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Preludes (Chopin)

Frédéric Chopin wrote a number of preludes for piano solo. His cycle of 24 Preludes, Op. 28, covers all minor keys. In addition, Chopin wrote three other preludes: a prelude in C♯ minor, Op. 45. These are sometimes referred to as Nos. 25, 26, 27, respectively. Chopin's 24 Preludes, Op. 28, are a set of short pieces for the piano, one in each of the twenty-four keys published in 1839. Chopin wrote them between 1835 and 1839 at Valldemossa, where he spent the winter of 1838–39 and where he had fled with George Sand and her children to escape the damp Paris weather. In Majorca, Chopin had a copy of Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, as in each of Bach's two sets of preludes and fugues, his Op. 28 set comprises a complete cycle of the major and minor keys, albeit with a different ordering. The manuscript, which Chopin prepared for publication, carries a dedication to the German pianist and composer Joseph Christoph Kessler; the French and English editions were dedicated to the piano-maker and publisher Camille Pleyel, who had commissioned the work for 2,000 francs.

The German edition was dedicated to Kessler, who ten years earlier had dedicated his own set of 24 Preludes, Op. 31, to Chopin. Whereas the term "prelude" had hitherto been used to describe an introductory piece, Chopin's pieces stand as self-contained units, each conveying a specific idea or emotion, he thus imparted new meaning to a genre title that at the time was associated with improvisatory "preluding". In publishing the 24 preludes together as a single opus, comprising miniatures that could either be used to introduce other music or as self-standing works, Chopin challenged contemporary attitudes regarding the worth of small musical forms. Whereas Bach had arranged his collection of 48 preludes and fugues according to keys separated by rising semitones, Chopin's chosen key sequence is a circle of fifths, with each major key being followed by its relative minor, so on. Since this sequence of related keys is much closer to common harmonic practice, it is thought that Chopin might have conceived the cycle as a single performance entity for continuous recital.

An opposing view is that the set was never intended for continuous performance, that the individual preludes were indeed conceived as possible introductions for other works. Chopin himself never played more than four of the preludes at any single public performance. Nowadays, the complete set of Op. 28 preludes has become repertory fare, many concert pianists have recorded the entire set, beginning with Ferruccio Busoni in 1915, when making piano rolls for the Duo-Art label. Alfred Cortot was the next pianist to record the complete preludes in 1926; as with his other works, Chopin did not himself attach names or descriptions to any of the Op. 28 preludes, in contrast to many of Robert Schumann's and Franz Liszt's pieces. The brevity and apparent lack of formal structure in the Op. 28 set caused some consternation among critics at the time of their publication. No prelude is longer than 90 bars, the shortest, No. 9, is a mere 12 bars. Schumann said: "hey are sketches, beginnings of études, or, so to speak, individual eagle pinions, all disorder and wild confusions."

Liszt's opinion, was more positive: "Chopin's Preludes are compositions of an order apart... they are poetic preludes, analogous to those of a great contemporary poet, who cradles the soul in golden dreams..."Among more recent assessments, musicologist Henry Finck said that "if all piano music in the world were to be destroyed, excepting one collection, my vote should be cast for Chopin's Preludes." Biographer Jeremy Nicholas writes that "ven on their own, the 24 Preludes would have ensured Chopin's claim to immortality."Despite the lack of formal thematic structure, motives do appear in more than one prelude. Scholar Jeffrey Kresky has argued that Chopin's Op. 28 is more than the sum of its parts: Individually they seem like pieces in their own right... But each works best along with the others, in the intended order... The Chopin preludes seem to be at one large one; as we note or sense at the start of each piece the various connections to and changes from the previous one, we feel free to involve ourselves – as listeners, as players, as commentators – only with the new pleasure at hand.

The first four measures of Frédéric Chopin's Prelude No. 21 are shown below. Chopin's Op. 28 preludes have been compared to Johann Sebastian Bach's preludes in The Well-Tempered Clavier. However, each of Bach's preludes leads to a fugue in the same key, Bach's pieces are arranged, in each of the work's two volumes, in ascending chromatic order, while Chopin's are arranged in a circle of fifths. Chopin is known to have studied Bach's music, although he is not known to have performed it publicly. Harold C. Schonberg, in The Great Pianists, writes: "It is hard to escape the notion that Chopin was familiar with Hummel's now-forgotten Op. 67, composed in 1815 – a set of twenty-four preludes in all major and minor keys, starting with C major." As Schonberg says: "the openings of the Hummel A minor and Chopin E minor concertos are too close to be coincidental." The dedicatee of Chopin's set, Joseph Christoph Kessler used the circle of fifths in his 24 Études, Op. 20, which were dedicated to Hummel. Chopin wrote three other preludes.

