Brain abscess is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material, coming from local or remote infectious sources, within the brain tissue. The infection may be introduced through a skull fracture following a head trauma or surgical procedures. Brain abscess is associated with congenital heart disease in young children, it is most frequent in the third decade of life. Fever and neurological problems, while classic, only occur in 20% of people with brain abscess; the famous triad of fever and focal neurologic findings are suggestive of brain abscess. These symptoms are caused by a combination of increased intracranial pressure due to a space-occupying lesion and focal neurologic brain tissue damage; the most frequent presenting symptoms are headache, confusion, hemiparesis or speech difficulties together with fever with a progressive course. Headache is characteristically worse at night and in the morning, as the intracranial pressure increases when in the supine position; this elevation stimulates the medullary vomiting center and area postrema, leading to morning vomiting.
Other symptoms and findings depend on the specific location of the abscess in the brain. An abscess in the cerebellum, for instance, may cause additional complaints as a result of brain stem compression and hydrocephalus. Neurological examination may reveal a stiff neck in occasional cases. Anaerobic and microaerophilic cocci and gram-negative and gram-positive anaerobic bacilli are the predominate bacterial isolates. Many brain abscesses are polymicrobical; the predominant organisms include: Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic streptococci, Bacteroides and Fusobacterium species, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas species, other anaerobes. Less common organisms include: Haemophillus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Bacterial abscesses arise de novo within the brain, although establishing a cause can be difficult in many cases. There is always a primary lesion elsewhere in the body that must be sought assiduously, because failure to treat the primary lesion will result in relapse.
In cases of trauma, for example in compound skull fractures where fragments of bone are pushed into the substance of the brain, the cause of the abscess is obvious. Bullets and other foreign bodies may become sources of infection if left in place; the location of the primary lesion may be suggested by the location of the abscess: infections of the middle ear result in lesions in the middle and posterior cranial fossae. Fungi and parasites may cause the disease. Fungi and parasites are associated with immunocompromised patients. Other causes include: Nocardia asteroides, Fungi and Helminths. Organisms that are most associated with brain abscess in patients with AIDS are poliovirus, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptococcus neoformans, though in infection with the latter organism, symptoms of meningitis predominate; these organisms are associated with certain predisposing conditions: Sinus and dental infections—Aerobic and anaerobic streptococci, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, Fusobacterium, S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae Penetrating trauma—S.
Aureus, aerobic streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium spp. Pulmonary infections—Aerobic and anaerobic streptococci, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli, Fusobacterium and Nocardia Congenital heart disease—Aerobic and microaerophilic streptococci, S. aureus HIV infection—T. Gondii, Nocardia and Listeria monocytogenes Transplantation—Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Nocardia, T. gondii Neutropenia—Aerobic gram-negative bacilli, Aspergillus and Mucorales The diagnosis is established by a computed tomography examination. At the initial phase of the inflammation, the immature lesion does not have a capsule and it may be difficult to distinguish it from other space-occupying lesions or infarcts of the brain. Within 4–5 days the inflammation and the concomitant dead brain tissue are surrounded with a capsule, which gives the lesion the famous ring-enhancing lesion appearance on CT examination with contrast. Lumbar puncture procedure, performed in many infectious disorders of the central nervous system is contraindicated in this condition because removing a certain portion of the cerebrospinal fluid may alter the
The Association Computability in Europe is an international organization of mathematicians, computer scientists, theoretical physicists and others interested in new developments in computability and in their underlying significance for the real world. CiE aims to widen understanding and appreciation of the importance of the concepts and techniques of computability theory, to support the development of a vibrant multi-disciplinary community of researchers focused on computability-related topics; the ACiE positions itself at the interface between applied and fundamental research, prioritising mathematical approaches to computational barriers. The Association Computability in Europe originated as a research network called Computability in Europe in 2003, became a conference series in 2005, the ACiE was formed in 2008; the Association Computability in Europe was founded in Athens, Greece in 2008. Its founding president was Professor S. Barry Cooper; the Association is promoting the development in Europe, of computability-related science, ranging over mathematics, computer science, applications in various natural and engineering sciences such as physics and biology.
