmed and carry taser weapons. The neighbourhood police vans double up as prisoner transport vans. However, most LPA police vehicles are available to this unit. LPA Response units work out of most major stations in the force area and are tasked with patrolling and responding to 999 calls.
These officers are constables issued with Taser weapons. These officers may be tasked to patrol high crime areas for an increased police presence or to conduct follow up investigations. Both the Neighbourhood Policing Group and Incident Response Unit units all share the LPA standard Vauxhall Astra police car; some rural police offices make use of Mitsubishi L200's as a more effective vehicle. Thames Valley Police have 52 operational police dogs; the dogs are donated from the RSPCA or public, are trained at the force headquarters. They serve until they are 8 years old, receiving refresher training every year, living with their handler after retirement, they are part of the Joint Operations Unit with Hampshire Police. The dog section operates with marked and unmarked Mitsubishi Outlanders as well as Ford Mondeo estates. Thames Valley Police patrols 196 miles of motorways including the M1, M4, M40, A329, A404 and M25, as well as many other'A' route roads including the busy A43; the Unit Mainly uses Marked Volvo V70s and New BMW 530d touring's, Unmarked BMW 330ds and Volvo V80's along with some Marked BMW X5s and Mitsubishi Shoguns.
These units are based at 6 geographical traffic bases. Roads Policing in Thames Valley is part of the Joint Operations Unit which works together with Hampshire Constabulary's Roads Policing Unit. Thames Valley Police's Armed Response Unit is a 24/7 unit that responds to major and serious crimes where firearms may be involved; this unit is shared with Hampshire Police as part of the Joint Operations Unit. The training facility is at Sulhamstead with a state of the art firearms range; the unit uses the traffic bases within the force basing themselves out of Three Mile Cross, Milton Keynes, Bicester. This unit can be identified by the red asterisk on the marked patrol cars they use, which includes the Volvo XC70 and BMW X5; the unit use
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi