Wake Forest University
Wake Forest University is a private research university in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Founded in 1834, the university received its name from its original location in Wake Forest, north of Raleigh, North Carolina; the Reynolda Campus, the university's main campus, has been located north of downtown Winston-Salem since the university moved there in 1956. The Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center campus has two locations, the older one located near the Ardmore neighborhood in central Winston-Salem, the newer campus at Wake Forest Innovation Quarter downtown; the university occupies lab space at Biotech Plaza at Innovation Quarter, at the Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials. The university's Graduate School of Management maintains a presence on the main campus in Winston-Salem and in Charlotte, North Carolina. Wake Forest has produced 15 Rhodes Scholars, including 13 since 1986, four Marshall Scholars, 15 Truman Scholars and 92 Fulbright recipients since 1993. Notable people of Wake Forest University include author Maya Angelou, mathematician Phillip Griffiths, psychologist Linda Nielsen, Senators Richard Burr and Kay Hagan, athletes Chris Paul, Tim Duncan, Muggsy Bogues, Brian Piccolo and Arnold Palmer, CEO Charlie Ergen.
During the Baptist State Convention of 1833 at Cartledge Creek Baptist Church in Rockingham, North Carolina, establishment of Wake Forest Institute was ratified. The school was founded after the North Carolina Baptist State Convention purchased a 615-acre plantation from Calvin Jones in an area north of Raleigh called the "Forest of Wake"; the new school, designed to teach both Baptist ministers and laymen, opened on February 3, 1834, as the Wake Forest Manual Labor Institute. Students and staff were required to spend half of each day doing manual labor on its plantation. Samuel Wait, a Baptist minister, was selected as the "principal" president, of the institute. In 1838, the school was renamed Wake Forest College, the manual labor system was abandoned; the town that grew up around the college came to be called the town of Wake Forest. In 1862, during the American Civil War, the school closed due to the loss of most students and some faculty to service in the Confederate States Army; the college re-opened in 1866 and prospered over the next four decades under the leadership of presidents Washington Manly Wingate, Thomas H. Pritchard, Charles Taylor.
In 1894, the School of Law was established, followed by the School of Medicine in 1902. The university held its first summer session in 1921. Lea Laboratory was built in 1887–1888, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975; the leading college figure in the early 20th century was William L. Poteat, a gifted biologist and the first layman to be elected president in the college's history. "Dr. Billy" continued to promote growth, hired many outstanding professors, expanded the science curriculum, he stirred upheaval among North Carolina Baptists with his strong support of teaching the theory of evolution but won formal support from the Baptist State Convention for academic freedom at the college. The School of Medicine moved to Winston-Salem in 1941 under the supervision of Dean Coy Cornelius Carpenter, who guided the school through the transition from a two-year to a four-year program; the school became the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. The following year, 1942, Wake Forest admitted its first female undergraduate students, after World War II depleted the pool of male students.
In 1946, as a result of large gifts from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation, the entire college agreed to move to Winston-Salem, a move, completed for the beginning of the fall 1956 term, under the leadership of Harold W. Tribble. Charles and Mary Reynolds Babcock donated to the college about 350 acres of fields and woods at "Reynolda", their estate. From 1952 to 1956, fourteen new buildings were constructed on the new campus; these buildings were constructed in Georgian style. The old campus in Wake Forest was sold to the Baptist State Convention to establish the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. On April 27, 1962, Wake Forest's board of trustees voted to accept Edward Reynolds, a native of the African nation of Ghana, as the first black full-time undergraduate at the school; this made Wake Forest the first major private university in the South to desegregate. Reynolds, a transfer student from Shaw University became the first black graduate of the university in 1964, when he earned a bachelor's degree in history.
He went on to earn master's degrees at Ohio University and Yale Divinity School, a PhD in African history from the University of London. He became a professor of history at the University of California, San Diego, author of several history books. A graduate studies program was inaugurated in 1961, in 1967 the school became the accredited Wake Forest University; the Babcock Graduate School of Management, now known as the School of Business, was established in 1969. The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center opened in 1979. In 1986, Wake Forest gained autonomy from the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina and established a fraternal relationship with it; the Middleton House and its surrounding 5 acres was deeded by gift to Wake Forest by Philip Hanes and his wife Charlotte in 1992. The donation was completed in 2011; the thirteenth president of Wake Forest is Nathan O. Hatch, former provost at the University of Notre Dame.. Hatch was installed as president on October 20, 2005, he assumed office on July 1, 2005, succeeding Thomas K. Hearn, Jr. who had retired after 22 years in office.
