The taxonomy of the blackberries has historically been confused because of hybridization and apomixis, so that species have often been grouped together and called species aggregates. For example, the entire subgenus Rubus has been called the Rubus fruticosus aggregate, what distinguishes the blackberry from its raspberry relatives is whether or not the torus picks with the fruit. When picking a blackberry fruit, the torus does stay with the fruit, with a raspberry, the torus remains on the plant, leaving a hollow core in the raspberry fruit. In the western US, the term caneberry is used to refer to blackberries and raspberries as a rather than the term bramble. The usually black fruit is not a berry in the sense of the word. Botanically it is termed an aggregate fruit, composed of small drupelets, blackberries are perennial plants which typically bear biennial stems from the perennial root system. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, first- and second-year shoots usually have numerous short-curved, very sharp prickles that are often erroneously called thorns.
These prickles can tear through denim with ease and make the plant very difficult to navigate around, recently the University of Arkansas has developed primocane fruiting blackberries that grow and flower on first-year growth much as the primocane-fruiting red raspberries do. Unmanaged mature plants form a tangle of dense arching stems, the branches rooting from the tip on many species when they reach the ground. Vigorous and growing rapidly in woods, scrub and hedgerows, blackberry shrubs tolerate poor soils, readily colonizing wasteland, the flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on short racemes on the tips of the flowering laterals. Each flower is about 2–3 cm in diameter with five white or pale pink petals, the drupelets only develop around ovules that are fertilized by the male gamete from a pollen grain. The most likely cause of undeveloped ovules is inadequate pollinator visits, incomplete drupelet development can be a symptom of exhausted reserves in the plants roots or infection with a virus such as raspberry bushy dwarf virus.
Blackberry leaves are food for caterpillars, some grazing mammals. Caterpillars of the concealer moth Alabonia geoffrella have been found feeding inside dead blackberry shoots, when mature, the berries are eaten and their seeds dispersed by several mammals, such as the red fox and the Eurasian badger, as well as by small birds. Blackberries grow wild throughout most of Europe and they are an important element in the ecology of many countries, and harvesting the berries is a popular pastime. However, the plants are considered a weed, sending down roots from branches that touch the ground. Blackberry fruits are red before they are ripe, leading to an old expression that blackberries are red when theyre green, in various parts of the United States, wild blackberries are sometimes called black-caps, a term more commonly used for black raspberries, Rubus occidentalis. American cultivated blackberries are notable for their significant contents of dietary fiber, vitamin C, a 100 gram serving of raw blackberries supplies 43 calories and 5 grams of dietary fiber or 25% of the recommended Daily Value
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can be released to fuel the organisms activities. In most cases, oxygen is released as a waste product. Most plants, most algae, and cyanobacteria perform photosynthesis, such organisms are called photoautotrophs, in plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, which are most abundant in leaf cells, while in bacteria they are embedded in the plasma membrane. In these light-dependent reactions, some energy is used to strip electrons from suitable substances, such as water, in the Calvin cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is incorporated into already existing organic carbon compounds, such as ribulose bisphosphate. Using the ATP and NADPH produced by the light-dependent reactions, the compounds are reduced and removed to form further carbohydrates. Cyanobacteria appeared later, the oxygen they produced contributed directly to the oxygenation of the Earth. Today, the rate of energy capture by photosynthesis globally is approximately 130 terawatts.
Photosynthetic organisms convert around 100–115 thousand million tonnes of carbon into biomass per year. Photosynthetic organisms are photoautotrophs, which means that they are able to synthesize food directly from carbon dioxide, not all organisms that use light as a source of energy carry out photosynthesis, photoheterotrophs use organic compounds, rather than carbon dioxide, as a source of carbon. In plants and cyanobacteria, photosynthesis releases oxygen and this is called oxygenic photosynthesis and is by far the most common type of photosynthesis used by living organisms. Although there are differences between oxygenic photosynthesis in plants and cyanobacteria, the overall process is quite similar in these organisms. There are varieties of anoxygenic photosynthesis, used mostly by certain types of bacteria. Carbon dioxide is converted into sugars in a process called carbon fixation, photosynthesis provides the energy in the form of free electrons that are used to split carbon from carbon dioxide that is used to fix that carbon once again as carbohydrate.
