Braganza Brooch

The Braganza Brooch is a gold ornamental fibula, made in the third century BC by a Greek craftsman for an Iberian client. Since its discovery in unknown circumstances in the nineteenth century, it has belonged to a variety of owners, including various members of the House of Braganza, for which it is named, before being purchased by the British Museum in 2001.. This heavy gold brooch is dominated by the figure of a naked warrior who wears a Celtic helmet and protects himself with a Celtic shield and sword from a hunting dog which jumps up to him; each end of the fibula is decorated by a dog's head and it once furnished a spring and pin, now lost. The form and technique suggest that it was made in the third century BC by a Greek jeweller for a Celtic patron who lived on the Iberian Peninsula. Contemporary Iberian brooches were made of silver and were decorated with warriors on horseback accompanied by hunting dogs. In this unique gold version, the craftsman has simplified the hunting scene and added a boar's head, which once served as the sliding catch for the now missing pin.

The brooch measures 14 cm long. The brooch was once in the collection of the Royal House of Braganza and was collected by Fernando II, consort of Queen Maria of Portugal. Most of the jewellery of the Braganza dynasty was inherited in 1919 by HRH Nevada of Portugal, Princess d'Braganza and Duchesse d'Oporto who emigrated to America. On her death in 1941, the collection was sold to Warren Piper of Chicago; the brooch was in turn purchased by Thomas F Flannery Jr in 1950. After being loaned to the British Museum for 7 years, it was purchased by the museum in 2001. Cordoba Treasure Orense Torcs M. Lenerz-de Wilde,'The Celts in Spain' in The Celtic World I. Stead, Celtic Art, British Museum Press, 1996 Megaw Ruth and Vincent, Celtic Art: From Its Beginnings to the Book of Kells, 2001


Barbaggio is a commune in the Haute-Corse department of France on the island of Corsica. It is known for its wine, its scenery, the prehistoric site of Strette. Barbaggio is located on an inland plateau below Cap Corse on the southwest slopes of the 960 metres high Serra di Pigno some 8 km east of Saint-Florent and 5 km south-east of Patrimonio. In times of conflict it controls the Col de Teghime, a 536-metre high pass through the Serra mountains leading to Bastia, 10 kilometres to the north-east. Barbaggio does not itself border the sea. Traditionally an area belonging to the Nebbio region, called since Antiquity Conca d'Oro. Barbaggio is one of 14 communes. Barbaggio backs onto the western slope of the mountains of the Serra di Pigno, the extension of the dorsal schist of Cap Corse, it covers the plain to the south-west of the village. The eastern side is delineated by the valley of the Ruisseau de Lucitello stream with the village built on a rocky ridge under the Pigno, its boundaries are defined as follows: to the north: by a boundary starting from the bridge of the D81 at the entrance to Saint-Florent and following the course of the Ruisseau de La Trutta through a chasm in the limestone hills of Monte Sant'Angelo the course of the Ruisseau de Vaccareccia stream before following a ridgeline passing through Cima Malaspina to the south of Pigno on which there are identifiable telecommunications towers.

Barbaggio does not border the sea - the bridge on the D81 is located 700 m from the sea. The plateau is drained by small streams such as the Ruisseau de Lucitello and provides the commune with its chief economic resource: 45 hectares of grapevines; the commune is known for its fine wine. Of the 1,086 ha remainder, 610 ha are woods. Barbaggio shares a nature reserve of 32 ha with nearby Oletta. Barbaggio is located in the drainage basin of the Ruiseau de la Trutta which flows west to Olzu in the Gulf of Saint-Florent. Upstream it is called the Ruisseau de Vaccareccia, it rises from the Cima di Malaspina at 470 m above sea level. It is fed by its tributary the Ruisseau de Forci; as for other communes in the Nebbio region and those along the western coast of Cap Corse, Barbaggio enjoys a Mediterranean climate with moderate temperature changes. The snow only reaches the heights of Pigno a few days a year dropping below 400 metres. Snowfall disrupts traffic in the Col de Teghime only rarely. Rainfall that should refresh the Serra di Pigno is low in summer and so the flanks of the mountain are arid and exposed, being the sulana of the mountain and subject to frequent libeccio - the prevailing westerly wind: dry and mixed with the punente, the other westerly wind.

Because of its geographical position and its area of plain, Barbaggio is well protected from the north winds - the Tramuntana in winter: a healthy, dry and icy wind. The vegetative cover in uncultivated areas has different landscapes at different levels. Near the ridges vegetation is low moorish carved by strong winds with rocky grasslands. On lower levels it is dense maquis shrubland consisting of many thorny shrubs as well as brambles, Pouzin rosebushes, Sarsaparille which are impenetrable and without trees due to frequent fires. At the level of the village there are olive trees, Holly Oaks, some chestnuts. Around the village are palm trees, prickly pears, agaves which bring an exotic touch; the cultivated areas are located on the plain. They are vines producing wines and muscat under an AOC. In peak summer season they have a supply of water from Lake Padula; the D81 road from Bastia to Saint-Florent crosses the Col de Teghime. Descending from the pass, Barbaggio is the first of the two villages.