On September 16, 2015, Wake Forest announced plans to offer undergraduate classes do
Bachelor of Laws
The Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate degree in law originating in England and offered in Japan and most common law jurisdictions—except the United States and Canada—as the degree which allows a person to become a lawyer. It served this purpose in the U. S. as well, but was phased out in the mid-1960s in favor of the Juris Doctor degree, Canada followed suit. In Canada, Bachelor of Laws was the name of the first degree in common law, but is the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. Canadian common-law LL. B. programmes were, in practice, second-entry professional degrees, meaning that the vast majority of those admitted to an LL. B. programme were holders of one or more degrees, or, at a minimum, have completed two years of study in a first-entry, undergraduate degree in another discipline. Bachelor of Laws is the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa, respectively.
The first academic degrees were all law degrees in medieval universities, the first law degrees were doctorates. The foundations of the first universities were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law; the first university, that of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. The University of Bologna served as the model for other law schools of the medieval age. While it was common for students of law to visit and study at schools in other countries, such was not the case with England because of the English rejection of Roman law, although the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge did teach canon law until the English Reformation, its importance was always superior to civil law in those institutions. "LL. B." Stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin. The "LL." of the abreviation for the degree is from the genitive plural legum. Creating an abbreviation for a plural from Latin, is done by doubling the first letter, It is sometimes erroneously called "Bachelor of Legal Letters" to account for the double "L".
The bachelor's degree originated at the University of Paris, whose system was implemented at Oxford and Cambridge. The "arts" designation of the degree traditionally signifies that the student has undertaken a certain amount of study of the classics. In continental Europe the bachelor's degree was phased out in the 18th or early 19th century but it continued at Oxford and Cambridge; the teaching of law at Oxford University was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practise law. Professional training for practising common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation. However, because of the lack of standardization of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world.
In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system. The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the seventeenth century, the Inns obtained a status as a kind of university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only; the apprenticeship programme for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenticeship programmes for the trades.
The training of solicitors by apprenticeship was formally established by an act of parliament in 1729. William Blackstone became the first lecturer in English common law at the University of Oxford in 1753, but the university did not establish the programme for the purpose of professional study, the lectures were philosophical and theoretical in nature. Blackstone insisted that the study of law should be university based, where concentration on foundational principles can be had, instead of concentration on detail and procedure had through apprenticeship and the Inns of Court; the Inns of Court continued but became less effective and admission to the bar still did not require any significant educational activity or examination, therefore in 1846 the Parliament examined the education and training of prospective barristers and found the system to be inferior to the legal education provided in the United States. Therefore, formal schools of law were called for, but not established until in the century, then the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions.
When law degrees were required by the English bar and bar associations in other common law countries, the LL. B. became the uniform degree for l
Duke University School of Law
Duke University School of Law is the law school and a constituent academic unit of Duke University, North Carolina, United States. One of Duke's 10 schools and colleges, the School of Law began as the Trinity College School of Law in 1868. In 1924, following the renaming of Trinity College to Duke University, the school was renamed the Duke University School of Law. Duke Law is ranked as one of the top law schools in the United States and admits 20% of applicants; the law school is one of the "T14" law schools, that is, schools that have ranked within the top 14 law schools since U. S. News & World Report began publishing rankings. On average, 95% of students are employed at graduation, with a median starting salary in the private sector of over $160,000; the class of 2017 had the highest employment number in the country for the category of long-term, full-time jobs that require bar passage and are not funded by the school at 93.8%. Duke's 2017 class bar passage rate was 97.44%, among the top five law schools in first time bar passage rates.
