Birmingham, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania
Birmingham is a borough in Huntingdon County, United States. The population was 90 at the 2010 census. Birmingham is the site of the Birmingham Window, a geologic structure created by a Paleozoic thrust fault. Birmingham's early settler, John Cadwallader, settled on a hill above the Little Juniata River and made plans to establish a large city. Legend among the local residents is. In the first several decades of the 19th century, the village grew as a hub for commerce being carried on the Little Juniata River and on the nearby Pennsylvania Canal. By 1850, the Pennsylvania Railroad had passed through the valley; the development of the railroad diminished the importance of Birmingham as a trading hub since the railroad's nearby hubs in Tyrone and Altoona grew on land, better suited for development. In 1853, the Mountain Female Seminary opened in Birmingham as a boarding school for girls. In its earliest years, the school benefited from the ease of transportation afforded by the passage of the Pennsylvania railroad through Birmingham.
The school still operates as Grier School, a boarding school for girls. The East Coast earthquake on August 23, 2011 caused a rockslide along Route 453 in Birmingham. Birmingham is located at 40°38′50″N 78°11′43″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.1 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 42 households within the borough; the population density was 900.0 people per square mile. There were 45 housing units at an average density of 450.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 1.11 % Asian, 1.11 % from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race made up 6.67% of the population. There were 39 households, out of which 19.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.92.
In the borough the population was spread out, with 15.6% under the age of 18, 1.1% from 18 to 19, 4.4% from 20 to 24, 12.2% from 25 to 34, 28.9% from 35 to 49, 17.8% from 50 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. Males made up 48.89% of the population, females make up 51.11%
Shade Gap, Pennsylvania
Shade Gap is a borough in Huntingdon County, United States. The population was 105 at the 2010 census. Shade Gap is located in southeastern Huntingdon County at 40°10′48″N 77°51′56″W, it sits at the eastern base of Shade Mountain just south of that mountain's water gap where Shade Creek passes through. U. S. Route 522 passes just east of the borough, leading north 16 miles to Mount Union and south 12 miles to Interstate 76 near Fort Littleton. Pennsylvania Route 35 runs northeast along the base of Shade Mountain 37 miles to Mifflin, Pennsylvania Route 641 leads southeast over Tuscarora Mountain 9 miles to Spring Run. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough of Shade Gap has a total area of 0.03 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 97 people, 38 households, 25 families residing in the borough; the population density was 2,103.7 people per square mile. There were 43 housing units at an average density of 932.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 2.06 % African American.
There were 38 households, out of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.6% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.2% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 18.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.08. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.8% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 18.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.6 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $18,125, the median income for a family was $23,438. Males had a median income of $23,125 versus $15,000 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $9,557. There were 13.0% of families and 19.5% of the population living below the poverty line, including 20.0% of under eighteens and 10.7% of those over 64.
Kidnapping of Peggy Ann Bradnick
Marklesburg is a borough in Huntingdon County, United States. The population was 204 at the 2010 census; the Marklesburg Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. Marklesburg is located at 40°23′3″N 78°10′20″W, it is near the western shore of Raystown Lake, just uphill from the flooded village of Aitch. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.9 square miles, all of it land. All municipalities listed are in Huntingdon County. Penn Township Lincoln Township As of the census of 2000, there were 216 people, 89 households, 63 families residing in the borough; the population density was 243.5 people per square mile. There were 138 housing units at an average density of 155.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the borough was 99.07% White, 0.93% from two or more races. There were 89 households, out of which 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.1% were non-families.
25.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.92. In the borough the population was spread out, with 18.5% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 21.8% from 25 to 44, 28.7% from 45 to 64, 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $43,333, the median income for a family was $46,500. Males had a median income of $38,333 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $22,329. About 3.0% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under the age of eighteen or sixty five or over. Marklesburg, Pennsylvania Detailed Profile Marklesburg, Pennsylvania PA Community Profile - Huntingdon County, PA Data
Hugh Brady was an American general from Pennsylvania. He served in the Northwest Indian War under General Anthony Wayne, during the War of 1812. Following the War of 1812, Brady remained in the military rising to the rank of major general and taking command of the garrison at Detroit, he marginally participated in the 1832 Black Hawk War. Hugh Brady died an accidental death in 1851. Hugh Brady was born July 29, 1768, one of six sons and four daughters by John and Mary Brady, in Standing Stone, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, he is not to be confused with the current President of University College Dublin. Brady's father, Captain John Brady, was killed in 1779, during the American Revolution in a battle with Native Americans. In May 1779, the family moved to Brady's maternal grandfather's home in Cumberland County and stayed there until October 1779. After a harsh winter, Brady spent the ensuing few years working the fields in the area with his brothers armed in case of conflict with Native Americans.