The Col de Teghime in the south of the commune is the junction of the D81 and the D38 which goes south-west to Poggio-d'Oletta. The D338 road leads to the top of Pigno, south-east of the commune, where there are telecommunication towers, its junction with the D81 is nearly 700 m east of the Col de Teghime. It ends in a cul-de-sac in remote Pigno with the telecommunications facilities at 4.1 km. The village of Barbaggio is built on a rocky ridge under the Pigno. There are three other hamlets in the commune: Piazze in the centre where there are the town hall, war memorial, the village square Poggio Gorgaccia off to the west; the plain is occupied by isolated farms. The houses are 2 or 3 levels. Most are restored. Roofs alternate between red tiles. There is an orientation table at t

James DeGale

James Frederick DeGale, is a British former professional boxer who competed from 2009 to 2019. He held the IBF super-middleweight title twice between 2015 and 2018, regionally the European and British super-middleweight titles between 2010 and 2012. DeGale represented Great Britain at the 2008 Olympics as an amateur, winning a gold medal in the middleweight division, he won silver at the 2007 and 2008 EU Championships, bronze at the 2006 Commonwealth Games. By becoming IBF champion, he became the first British boxer in history to win both an Olympic gold medal and a professional world title. Born to a black Grenadian father and a white English mother, DeGale started amateur boxing at the Trojan club at the age of 10 before moving to Dale Youth boxing club; as a boy he soon acquired a name that has followed him throughout his career. The predominantly southpaw Londoner fights as a switch hitter. At the Commonwealth Games 2006 he won Bronze. DeGale has stated on numerous occasions that he is a big Arsenal fan and fights with the Arsenal F.

C. Club logo on his robe and shorts. Amateur record: 79–16. DeGale represented Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Olympics in the Middleweight boxing event, winning the gold medal. In the quarter finals he beat a former Olympic gold medalist from Athens and in the semi-final once again beat the late Irishman Darren Sutherland. In the final DeGale won a scrappy and bad tempered affair against the Cuban Emilio Correa, docked two points in the first round for biting DeGale's shoulder. 2007 Lost to Alfonso Blanco 13–28 2008 Defeated Mohamed Hikal 13–4 Defeated Shawn Estrada 11–5 Defeated Bakhtiyar Artayev 8–3 Defeated Darren Sutherland 10–3 Defeated Emilio Correa 16–14 On 2 December 2008, he agreed a deal with promoter Frank Warren to become professional along with Frankie Gavin and Billy Joe Saunders. The contract agreed. DeGale was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2009 New Year Honours. On 28 February 2009 DeGale made his professional debut against Vepkhia Tchilaia, winning a points decision by 40–36.

DeGale received a mixed reaction from the crowd, who booed him after being taken the distance by his little-known opponent. However, DeGale was backed by others in attendance, as Tchilaia chose to box defensively. Five more victories followed before DeGale won his first regional championship, the WBA International super-middleweight title, stopping Sam Horton in five rounds. On 18 September 2010, DeGale made the first defence of his title against Carl Dilks, winning by stoppage near the end of the first round. Frank Warren revealed that DeGale would challenge Paul Smith for the British super-middleweight title on Warren's blockbuster event in Liverpool, set for 11 December 2010 at the Echo Arena; the bill included fellow Olympians Frankie Gavin and Billy Joe Saunders, as well as Nathan Cleverly and Kell Brook. DeGale went on to defeat Smith via ninth-round stoppage to become the British super-middleweight champion. On 17 March 2011, Frank Warren announced that DeGale would defend his British title against fellow Dale Youth Boxing Club graduate and Commonwealth champion George Groves at The O2 on 21 May.

Groves had held a majority decision win over DeGale in the amateurs. DeGale suffered his first professional loss Groves, in what was seen as a close fight; the judges scored the bout 115–115, 115–114, 115–114. Groves, who believed he proved many critics wrong, welcomed the idea of a rematch in the future, "I will fight him again. Yeah if everything is all right and it's the right way, but now I have beaten him twice." DeGale had a look of disbelief. DeGale was scheduled to return to action in September 2011 to challenge Polish boxer Piotr Wilczewski for his European super-middleweight title. DeGale returned on 15 October 2011 to defeat Wilczewski when one judge scored the bout 114–114, the other two scored it 115–113 in favour of DeGale, giving him the majority decision to win the European title. DeGale started well winning the early rounds, he slowed down his work rate before picking it back up during the sixth and seventh rounds. In February 2012, DeGale signed a sponsorship deal with Bulk Powders sport supplements.

DeGale took six months out before fighting Italian boxer Cristian Sanavia on 21 April 2012 and defending his European title in Denmark. DeGale dropped Sanavia 3 times in round 4. At the time of stoppage, Degale was ahead on all three judges cards 29–28, 30–27, 29–28. On 13 October, DeGale went the 12 round distance against 32 year old French super-middleweight champion Hadillah Mohoumadi and retained his EBU title; this was DeGales first fight under new promoter Mick Hennessy. The final judges scorecards read 117-111 and 116-112 all in favour of DeGale. On 8 December 2012, DeGale outpointed 35-year-old Colombian fringe contender Fulgencio Zúñiga in a 12-round bout to win the vacant WBC Silver super-middleweight title. Zúñiga beat the count; when DeGale looked to attack and go for the stoppage, the referee inadvertently separated the boxers because he thought the bell sounded to end the round. All three judges scored the fight 118-109 for DeGale. On 17 May 2013 DeGale knocked out 33 year old Canadian boxer Sébastien Demers in the second round in a non-title fight.

The fight took place in Quebec in Canada. Prior to this fight, Demer