The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $285,725. Duke Law is ranked within the top 14 law schools in the country, is a member of the "T-14" law schools, a prestigious group of 14 schools that have national recognition. In fact, it has never been ranked lower than 12th by U. S. News, or less than 7th by Above the Law. Duke Law is one of three T14 law schools to have graduated a President of the United States. Duke Law was ranked by Forbes as having graduated lawyers with the 2nd highest median mid-career salary amount, it is tied as the #8 best law school by the 2015 U. S. News overall law school Rankings. In 2017, The Times Higher Education World University Rankings listed Duke Law as the number one ranked law school in the world. Duke Law is one of the most selective law schools in the United States; the law school is one of few that have experienced an increase in law school applications despite an overall national decline of applications in recent years.
For the class entering in the fall of 2014, 221 students enrolled out of 5,358 applicants. The 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2014 entering class were 166 and 170 with a median of 169; the 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.66 and 3.85 with a median of 3.77. The School has 640 J. D. students and 75 students in the LL. M. and S. J. D. Programs; the date of founding is considered to be 1868 or 1924. However, in 1855 Trinity College, the precursor to Duke University, began offering lectures on Constitutional and International Law. In 1865, Trinity's Law Department was founded, while 1868 marked the official chartering of the School of Law. After a ten-year hiatus from 1894 to 1904, James B. Duke and Benjamin Newton Duke provided the endowment to reopen the school, with Samuel Fox Mordecai as its senior professor; when Trinity College became part of the newly created Duke University upon the establishment of the Duke Endowment in 1924, the School of Law continued as the Duke University School of Law.
In 1930, the law school moved from the Carr Building on Duke's East Campus to a new location on the main quad of West Campus. During the three years preceding this move, the size of the law library tripled. Among other well-known alumni, President Richard Nixon graduated from the school in 1937. In 1963, the school moved to its present location on Science Drive in West Campus. Law students at Duke University established the first U. S. Chapter of the International Criminal Court Student Network in 2009. 1st Best Law School in the world, Times Higher Education 1st Best Professors according to the Princeton Review 1st Best Quality of Life according to the Princeton Review 2nd Highest Median Mid-Career Salary 2nd Best Classroom Experience according to Princeton Review 3rd Best Law School by Above the Law 3rd Best Law School according to the Best Law Schools ranking published by the National Jurist in 2013. 5th Best Law School by Vault 5th Best Law School by Business Insider 5th Toughest to get into according to the Princeton Review 5th Best Law School for BigLaw Hiring according to National Law Journal's "Go-To Law Schools" ranking 6th Best Law School according to CNN Money 6th Best Law School for Federal Clerkships according to National Jurist 6th Best Law School for Moot Court according to National Jurist 8th Best Law School as Ranked by Law Firm Recruiters* 10th Best in the world in the subject of law according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities in 2017 10th Best for Standard of Living according to National Jurist Tied for 10th Best Law School by U.
S. News Rankings 12th Most Median Grant Money and Percentage of Students Receiving Grants according to National Jurist 17th Best Law Review according to National Jurist 19th Best Law School Library according to National Jurist The Trinity College School of Law was located in the Carr Building prior to the renaming of Trinity to Duke University in 1924; the Duke University Law School was housed in what is now the Languages Building, built in 1929 on Duke's West Campus quad. The law school is presently located at the corner of Science Drive and Towerview Road and was constructed in the mid-1960s; the first addition to the law school was completed in 1994, a dark polished granite façade was added to the rear exterior of the building, enclosing the interi
Mercer University is a private university with its main campus in Macon, Georgia. Founded in 1833 as Mercer Institute and gaining university status in 1837, it is the oldest private university in Georgia and enrolls more than 8,600 students in 12 colleges and schools: liberal arts, engineering, music and professional studies, theology, pharmacy and health professions. Mercer is a member of the Georgia Research Alliance and has a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa, the nation's oldest collegiate honors society. Mercer has three major campuses: the historic campus in Macon, a graduate and professional education campus in Atlanta, a four-year campus of the School of Medicine in Savannah. Mercer has regional academic centers in Henry County and Douglas County; the Mercer University Health Sciences Center encompasses Mercer's medical, pharmacy and health professions programs in Macon, Atlanta and Columbus. U. S. News and World Report has ranked Mercer second among private universities in Georgia for 25 years.