Carbon fixation is a redox reaction, so photosynthesis supplies the energy that drives both process. In the first stage, light-dependent reactions or light reactions capture the energy of light and use it to make the energy-storage molecules ATP, during the second stage, the light-independent reactions use these products to capture and reduce carbon dioxide. Most organisms that utilize oxygenic photosynthesis use visible light for the light-dependent reactions, some organisms employ even more radical variants of photosynthesis. Some archea use a method that employs a pigment similar to those used for vision in animals. The bacteriorhodopsin changes its configuration in response to sunlight, acting as a proton pump and this produces a proton gradient more directly, which is converted to chemical energy
Kent /ˈkɛnt/ is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south west, the county shares borders with Essex via the Dartford Crossing and the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel. France can be clearly in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county, because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as The Garden of England. The title was defended in 2006 when a survey of counties by the UKTV Style Gardens channel put Kent in fifth place, behind North Yorkshire, Devon. Haulage and tourism are industries, major industries in north-west Kent include aggregate building materials, printing. Coal mining has played its part in Kents industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its transport connections to the capital.
Twenty-eight per cent of the county forms part of two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the North Downs and The High Weald, the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe. The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era, There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley. The modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word Cantus meaning rim or border and this describes the eastern part of the current county area as a border land or coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as Cantium, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC, the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about 730, the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Cantwara, or Kent people.
These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital, in 597, Pope Gregory I appointed the religious missionary as the first Archbishop of Canterbury. In the previous year, Augustine successfully converted the pagan King Æthelberht of Kent to Christianity, the Diocese of Canterbury became Britains first Episcopal See with first cathedral and has since remained Englands centre of Christianity. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral, in the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning undefeated. This naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy, the Kent peoples continued resistance against the Normans led to Kents designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in 1067. Under the nominal rule of Williams half-brother Odo of Bayeux, the county was granted powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales
The term cultivar most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characteristics that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants governed by the ICNCP, most cultivars have arisen in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils, trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a part of Liberty Hyde Baileys broader grouping. Cultivar was coined by Bailey and it is regarded as a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. A cultivar is not the same as a variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies. In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory plant patents, the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to people or organisations who introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be distinct and stable, to be distinct, it must have characteristics that easily distinguish it from any other known cultivar.
To be uniform and stable, the cultivar must retain these characteristics under repeated propagation, a cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet. The cultivar epithet is usually in a vernacular language, for example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum King Edward. The King Edward part of the name is the cultivar epithet, the origin of the term cultivar arises from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that have arisen in cultivation. This distinction dates back to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the Father of Botany, botanical historian Alan Morton notes that Theophrastus in his Enquiry into Plants had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus listed all the known to him. Most of the listed by Linnaeus were of garden origin rather than being wild plants.
Over time there was an increasing need to distinguish between plants growing in the wild, and those with variations that had produced in cultivation. In the nineteenth century many garden-derived plants were given names, sometimes in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international terminology was proposed for the classification and it is essentially the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin. However, Bailey was never explicit about the etymology of the word, and it has suggested that it is a contraction of the words cultigen and variety
The common blackbird is a species of true thrush. It is called Eurasian blackbird, or simply blackbird where this does not lead to confusion with a local species. It has a number of subspecies across its range, a few of the Asian subspecies are sometimes considered to be full species. Depending on latitude, the common blackbird may be resident, partially migratory and this species breeds in woods and gardens, building a neat, mud-lined, cup-shaped nest. It is omnivorous, eating a range of insects, berries. Both sexes are territorial on the grounds, with distinctive threat displays. Pairs stay in their territory throughout the year where the climate is sufficiently temperate and this common and conspicuous species has given rise to a number of literary and cultural references, frequently related to its song. The common blackbird was described by Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758 as Turdus merula. The binomial name derives from two Latin words, turdus and merula, the latter giving rise to its French name and its Scots name, merl.