This includes the promotion of the study of philosophy and history of computing as it relates to questions of computability. The ACiE is an international member of the Division for Logic and Philosophy of Science and Technology; the current member of the Council of the Association are Marcella Anselmo, Arnold Beckmann, Paola Bonizzoni, Olivier Bournez, Merlin Carl, Liesbeth De Mol, Gianluca Della Vedova, Johanna Franklin, Daniel Graça, Jarkko Kari, Benedikt Löwe, Johann Makowsky, Florin Manea, Barnaby Martin, Elvira Mayordomo, Dag Normann, Arno Pauly, Alison Pease, Giuseppe Primiero, Mariya Soskova, Martin Ziegler. The Association has three Special Interest Groups: Women in Computability, Transfinite Computations, History and Philosophy of Computing. SIGWiC has been organising the workshop Women in Computability at the CiE conferences since 2007. In memory of the visionary engagement of its founding president, the Association established the S. Barry Cooper Prize honouring a researcher who has contributed to a broad understanding and foundational study of computability by outstanding results, by seminal and lasting theory building, by exceptional service to the research communities involved, or by a combination of these.
The Association grew out of the major international conference series Computability in Europe. CiE is an interdisciplinary annual conference series promoting the development of computability-related science, ranging over mathematics, computer science, applications in various natural and engineering sciences such as physics and biology; the conference scope includes the study of philosophy and history of computing as it relates to questions of computability. CiE 2005: New Computational Paradigms, The Netherlands CiE 2006: Logical approaches to computational barriers, Wales CiE 2007: Computation and Logic in the Real World, Italy CiE 2008: Logic and Theory of Algorithms, Greece CiE 2009: Mathematical Theory and Computational Practice, Germany CiE 2010: Programs, Processes, Ponta Delgada, Portugal CiE 2011: Models of Computation in Context, Bulgaria CiE 2012: How the World Computes, England CiE 2013: The Nature of Computation: Logic, Applications, Italy CiE 2014: Language, Limits, Hungary CiE 2015: Evolving Computability, Romania CiE 2016: Pursuit of the Universal, France CiE 2017: Unveiling Dynamics and Complexity, Finland CiE 2018: Sailing Routes in the World of Computation, Germany CiE 2019: Computing with Foresight and Industry, England.
CiE 2020: Salerno, Italy. The current chair of the Steering Committee of the conference series is Florin Manea; the ACiE has editorial responsibility for the Springer book series Theory and Applications of Computability and the journal Computability published by IOS Press
Alexander Snow Gordon was an American silversmith and inn-keeper, active in New York City. Little is known of his life, aside from the fact that he started business in 1795 at 40 William Street in New York City, he was first master of the Washington Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons. "Alexander S. Gordon", in Washington Lodge, No. 21, F. & A. M. and Some of Its Members, Robert W. Reid, Washington Lodge, 1911, page 159. Proceedings of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of New York, The Grand Lodge, 1902, page 155. American Silversmiths and Their Marks: The Definitive Edition, Stephen Guernsey Cook Ensko, Courier Corporation, 1983, page 63; the Arts and Crafts in New York: Advertisements and News Items from New York City Newspapers, Volume 69, New York Historical Society, 1965, page 97
Carlo Gatti was a Swiss entrepreneur in the Victorian era. He came to England in 1847, where he established an ice importing business, he is credited with first making ice cream available to the general public. He moved into music halls, he returned to Switzerland in 1871. He died a millionaire. Gatti originated in the main Italian-speaking area of Switzerland, he was born in Marogno, a village within the commune of Dongio, where he ended his days. He was the youngest of a family of six, his parents being Apollonia. In 1839 Carlo was married to Maria Marioni, by his eldest brother Giacomo, the priest at Castro. Carlo had moved to London by 1847 at the latest, lived in the Italian community in Holborn. At first, he ran a stall selling chestnuts. In 1849, he began to run a restaurant with partners, they specialised in selling ice cream. They put a chocolate-making machine in the window to attract business, took ice for the ice cream from Regent's Canal under a contract with the Regent's Canal Company.