Overall, U. S. News and World Report ranks Mercer 140th among the 310 National Universities and as the 39th best value in terms of education relative to cost. Mercer has been cited by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching for its community engagement and was among the 113 institutions listed on the 2015 President's Higher Education Community Service Honor Roll with Distinction. Mercer has an NCAA Division I athletic program and fields teams in eight men's and ten women's sports. Mercer University was founded in Penfield, Georgia, as a boys' preparatory school under Billington McCarthy Sanders, a professor who served as the first president, Adiel Sherwood, a Baptist minister who founded a boys' manual labor school that served as a model; the school opened as Mercer Institute with 39 students on January 14, 1833. The school was named for Jesse Mercer, a prominent Baptist leader who provided a founding endowment and who served as the first chairman of the board of trustees; the Georgia General Assembly granted a university charter in December 1837.
Mercer adopted its present name in 1838 and graduated its first university class, of three students, in 1841. In 1871, Mercer moved to a center of transportation and commerce in Georgia; the School of Law was established in 1873 and was named the Walter F. George School of Law in 1947 in honor of Mercer alumnus Walter F. George, class of 1901, who served as a United States Senator from Georgia and as President pro tempore of the United States Senate. During World War II, Mercer was one of 131 colleges and universities in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered military training that prepared students for a commission in the United States Navy. Mercer expanded to Atlanta in 1959 when the university absorbed the independent Southern School of Pharmacy; the College of Liberal Arts, the School of Law, the Southern School of Pharmacy comprised the university until 1972 when Mercer merged with Atlanta Baptist College, which became Mercer's Atlanta campus. Atlanta Baptist College was founded in 1968 under the leadership of Dr. Monroe F. Swilley, a prominent Baptist educator.
The college merged with Mercer in 1972 and became the College of Arts and Sciences, in 1984 was named the Cecil B. Day College of Arts and Sciences. Mercer offered undergraduate liberal arts education in Atlanta until 1990. Faculty and students were not successful; the mission of the Atlanta campus changed to professional education. The Southern School of Pharmacy moved in 1992 from its downtown location to the Cecil B. Day Graduate and Professional Campus. Between 1982 and 2013, Mercer established nine additional colleges and schools: the School of Medicine in 1982, the Eugene W. Stetson School of Business and Economics in 1984, the School of Engineering in 1985, the James and Carolyn McAfee School of Theology in 1994, the Tift College of Education in 1995, the Georgia Baptist College of Nursing in 2001, the College of Continuing and Professional Studies in 2003, the Townsend School of Music in 2006, the College of Health Professions in 2013. Mercer opened its second four-year medical school in Savannah in 2008 and the multi-campus Mercer University Health Sciences Center in 2012.
William D. Underwood became Mercer's 18th president on July 1, 2006, succeeding Dr. Raleigh Kirby Godsey, who served as president for 27 years and became university chancellor. Underwood served at Baylor University as interim president and held the prestigious Leon Jaworski Chair at Baylor Law School. During Underwood's presidency, enrollment has increased by more than twenty percent to about 8,700 students. Mercer, founded by early 19th-century Baptists, ended its affiliation with the Georgia Baptist Convention in 2006 after 173 years. Before the affiliation ended, Mercer had an independent board of trustees; the lack of control caused friction, with Mercer resisting restraints on social issues while the convention saw Mercer as becoming secularized and not conforming to its values. Mercer's Board of Trustees on April 20, 2018, approved a ne
University of Chicago Law School
The University of Chicago Law School is a professional graduate school of the University of Chicago. It employs more than 200 full-time and part-time faculty and hosts more than 600 students in its Juris Doctor program, while offering the Master of Laws, Master of Studies in Law and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees in law, it is ranked among the top law schools in the world, has produced many distinguished alumni in the judiciary, government and business. The law school was conceived in 1902 by the President of the University of Chicago, William Rainey Harper, who requested assistance from faculty at Harvard Law School in setting up the new school. Harper and the law school's first Dean, Joseph Henry Beale, designed the school's curriculum with inspiration from Ernst Freund's interdisciplinary approach to legal education; the construction of the school was financed by John D. Rockefeller and the cornerstone was laid by President Theodore Roosevelt; the law school opened for classes in 1903.