The Prelude in C♯ minor, Op. 45, was composed in 1841. It was dedicated to Princess E. Czernicheff (Elisaweta Tschern

Bartolomé de la Cueva y Toledo

Bartolomé de la Cueva y Toledo was a Spanish Roman Catholic Roman Catholic cardinal and bishop. Bartolomé de la Cueva y Toledo was born in Cuéllar on 24 August 1499, the son of Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 2nd Duke of Alburquerque and his wife Francisca de Toledo; as a young man, before he took Holy Orders, he had Bartolomé de la Cueva. Following his ordination, he was a cleric in the Diocese of Segovia, a canon of the cathedral chapter of Toledo Cathedral, he worked for the Apostolic See in Spain. In 1525, he and his brother Luis accompanied Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor during the emperor's visit to Italy. Cardinal de la Cueva did not participate in the Council of Trent, he was a friend of Ignatius of Loyola, joining Loyola's Sociedad de la Gracia at Santa Marta al Collegio Romano in Rome in 1543. He was the patron of the first Jesuit church build in Rome by Michelangelo in 1544. Pope Paul III made him a cardinal priest in the consistory of 19 December 1544, he received the red hat and the titular church of San Matteo in Via Merulana on 5 May 1546.

As a cardinal, he resided at the papal court in Rome. Charles V was annoyed that Pedro Pacheco, Bishop of Pamplona was not elevated to the cardinalate and he forbade the three Spaniards made cardinals on 19 December 1544 from wearing the cardinalate habit until Bishop Pacheco was made a cardinal the next year. On 12 September 1548 he was named administrator of the see of Avellino e Frigento, holding this position until 10 March 1549. On the vigil Pentecost, 8 June 1549, he was consecrated as a bishop in Rome by Cardinal Juan Álvarez de Toledo, he participated in the papal conclave of 1549-50 that elected Pope Julius III. On 4 December 1551 he opted for the titular church of San Bartolomeo all'Isola, he served as Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals from 12 January 1554 to 7 January 1555. Cardinal de la Cueva participated in both the papal conclave of April 1555 that elected Pope Marcellus II and the papal conclave of May 1555 that elected Pope Paul IV, he opted for the titular church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme on 29 May 1555.

From October 1558 to June 1559, he served as viceroy of the Kingdom of Naples. He was a participant in the papal conclave of 1559 that elected Pope Pius IV; the new pope appointed him to a commission of cardinals tasked with studying church reform in 1560. On 13 September 1560 he was promoted to the metropolitan see of Manfredonia, he died in the former Medici palace in Rome on 29 June 1562. He was buried in Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore, his remains were transferred to the family tomb in the monastery of San Francisco in Cuéllar

Murder of Frauke Liebs

The Murder of Frauke Liebs is an unsolved criminal case in Germany. On June 20, 2006 the 21-year-old student nurse Frauke Liebs disappeared under mysterious circumstances; the last known sighting of her was at a pub in Paderborn's city center, where she and a friend watched the FIFA World Cup match between England and Sweden. While Liebs was still at the pub, she borrowed a friend's mobile phone battery, as the battery on her own phone had been drained, she returned her friend's battery before leaving the pub at around 11 p.m. Since she had no more than five euros with her, she is believed to have been heading home on foot; the pub was about 1.5 kilometers away from her home. At 12:49 a.m. her housemate received a text message from Lieb's mobile phone, saying that she would be home later. However, she did not return home that night, when she failed to appear at work the day after, her mother reported her missing; the police discovered that the text message had been sent from Nieheim, a small city about 35 km north-east of Paderborn.

In the following days, Liebs called her housemate five times via her mobile phone. Police were able to locate the calls. During these calls, Liebs continued to say that she would return home soon, but did not communicate any information about her situation, she provided only evasive answers to questions. Frauke Liebs' last phone call was on June 27 in the presence of her sister, who talked to her. During this conversation, Frauke is said to have answered the question of whether she was being held captive with a faint "yes" followed by a loud "no". Contact broke off after this phone call. Frauke Liebs' skeletonized body was found by a hunter on October 4, 2006 in a forested area next to a Landesstraße near Lichtenau; the body was found with the clothes. Her mobile phone, handbag and wrist watch were not found. Due to the advanced state of decomposition, the time and cause of Liebs' death could not be determined. A case analysis by the police came to the conclusion that Liebs was held captive in the area around Nieheim and that the phone calls from Paderborn may have been diversionary maneuvers.

No motive for the crime has been determined. Over 900 people who were connected to the victim were questioned by the police, the initial investigation produced a list of five initial suspects. All five were cleared after producing alibis; the case aroused nationwide interest and was among others presented on the popular television show Aktenzeichen XY … ungelöst. List of solved missing persons cases List of unsolved murders Video clip from "Aktenzeichen XY... ungelöst" Video clip from TV show "Zeugen gesucht"

1990 in Wales

This article is about the particular significance of the year 1990 to Wales and its people. Prince of Wales – Charles Princess of Wales – Diana Secretary of State for WalesPeter Walker. 10 June - Death of John Evans, Britain's oldest man whose age could be authenticated. 2 August - Highest temperature recorded in Wales, 35.2 °C at Hawarden. 27 September - Brymbo Steelworks last tapped. 1 November - Veteran Conservative politician Sir Geoffrey Howe resigns from the government. December - Privatisation of the former South Wales Electricity Board and Merseyside and North Wales Electricity Board. 21 December - Last underground shift worked at Mardy Colliery. Date unknown - Following a referendum, the Vaynor Community Council in Merthyr Tydfil is abolished, the first time such an action has taken place. Commercial sponsorship of the National Eisteddfod of Wales exceeds £1 million for the first time ever. Griffith R. Williams of Llithfaen, publishes his autobiography, Cofio canrif, making him the world's oldest author at 102.