Their shop was the first to sell ice cream to the public. Gatti exhibited his chocolate-making machine, imported from France, at the Great Exhibition in 1851. In 1851, Gatti opened a stand in Hungerford Market, near Charing Cross, to sell pastries and ice cream. A portion of ice cream was sold for one penny served in a shell the origin of the penny lick. Gatti built a large ice warehouse, capable of storing tons of ice in two large ice wells, in the Battlebridge Basin off the Regent's Canal, near King's Cross, he began importing ice from Norway from around 1860, shipping the ice from Norway, up the Thames transferring it to canal barges at the Regent's Canal Dock and via the canal to his ice warehouse. Starting with a single ice well in 1857, he built a second ice well around 1862, became the largest ice importer in London. Today the ice warehouse houses the London Canal Museum, he began supplying ice for domestic iceboxes. Hungerford Market was damaged when the adjoining Hungerford Hall burned down in 1854, but Gatti was insured, used the proceeds to build a music hall, known as Gatti's, which opened in 1857.
He sold the music hall to South Eastern Railway in 1862, the site became Charing Cross railway station. With the proceeds from selling his first music hall, Gatti acquired a restaurant in Westminster Bridge Road, opposite the Canterbury Music Hall, he converted the restaurant into a second Gatti's music hall, known as "Gatti's-in-the-Road", in 1865. It became a cinema; the building was badly damaged in the Second World War, was demolished in 1950. In 1867, he acquired a public house in Villiers Street named "The Arches", under the arches of the elevated railway line leading to Charing Cross station, he opened it as another music hall, known as "Gatti's-in-The-Arches". Members of his family were involved in his businesses, he spent most of his time in Switzerland after 1871, he married a second wife, aged only 23. He is buried in Switzerland, his family continued to operate the music hall, known for a period after Gatti's death the Hungerford or Gatti's Hungerford Palace of Varieties. It became a cinema in 1910, the Players' Theatre in 1946.
Boone Grove High School is a public high school in Valparaiso, United States. It is part of the Porter Township School Corporation. Boone Grove High School includes grades 9–12. In 1913, the first 4-year commissioned high school was built in Boone Grove; the demographic breakdown of the 503 students enrolled in the 2016–2017 was: Male – 51.1% Female – 48.9% Asian – 0.4% Black – 2.4% Hispanic – 12.9% White – 82.9% Multiracial – 1.4%27.8% of the students were eligible for free or reduced-cost lunch. The school's colors are white; the mascot is the wolf. Athletic teams participate in the Porter County Conference; the following sports programs are offered at Boone Grove: List of high schools in Indiana Official website
The 11th Gurkha Rifles was a Gurkha regiment of the British Indian Army. It was formed in Mesopotamia and Palestine in May 1918, saw active service in the First World War and the Third Anglo-Afghan War, was disbanded in April 1922. Heavy losses suffered by the British Expeditionary Force on the Western Front following the German Spring Offensive in March 1918 resulted in a major reorganization of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force: two divisions – 52nd and 74th – were transferred to France in April, they were reformed with an Indian pioneer battalion each. In fact, the 75th Division had four Indian battalions assigned, so of the 36 battalions needed to reform the divisions, 22 were improvised by taking whole companies from existing units on active service in Mesopotamia and Palestine to form the 150th Infantry, 151st Sikh Infantry, 152nd Punjabis, 153rd Punjabis, 154th Infantry, 155th Pioneers, 156th Infantry and the 11th Gurkha Rifles; the donor units were brought back up to strength by drafts.