In the 1930s, the law school's curriculum was transformed by the emergence of the law and economics movement. Economists Aaron Director and Henry Calvert Simons taught courses integrated with the antitrust curriculum taught by statesman Edward H. Levi, leading to the development of the Chicago school of economics and the Chicago School approach to antitrust law; the law school expanded in the 1950s under Levi's leadership and, in the 1970s and 1980s, many scholars with connections to the social sciences were attracted to the school's influence in law and economics, including Nobel laureates Ronald Coase and Gary Becker and the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century, Richard A. Posner; the law school's flagship publication is the University of Chicago Law Review. Students edit two other independent law journals, with another three journals overseen by faculty; the law school was housed in Stuart Hall, a Gothic-style limestone building on the campus's main quadrangles. Since 1959, it has been housed in an Eero Saarinen-designed building across the Midway Plaisance from the main campus of the University of Chicago.
The building was expanded in 1987 and again in 1998. It was renovated in 2008. In 1902, the President of the University of Chicago, William Rainey Harper, requested assistance from the faculty of Harvard Law School in establishing a law school at Chicago. Joseph Henry Beale a professor at Harvard, was granted a two-year leave of absence to serve as the first Dean of the law school. Beale and Harper assembled the faculty and designed the curriculum, inspired by jurist and professor Ernst Freund. Freund had suggested that the school advocate an interdisciplinary approach to legal studies, offering elective courses in subjects such as history and political science. In 1903, the law school opened for classes in the University Press Building. John D. Rockefeller paid the $250,000 construction cost, President Theodore Roosevelt laid its cornerstone. At the time of its opening, the law school consisted of 78 students. In 1904, the law school moved to Stuart Hall on the main University campus. In the same year, Sophonisba Breckinridge became the first woman to graduate from the law school.
The law school established its first alumni association. There was considerable change in the law school in the years leading up to World War I and shortly thereafter; the law school established a chapter of the Order of the Coif in 1911. It established the Moot Court program in 1914. During World War I, enrolment at the law school declined: in Spring 1917, 241 students were enrolled. In 1920, Earl B. Dickerson became the first African-American to graduate from the law school. In 1926, enrolment reached 500 students for the first time and, in 1927, the law school began to offer its first seminars. In the 1930s, the law school's curriculum transformed to reflect the emerging influence of the law and economics movement. Aaron Director and Henry Simons began offering economics courses in 1933. Faculty member Edward Levi introduced economics in the antitrust course, permitting Director to teach one of every five classroom sessions; the first volume of the University of Chicago Law Review was published in 1933.
The law school established a legal writing program in 1938 and the Law and Economics Program in 1939. The LL. M. program was established in 1942, while Harry A. Bigelow Teaching Fellowships were established in 1947; as was the case during World War I, enrolment at the law school, like at many of the other top law schools in the country and its academic calendar was adjusted to meet military needs. In the 1950s and 1960s, the law school experienced a period of profound growth and expansion under the leadership of Edward Levi, appointed Dean in 1950. In 1951, Karl Llewellyn and Soia Mentschikoff joined the law school, the latter being the first woman on the faculty. In 1958, Director founded the Journal of Economics. In 1959, the law school moved to its current building on 60th Street, designed by Eero Saarinen. In 1960, constitutional law scholar Philip Kurland founded the Supreme Court Review. Levi served as the Provost and the President of the University of Chicago, before becoming the United States Attorney General under President Gerald Ford.
During his time at the law school, Levi supported the Committee on Social Thought graduate program. By the 1970s and 1980s, the law and economics movement had attracted a series of scholars with strong connections to the social sciences, such as Nobel laureates Ronald Coase and Gary Becker and scholars Richard A. Posner and William M. Landes. In 1972, Posner foun
University of Georgia School of Law
The University of Georgia School of Law is the law school of the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia. Founded in 1859, it is the second-oldest school or college at the university, is among the oldest law schools in the United States, is a nationally ranked top-tier law school; the law school was founded in 1859 by Joseph Henry Lumpkin, the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia, attorneys William Hope Hull and Thomas Cobb. Classes of the Lumpkin Law School, as it was designated, were held until 1873 at the law offices of Lumpkin and Cobb, it was thereafter housed in various buildings until 1932 when the law school moved into the new Harold Hirsch Hall, located on North Campus. North Campus is designated as a National Historic Landmark District and is within walking distance of downtown Athens. Expanded over the years by many thousands of square feet in connected buildings and upgrades, the Hirsch Hall complex remains the site of law school classrooms and offices, as well as the Alexander Campbell King Law Library and the elegant Hatton Lovejoy Courtroom.