About 65 species of medium to large thrushes are in the genus Turdus, characterised by rounded heads, pointed wings, and usually melodious songs. However, in Old English, and in modern English up to about the 18th century, bird was used only for smaller or young birds, at that time, the blackbird was therefore the only widespread and conspicuous black bird in the British Isles. Until about the 17th century, another name for the species was ouzel, ousel or wosel, another variant occurs in Act 3 of Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream, where Bottom refers to The Woosell cocke, so blacke of hew, With Orenge-tawny bill. Two related Asian Turdus thrushes, the blackbird and the grey-winged blackbird, are named blackbirds. As would be expected for a passerine bird species, several geographical subspecies are recognised. The treatment of subspecies in this article follows Clement et al, a small population breeds in the Nile Valley. Birds from the north of the winter throughout Europe and around the Mediterranean including Cyprus.
The introduced birds in Australia and New Zealand are of the nominate race, T. m. azorensis is a small race which breeds in the Azores. The male is darker and glossier than merula, T. m. cabrerae, named for Ángel Cabrera, Spanish zoologist, resembles azorensis and breeds in Madeira and the western Canary Islands
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a phase of their life cycle. The larvas appearance is very different from the adult form. A larva often has unique structures and organs that do not occur in the adult form and their diet may be considerably different. Larvae are frequently adapted to separate from adults. For example, some such as tadpoles live almost exclusively in aquatic environments. By living in an environment, larvae may be given shelter from predators. Animals in the stage will consume food to fuel their transition into the adult form. In some species like barnacles, adults are immobile but their larvae are mobile, some larvae are dependent on adults to feed them. In many eusocial Hymenoptera species, the larvae are fed by female workers, in Ropalidia marginata the males are capable of feeding larvae but they are much less efficient, spending more time and getting less food to the larvae.
The larvae of species can become pubescent and do not develop further into the adult form. This is a type of neoteny and it is a misunderstanding that the larval form always reflects the groups evolutionary history. This could be the case, but often the stage has evolved secondarily. In these cases the form may differ more than the adult form from the groups common origin. Within Insects, only Endopterygotes show different types of larvae, several classifications have been suggested by many entomologists, and following classification is based on Antonio Berlese classification in 1913. There are four types of endopterygote larvae types, Apodous larvae - no legs at all and are poorly sclerotized. Based on sclerotization, three forms are recognized. Eucephalous - with well sclerotized head capsule, found in Nematocera and Cerambycidae families
Spring is one of the four conventional temperate seasons, following winter and preceding summer. There are various definitions of spring, but local usage of the term varies according to local climate, cultures. When it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere, it will be autumn in the Southern Hemisphere, at the spring equinox, days are approximately 12 hours long with day length increasing as the season progresses. Spring and springtime refer to the season, and to ideas of rebirth, renewal, resurrection and tropical areas have climates better described in terms of other seasons, e. g. dry or wet, monsoonal or cyclonic. Often, cultures have locally defined names for seasons which have little equivalence to the terms originating in Europe, Spring is the time when many plants begin to grow and flower. Meteorologists generally define four seasons in many areas, summer, autumn. These are demarcated by the values of their average temperatures on a monthly basis, the three warmest months are by definition summer, the three coldest months are winter and the intervening gaps are spring and autumn.
Spring, when defined in this manner, can start on different dates in different regions, in most Northern Hemisphere, temperate locations, spring months are March and May, although differences exist from country to country. Most Southern Hemisphere, temperate locations have opposing seasons with spring in September and November, in Australia and New Zealand, spring conventionally begins on 1 September and ends 30 November. In some cultures in the Northern Hemisphere, the astronomical Vernal equinox is taken to mark the first day of spring, in Persian culture the first day of spring is the first day of the first month which begins on 20 or 21 March. In other traditions, the equinox is taken as mid-spring, according to the Celtic tradition, which is based solely on daylight and the strength of the noon sun, spring begins in early February and continues until early May. In Ireland, spring traditionally starts on February 1, St Brigids Day, the beginning of spring is not always determined by fixed calendar dates.