In the event, just 13 of the battalions were assigned to the divisions and the remaining nine were transferred from Mesopotamia to India in June 1918. The regiment formed four battalions; the first three were formed in Mesopotamia in May 1918 with companies posted from Gurkha battalions serving in the 14th, 15th, 17th, 18th Indian Divisions. They were transferred to Bombay in June 1918. All three took part in the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 as part of the 1st Division, they were disbanded in India in 1921 and 1922 with personnel transferred to various regular Gurkha battalions. In contrast, the fourth battalion was formed in Palestine with three companies and two half-companies posted from Gurkha battalions serving in the 3rd, 7th, British 75th Divisions, it remained in Palestine before returning to India. It was disbanded in 1920 with personnel transferred to the other three battalions of the regiment; the badge of the 11th Gurkha Rifles was crossed kukris, points upwards, cutting edge inwards, with "XI" above the intersection.
The 11 Gorkha Rifles, formed by the Indian Army in 1948 after the Partition of India, uses the same badge. It does not claim any connection with the First World War regiment; the 1st Battalion was formed at Kut-al-Amara on 18 May 1918 by the transfer of complete companies from: 1st Battalion, 5th Gurkha Rifles 2nd Battalion, 5th Gurkha Rifles 1st Battalion, 6th Gurkha Rifles 2nd Battalion, 6th Gurkha RiflesIn June 1918, the battalion arrived at Bombay Brigade, 6th Poona Divisional Area and in December was transferred to the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division. It served with the brigade and division in the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919; the battalion was disbanded on 20 August 1921 at Abbottabad with the personnel transferring to 2nd Battalion, 5th Gurkha Rifles. The 2nd Battalion was formed at Baghdad on 24 May 1918 by the transfer of complete companies from: 1st Battalion, 2nd King Edward's Own Gurkha Rifles 1st Battalion, 3rd Queen Alexandra's Own Gurkha Rifles 2nd Battalion, 4th Gurkha Rifles 1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha RiflesIn June 1918, the battalion arrived at Bombay Brigade, 6th Poona Divisional Area and in December was transferred to the 2nd Brigade, 1st Division.
It served with the brigade and division in the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919. The battalion was disbanded on 15 August 1921 at Abbottabad with the personnel transferring to 2nd Battalion, 4th Gurkha Rifles and 1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles; the 3rd Battalion was formed at Baghdad on 25 May 1918 by the transfer of complete companies from: 1st Battalion, 39th Garhwal Rifles 2nd Battalion, 39th Garhwal Rifles 2nd Battalion, 9th Gurkha Rifles 1st Battalion, 10th Gurkha RiflesIn June 1918, the battalion arrived at Bombay Brigade, 6th Poona Divisional Area. In October, the Garhwal companies went to 4th Battalion, 39th Garhwal Rifles and were replaced by drafts from 1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles, 1st Battalion, 9th Gurkha Rifles and 2nd Battalion, 10th Gurkha Rifles In December, it was transferred to the Presidency Brigade, 8th Division, it served with the 3rd Indian Brigade, 1st Division in the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919. The battalion was disbanded on 12 April 1922 at Abbottabad with the personnel transferring to 2nd Battalion, 5th Gurkha Rifles, 1st Battalion, 7th Gurhka Rifles and 1st Battalion, 10th Gurkha Rifles.
The 4th Battalion was formed at Sarafand on 24 May 1918 by the transfer of complete companies from: 1st Battalion, 1st King George's Own Gurkha Rifles 2nd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles 1st Battalion, 8th Gurkha Riflesand half companies of 2nd Battalion, 3rd Queen Alexandra's Own Gurkha Rifles 3rd Battalion, 3rd Queen Alexandra's Own Gurkha RiflesThe battalion joined the 158th Brigade, 53rd Division on 4 June 1918 near Ram Allah. It remained with the division for the rest of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, taking part in the Battle of Nablus. At the end of the battle, the division was working on the Nablus road. On 27 O