A 2012 renovation created 4,000 square feet of additional space, including a cafe and enclosed three story courtyard. The law school's additional separate building, Dean Rusk Hall, opened in 1996 adjacent to Hirsch Hall and the main University of Georgia Library. Named for Dean Rusk, the former U. S. Secretary of State, a UGA School of Law professor, this building became the new home of the Dean Rusk International Law Center; this was founded in 1977 as the international law and policy nucleus for education and other collaborations among faculty and diverse local and global partners. Dean Rusk Hall houses classrooms, faculty offices, additional library space, a second law school courtroom, the James E. Butler Courtroom. Admission to the University of Georgia School of Law is competitive. Students from the Class of 2019 had an acceptance rate of 26.8 percent, with a median LSAT and GPA of 163 and 3.83, respectively. Georgia Law’s selectivity rating is 93 out of a possible maximum of 99, UGA Law selectivity being in the top 6% of law school applicants.
Besides grades, degrees earned, standardized test scores, for each applicant the admissions committee considers a mandatory brief personal admission essay, a mandatory resume detailing the applicant’s education, skills, honors and accomplishments, mandatory letters of recommendation. First year students came from 25 states, 14 countries, 97 undergraduate institutions, while 68% of them received merit based scholarships. There are only six students for each faculty member. New students may participate in Georgia Law’s Mentorship Program that matches every incoming first-year law student with a faculty member mentor, an upperclassman peer mentor, a Career Development Office counselor, an alumnus professional mentor. Over 300 courses and seminars are offered, including business-related law, property-related law, personal rights and public interest law and appellate practice, global practice preparation. Degrees awarded include the Juris Doctor, the Master of Laws for foreign-trained lawyers, the Master in the Study of Law for those who wish to gain an understanding of legal principles and perspectives in order to advance their careers.
Students may choose to pursue interdisciplinary coursework in other University schools and colleges, or to earn one of many dual degrees including a J. D./M. B. A. Or LL. M./M. B. A; the law school is accredited by the American Bar Association, a member of the Association of American Law Schools, has a chapter of the Order of the Coif, is host to two advocacy inns: the Lumpkin Inn of Court, one of the earliest American inns of court, E. Wycliffe Orr Sr. American Inn of Court, both modeled after the English inns of court, it is an Academic Partner of the American Society of International Law. The Alexander Campbell King Law Library, as the oldest and largest law library in the state, provides access to, preserves information at the regional and international levels, it is a founding member of the Legal Information Preservation Alliance and the Law Library Microform Consortium, provides ubiquitous wireless access as well as task lighting and power outlets at every seat, has been designated a Federal Depository Library, whose primary purpose is to support the U.
S. government legal information needs of the faculty and students. The library is one of the United States' Specialized European Documentation Centres, houses the Faculty Writings Collection, the Phillips Nuremberg Trials Collection, the Rare Book Collection, the J. Alton Hosch Collection, which includes the extensive personal library of Dean Hosch, a member of the law school faculty from 1935 to 1964. Featured is the Louis B. Sohn Library on International Relations, located in the Dean Rusk International Law Center in the law school's Dean Rusk Hall; the Sohn library is the extensive international law collection of Louis B. Sohn, the Woodruff Chair professor at Georgia Law and the Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard Law School. UGA Law students publish three legal journals: Georgia Law Review, the Journal of Intellectual Property Law, the Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law. In addition to the Georgia Law Review, the students publish the online component, the Georgia Law Review Posts, which features essays by students, practitioners and professors focused on timely legal issues in the U.
S. Supreme Court and U. S. Courts of Appeals; these journals have been cited by federal and state courts, as well as textbooks and law reviews. Membership on the journals is limited t
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the