These indicators, along with the beginning of spring, vary according to the local climate, most ecologists divide the year into six seasons that have no fixed dates. In addition to spring, ecological reckoning identifies an earlier separate prevernal season between the hibernal and vernal seasons and this is a time when only the hardiest flowers like the crocus are in bloom, sometimes while there is still some snowcover on the ground. During early spring, the axis of the Earth is increasing its tilt relative to the Sun, the hemisphere begins to warm significantly, causing new plant growth to spring forth, giving the season its name. Any snow begins to melt, swelling streams with runoff and any frosts become less severe, in climates that have no snow, and rare frosts and ground temperatures increase more rapidly. Many flowering plants bloom at this time of year, in a succession, sometimes beginning when snow is still on the ground. In normally snowless areas, spring may begin as early as February, heralded by the blooming of deciduous magnolias and quince, or August in the same way
Butterflies are insects in the macrolepidopteran clade Rhopalocera from the order Lepidoptera, which includes moths. Adult butterflies have large, often brightly coloured wings, and conspicuous, the group comprises the large superfamily Papilionoidea, which contains at least one former group, the skippers and the most recent analyses suggest it contains the moth-butterflies. Butterfly fossils date to the Paleocene, which was about 56 million years ago, Butterflies have the typical four-stage insect life cycle. Winged adults lay eggs on the plant on which their larvae, known as caterpillars. The caterpillars grow, sometimes rapidly, and when fully developed. When metamorphosis is complete, the skin splits, the adult insect climbs out. Butterflies are often polymorphic, and many species use of camouflage, mimicry. Some, like the monarch and the lady, migrate over long distances. Many butterflies are attacked by parasites or parasitoids, including wasps, flies, some species are pests because in their larval stages they can damage domestic crops or trees, other species are agents of pollination of some plants.
Larvae of a few butterflies eat harmful insects, and a few are predators of ants, butterflies are a popular motif in the visual and literary arts. The Oxford English Dictionary derives the word straightforwardly from Old English butorflēoge, butter-fly, similar names in Old Dutch, the earliest Lepidoptera fossils are of a small moth, Archaeolepis mane, of Jurassic age, around 190 million years ago. Butterflies evolved from moths, so while the butterflies are monophyletic, the oldest butterflies are from the Palaeocene MoClay or Fur Formation of Denmark. The oldest American butterfly is the Late Eocene Prodryas persephone from the Florissant Fossil Beds, the butterflies have been divided into the superfamily Papilionoidea excluding the smaller groups of the Hesperiidae and the more moth-like Hedylidae of America. Butterfly adults are characterized by their four scale-covered wings, which give the Lepidoptera their name, as in all insects, the body is divided into three sections, the head and abdomen.
The thorax is composed of three segments, each with a pair of legs, in most families of butterfly the antennae are clubbed, unlike those of moths which may be threadlike or feathery. The long proboscis can be coiled when not in use for sipping nectar from flowers, some day-flying moths, such as the hummingbird hawk-moth, are exceptions to these rules. Butterfly larvae, have a head with strong mandibles used for cutting their food. They have cylindrical bodies, with ten segments to the abdomen, generally with short prolegs on segments 3–6 and 10, many are well camouflaged, others are aposematic with bright colours and bristly projections containing toxic chemicals obtained from their food plants
It consists of a cutting head at the end of a long shaft with a handle or handles and sometimes a shoulder strap. The string trimmer was invented in the early 1970s by George Ballas of Houston and his first trimmer was made by attaching pieces of heavy-duty fishing line to a popcorn can bolted to an edger. Ballas developed this into what he called the Weed Eater, since it chewed up the grass, a string trimmer works on the principle that a line that is turned fast enough is held out from its housing very stiffly by centrifugal force. The faster it turns the stiffer the line, even round-section nylon line is able to cut grass and slight, woody plants quite well. These lines make disks less necessary for tough jobs, the line is hand-wound onto a reel before the job is started, leaving both ends extending from the reel housing. The motor turns the reel and the line extends horizontally while the operator swings the trimmer about where the plants are to be trimmed, the operator controls the height at which cutting takes place and can trim down to ground level quite easily.
As the line is worn, or breaks off, the operator knocks the reel on the ground so that a mechanism allows some of the line in the reel to extend. Newly extended line operates more efficiently because of its heavier weight, the speed of the spinning hub is usually controlled by a trigger on the handle. For vertical cutting the whole machine can be tilted or some trimmers allow the head to be adjusted at different angles, vertical cutting is not recommended near sidewalks or other concrete and pavement edges, because it leaves open grooves that allow water to collect and cause damage. One of such is an arrangement where the trimmer is connected to heavy machinery and is powered using a hydraulic motor, the head contains a safety shield on the user side and a rotating hub which may be called a head or spool. Advantages of gasoline-powered trimmers include mobility and the maximum power. These very large trimmers are often referred to as brush cutters, brush-cutter types are usually made so that a metal blade can be attached instead of the string. A metal blade enables cutting heavier woody brush, smaller line trimmers have curved driveshafts to make holding the cutting-head at ground level much easier and with less strain on the operator.