Geraint Talfan Davies becomes Controller of BBC Wales. National Eisteddfod of Wales National Eisteddfod of Wales: Chair - Myrddin ap Dafydd, "Gwythiennau" National Eisteddfod of Wales: Crown - Iwan Llwyd, "Gwreichion" National Eisteddfod of Wales: Prose Medal - withheld Gwobr Goffa Daniel Owen - Geraint V. Jones, Yn y Gwaed John Barnie - The King of Ashes Carol-Ann Courtney - Morphine and Dolly Mixtures Rees Davies - Conquest and Domination Christine Evans - Cometary Phases David Jones - Rebecca's Children David H. Williams - Atlas of Cistercian Lands in Wales Raymond Williams - People of the Black Mountains, vol. 2: The Eggs of the Eagle Sioned Davies - Pedair Keinc y Mabinogi Hywel Teifi Edwards - Codi'r Hen Wlad yn ei Hôl Alun Jones - Plentyn y Bwtias Dic Jones - Os Hoffech Wybod R. Gerallt Jones - Cerddi 1955-1989 Gwyneth Lewis - Sonedau Redsa A Cherddi Eraill Selyf Roberts - Gorwel Agos Bob Delyn a'r Ebillion - Sgwarnogod Bach Bob Datblygu - Pyst Dave Edmunds - Closer to the Flame Hanner Pei - Locsyn Siân James - Cysgodion Karma Jeffrey Lewis - Westminster Mass Manic Street Preachers - "New Art Riot" World Party - Goodbye Jumbo Catherine Zeta-Jones plays her first major film role in 1001 Nights Chwedl Nadolig Nel O.

M. The Broadcasting Act 1990 redefines the responsibilities of S4C. Hughezovka Hereford United win the Welsh Cup, but Wrexham, as the top Welsh club, take their place in European competition. Norton's Coin, trained by Sirrel Griffiths at Nantgaredig, wins the Cheltenham Gold Cup at record odds of 100-1. 10 March - Luke Rowe, cyclist 14 March – Joe Allen, footballer 1 April – Joe Partington, footballer 17 April – Jonathan Brown, footballer 19 August – Laura Deas, skeleton racer 17 September – Jazmin Carlin, swimmer 16 October - Natalie Powell, judoka 23 October - Sian Williams, rugby player 14 November – Casey Thomas, footballer 22 November - Steffan Jones, rugby player 26 December – Aaron Ramsey, footballer 4 January – Alwyn Sheppard Fidler, architect, 80 20 January – Trevor Every, cricketer, 80 2 February – Joe Erskine, boxer, 56 12 March – Alf Sherwood, footballer, 66 13 March – Llewellyn Heycock, Baron Heycock, politician, 84 2 April – Peter Jones, radio commentator, 60 4 May – John Ormond and film-maker, 67 9 June – Angus McBean, photographer, 86 17 June – Menna Gallie, writer 6 September - Jack Howells, film-maker, 77 29 October - Emrys Roberts, politician, 80 1 November – Jack Petersen, former British heavyweight boxing champion, 79 8 November – Ned Jenkins, Wales international rugby player, 86 13 November – Richard Lewis, operatic tenor, 76 22 November – Cliff Jones, Wales international rugby captain, 76 23 November – Roald Dahl, Cardiff-born children's writer, 74 5 December – Eric Whitman, cricketer, 81 23 December – Gwilym Williams, former Archbishop of Wales, 77 24 December Don Dearson, footballer, 76 David Gwyn Williams, novelist and academic, 86 date unknown – Cliff Birch, footballer 1990 in Northern Ireland

Pakistan women's cricket team in South Africa in 2019

The Pakistan women's cricket team toured South Africa to play against the South Africa women's cricket team in May 2019. The tour consisted of three Women's One Day Internationals, which formed part of the 2017–20 ICC Women's Championship, five Women's Twenty20 International matches. Dane van Niekerk, South Africa's regular captain, was unavailable for the tour due to injury, with Suné Luus leading the side in her absence; the WODI series was drawn 1 -- 1, after the final match finished as a tie. Only six WODI matches have finished in a tie, with this being the first one involving Pakistan, the third one to feature South Africa. South Africa won the WT20I series 3–2. Ahead of the tour, Diana Baig was ruled out Pakistan's squad with a thumb injury, she was replaced by Fatima Sana. Series home at ESPN Cricinfo