Brady's mother died in 1783, his oldest siblings began to marry. Hugh Brady moved with his brother Samuel Brady to Pennsylvania. Samuel married and Hugh stayed with his brother until 1792. Hugh's father, Capt. John Brady, was born in 1733 near Newark and died April 11, 1779 near Muncy, Pennsylvania in an Indian attack, his mother was Mary Quigley Brady, born on August 16, 1735 in Hopewell Township, Cumberland County and died October 20, 1783 in Muncy, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. Capt. John Brady and Mary Quigley Brady had thirteen children, three of whom died in infancy, their children were Captain Samuel Brady, born 1756. Hugh's Irish maternal grandfather, James Quigley, was born in about 1710 and came to America from Ireland in 1730, he settled on 400 acres of frontier land, in what is today, Hopewell township, Cumberland County, close to present day Shippensburg, Pennsylvania. He built his wilderness home of logs close to the banks of Conodoguinet Creek; the Scottish-Irish were the earliest settlers on the Pennsylvania frontier of the early 18th century.
As one author puts it. The Cumberland Valley was dotted with Scottish-Irish settlements throughout its entire area, a district which had become exclusively the possession of this racial group, with whom were mingled small numbers of English and German settlers constituting ten percent of the population, it was well adapted to farming, the Scottish-Irish, in this early period, were farmers, but they developed a marked aptitude for trade and the professions. As pioneers, they were the advance guard blazing the trail through the wilderness far out on the frontier, they were the first line of defense against the savages, bearing the brunt of the Indian wars, courageously enduring the hardships of pioneer life as the typical frontiersmen of provincial Pennsylvania. Step by step they had advanced along a perilous path, surmounting whatever difficulties arose, moving farther into the wilderness and reclaiming it to the new civilization. Little is known of James' wife, except that she was of Scottish descent and was born in Hopewell Township in 1725.
However, according to Brady family historian, Belle Swope, "We are assured she was a devoted wife, a loving mother, a wise counselor, or she would not have given to the world such brave and illustrious children." In 1738 the log Middle Spring Presbyterian Church was erected three miles from their homestead, of which James and Jeanette Quigley became faithful members and in which they along with some of their children came to be buried in its old graveyard. James Quigley had to be and was vigilant to keep hostile Indians from killing his family and burning his home–a fate that befell many of his neighbors in those early days on the Pennsylvania frontier. In addition to keeping his home and family safe, on March 25, 1756 James Quigley was commissioned ensign in the Cumberland County Colonial Rangers, he served as a private in the Revolutionary War. He died in 1782, they had six children, who were all born on their Hopewell Township homestead, John Quigley, born in August 1731, Samuel Quigley, born in June 1733, Mary Quigley, born August 16, 1735, Agnes Quigley, born in March 1737 or 1738, Martha Quigley, born in July 1741 and Robert Quigley, born in 1744, who married Mary Jacob.
Robert Quigley ended up living on the Quigley Homestead, at Quigley Bridge, Hopewell Township, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania. Robert Quigley and Mary Quigley Brady remained close throughout their lives; as to the Brady grandparents of General Hugh Brady, Belle Swope states, "No family of pioneers was more conspicuous in the early history and settlement of the country than the Bradys." Hugh Brady was born in 1709 in Ireland. Hannah's maiden name was McCormick, she was born on January 1709 in Dublin, Ireland. After immigrating from Ireland, the Bradys first lived in the American colony of Delaware where they were married in 1733, they are said to have moved to frontier Pennsylvania on the urging of pr
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University