Many string trimmers allow the hub, the head or the part of the shaft to be replaced with accessories. Common accessories include, replacing the monofilament line with metal or plastic blades, replacing the lower shaft with a small chain saw to create a powered pole saw. Replacing the lower shaft with a hedge trimmer, replacing the lower shaft with a cultivator. Quick-release shafts are offered on many models which do not require any tools to switch in accessories. Gasoline-engine powered trimmers usually have a minimum of 21 cc displacement motors, at this size they can easily turn 2-millimetre line and some have nylon blades as accessories to the line-reel
The dicotyledons, known as dicots, were one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided. The name refers to one of the characteristics of the group. There are around 200,000 species within this group, the other group of flowering plants were called monocotyledons or monocots, typically having one cotyledon. Historically, these two formed the two divisions of the flowering plants. Rather, a number of lineages, such as the magnoliids and groups now known as the basal angiosperms. The traditional dicots are thus a paraphyletic group, the largest clade of the dicotyledons are known as the eudicots. They are distinguished from all other flowering plants by the structure of their pollen, aside from cotyledon number, other broad differences have been noted between monocots and dicots, although these have proven to be differences primarily between monocots and eudicots. Many early-diverging dicot groups have monocot characteristics such as scattered vascular bundles, trimerous flowers, in addition, some monocots have dicot characteristics such as reticulated leaf veins.
Traditionally the dicots have been called the Dicotyledones, at any rank, if treated as a class, as in the Cronquist system, they could be called the Magnoliopsida after the type genus Magnolia. In some schemes, the eudicots were treated as a separate class, the remaining dicots may be kept in a single paraphyletic class, called Magnoliopsida, or further divided. Some botanists prefer to retain the dicotyledons as a class, arguing its practicality. The following lists show the orders in the APG III system traditionally called dicots, together with the older Cronquist system
Hoverflies, sometimes called flower flies, or syrphid flies, make up the insect family Syrphidae. As their common name suggests, they are seen hovering or nectaring at flowers. In some species, the larvae are saprotrophs, eating decaying plant and animal matter in the soil or in ponds, in other species, the larvae are insectivores and prey on aphids and other plant-sucking insects. Some adult syrphid flies are important pollinators, about 6,000 species in 200 genera have been described. Hoverflies are common throughout the world and can be found on all continents except Antarctica, Hoverflies are harmless to most other animals, despite their mimicry of more dangerous wasps and bees, which wards off predators. The size of hoverflies varies depending on the species, like members of the genus Baccha, are small and slender, while others, like members of Criorhina, are large and yellow and black. As members of the Diptera, all hoverflies have a functional pair of wings. They are brightly colored, with spots and bands of yellow or brown covering their bodies, due to this coloring, they are often mistaken for wasps or bees, they exhibit Batesian mimicry.
With a few exceptions, hoverflies are distinguished from other flies by a spurious vein, adults feed mainly on nectar and pollen. They hover around flowers, lending to their common name and this is beneficial to gardens, as aphids destroy crops, and hoverfly maggots are often used in biological control. Certain species, such as Lampetia equestris or Eumerus tuberculatus, are responsible for pollination, an example of a well-known hoverfly maggot is the rat-tailed maggot, of the drone fly, Eristalis tenax. It has a siphon at its rear end, giving it its name. The species lives in stagnant water, such as sewage and lagoons, the maggots have a commercial use, and are sometimes sold for ice fishing. On occasion, hoverfly larvae have been known to cause myiasis in humans. This occurs when the larvae are accidentally ingested on food or from other sources, myiasis causes discomfort, pain, or itching, hoverflies do not normally prey upon humans and cases of myiasis from hoverflies are very rare. Hoverflies are a family found in most biomes, except deserts, tundra at extremely high latitudes.
About 6,000 species and 200 genera are in the family, while some hoverfly larvae are aquatic and are often found in stagnant water, those of species which prey upon aphids and other plant pests are usually terrestrial, residing on leaves. Adults are often found near flowers, their food source being nectar