Bramante Staircase is the name given to two staircases in the Vatican Museums in the Vatican City State: the original stair, built in 1505, a modern equivalent from 1932. The original Bramante staircase, in the Pio-Clementine Museum, was built in 1505 to a design by Donato Bramante, it connects the Belvedere palace of Pope Innocent VIII to the outside and stands in a square tower of that building. The Bramante Staircase features granite Doric columns and a herringbone paving pattern, was designed to allow people and pack animals to ascend and descend without interruption; the stair is cited as the inspiration for Antonio da Sangallo the Younger's design for the double helix passageway at the well of San Patrizio in Orvieto, to solve a similar logistical problem. The staircase was built to allow Pope Julius II to enter his private residence while still in his carriage, since walking up the several flights in heavy papal vestments would have been onerous, it is not open to the public, though specialist tours do visit.
The modern double helix staircase in the Pio-Clementine Museum, referred to as the "Bramante Staircase", was designed by Giuseppe Momo in 1932 and was inspired by the original Bramante Staircase. This staircase, like the original, is a double helix, having two staircases allowing people to ascend without meeting people descending, it encircles the outer wall of a stairwell fifteen meters wide and with a clear space at the centre. The balustrade around the ramp is of ornately worked metal. A canopy located above provides the necessary light to illuminate the stairs; the staircase is located at the end of the museum visit and all visitors leave by this route. Index of Vatican City-related articles
Matthew Q. Gebert is an American foreign affairs officer in the U. S. State Department, known for being suspended in August 2019 from his position after he was reported as a white nationalist by Hatewatch, a newsletter of the Southern Poverty Law Center, he had grown up in suburban New Jersey, graduated from George Washington University in 2011. Gebert had studied abroad after high school and college in various programs. Gebert joined the State Department in 2013, after passing rigorous exams and background checks, his brother reported him to the FBI in June 2019 for his activities, disturbed by his views and radicalization. Gebert is being investigated by the State Department; as of January 2020, Gebert is still active in the white nationalist movement. Matthew Gebert is the older of two brothers in his family, he and Michael grew up in Somerdale, New Jersey, he was known for liberal views. He listened including the rap group Wu-Tang Clan. Voted by his class as "Most Likely to Succeed", Gebert had earlier participated in a student exchange program in Ukraine.
Gebert graduated from George Washington University in 2011. In 2001 he had participated in a study program in Moscow, sponsored by American University. There he met his future wife, Anna Vuckovic, a Serbian-American student abroad in a study program of Northwestern University. Gebert took other opportunities for travel in Eastern Europe. Gebert and Vukovic married in 2007, have children together, they settled in Leesburg, now a distant suburb of Washington, D. C. According to his own account in a white nationalist forum, Gebert became radicalized in 2015; the reasons are unclear, although he had long been interested in Slavic culture and suggested the United States and the Slavic peoples had common interests. Gebert had studied and traveled numerous times in Russia and Eastern Europe since the fall of the Soviet Union, he became a white nationalist, leading a Washington, D. C.-area chapter of a neo-fascist cell called "The Right Stuff." He uses the online pseudonym "Coach Finstock", in addition to several others.
Gebert was confirmed by his brother as an attendee at a May 2017 white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, as seen in a photograph. In a podcast called "The Fatherland" in May 2018, Gebert was quoted as saying: "... need a country of our own with nukes, we will retake this thing lickety split." In 2018, Gebert donated $200 to white supremacist Paul Nehlen's election campaign. He has hosted known white nationalists in his home in Virginia. In 2019 He shared an image of a swastika-shaped cookie with the caption: "From our pool party last night. Plate was stacked." The cookies were saved for special guests. On July 2, 2019, Matthew Gebert's brother reported him to the FBI because: "I saw so much evil in my brother, I could not fucking deal with it". Following an investigation, as of August 8, 2019, Gebert was placed on leave from the State Department
The 1970 Victorian Football League season was the 74th season of the elite Australian rules football competition. In 1970, the VFL competition consisted of twelve teams of 18 on-the-field players each, plus two substitute players, known as the 19th man and the 20th man. A player could be substituted for any reason. Teams played each other in a home-and-away season of 22 rounds. Once the 22 round home-and-away season had finished, the 1970 VFL Premiers were determined by the specific format and conventions of the Page–McIntyre system; the consolation night series were held under the floodlights at Lake Oval, South Melbourne, for the teams out of the finals at the end of the home and away rounds. Final: Footscray 13.17 defeated Melbourne 13.15. The 1970 VFL Premiership team was Carlton; the VFL's leading goalkicker was Peter Hudson of Hawthorn. The winner of the 1970 Brownlow Medal was Peter Bedford of South Melbourne with 25 votes. North Melbourne took the "wooden spoon" in 1970; the reserves premiership was won by Melbourne for the second consecutive year.
Melbourne 16.10 defeated Richmond 16.8 in the Grand Final, held as a curtain-raiser to the seniors Grand Final at the Melbourne Cricket Ground on 26 September. Unhappy with their treatment over the three seasons they spent at Princes Park, Fitzroy moved their home ground to the Junction Oval in St Kilda. On Monday 9 March, the Victoria representative team played a match under Gaelic football rules against the 1969 All-Ireland Senior football champions, Kerry, at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Kerry 4-11 defeated Victoria 2-10. Essendon's Don McKenzie, Geoff Gosper, Darryl Gerlach, Geoff Pryor, Barry Davis, Collingwood's Len Thompson and Des Tuddenham did not play in Round 1 due to separate disputes over player payments with their respective clubs. In Round 1, Richmond and Fitzroy played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground on Sunday, 5 April 1970, the first VFL match played on a Sunday. Before the start of the third quarter, the Richmond and Fitzroy players lined up in front of the Members' Stand and were introduced to The Queen, The Duke of Edinburgh, The Prince of Wales and Princess Anne, who watched the last half of the match.
In Round 10, Collingwood trailed St Kilda by over ten goals late in the second quarter but came back to win by seven points. Their 52-point deficit remains, the greatest at half-time deficit by a winning side; the 1970 VFL season was the first in which three full-forwards kicked at least 100 goals in a home-and-away season. South Melbourne ended the second-longest finals drought in league history by finishing fourth, making the finals for the first time since 1945. In Round 5, Ted Whitten played his 321st senior VFL game. Whitten retired after this match. On Monday 31 August HSV-7 broadcast the first live Brownlow Medal count. In the 1970 Second Semi-Final, Carlton's Syd Jackson was reported for striking Collingwood defender Lee Adamson. Carlton president George Harris, eager to have Jackson in his Grand Final team, devised the strategy of having the club's advocate to assert to the tribunal that Jackson had been provoked by an extended series of racial taunts from Adamson, including calling him "Sambo" and, stating that Jackson would respond in the same way to any future vilification.
The tribunal took the stance that the VFL had to be seen to protect its only top-level Aboriginal footballer at the time, they exonerated him, without hearing Adamson's side of the story, stating that Jackson had no case to answer. Jackson revealed much that it had all been a set-up by George Harris; the 1970 Grand Final between Collingwood and Carlton was considered to be the most memorable Grand Final in VFL/AFL history. Collingwood had a great lead over Carlton during most of the game, however Carlton managed to come back and win the Grand Final by 10 points. 1970 VFL Grand Final Maplestone, M. Flying Higher: History of the Essendon Football Club 1872–1996, Essendon Football Club, 1996. ISBN 0-9591740-2-8 Rogers, S. & Browne, A. Every Game Ever Played: VFL/AFL Results 1897–1997, Viking Books, 1998. ISBN 0-670-90809-6 Ross, J. 100 Years of Australian Football 1897–1996: The Complete Story of the AFL, All the Big Stories, All the Great Pictures, All the Champions, Every AFL Season Reported, Viking, 1996.
ISBN 0-670-86814-0 1970 Season – AFL Tables