The Dearne Valley is an area of South Yorkshire, along the River Dearne. It encompasses the towns of Wombwell, Wath-upon-Dearne, Swinton and Mexborough, the large villages of Ardsley, Bolton on Dearne, Thurnscoe, Darfield and Brampton Bierlow, many other smaller villages and hamlets. In 1995 the area became a regeneration area, as it had suffered much from the sudden decline of the deep coal mining industry in the 1980s. In the 2011 census the ONS-identified Barnsley/Dearne Valley built-up area had a population of 223,281, however this region includes Barnsley and certain other smaller towns and villages that might not have considered themselves a part of the Dearne Valley. Many high-grade coal seams, including the prolific Barnsley seam, lie close to the surface in this area; this meant that by far the most prevalent industry in the area was deep coal mining, indeed much of the economic activity of the region was either directly related to, or reliant on this industry. It was home to the Oaks Viaduct, the largest man-made rail bridge in Britain until its demolition in 1965.
In the latter half of the 20th century the industry was declining and becoming unprofitable, but was kept alive by government subsidy. As early as the 1960s local politicians voiced concerns about the high level of reliance of the economy of the area on one single industry. In the 1980s there was a marked change of government economic policy: unprofitable heavy industry was no longer to be subsidised; this caused the collapse of the mining industry, with a knock-on effect in many other local industries, leading to much local hardship. Settlements in the area are becoming more dormitory in nature, as those who remained have found the need to commute further afield to the larger towns and cities in the region to work. Outside the settlements, primary land use is agricultural: a byproduct of the end of the mining industry is that the area looks more rural and green than it once did. Business parks in the area have been created on brown-field land once used by the mining industry, the most notable and largest is at Manvers.
Much of the infrastructure related to the mining industry was demolished in the 1980s and early 1990s and the land changed to other uses and today few remnants of the coal mining heritage remain: the large spoil heaps have been levelled and grassed, no coal mining remains at all in the area. Wath marshalling yard which served the railway coal traffic closed in 1988 is now the site of Old Moor Wetland Centre RSPB reserve. Other nature reserves in the valley include Wombwell Ings and Adwick Washlands; the road and rail links to the villages of the area were implemented to ferry coal out of collieries and although the rails have been removed, the embankments and bridges remain. Several of these former railways are now part of the Trans Pennine Trail between Southport and Hornsea; the Dearne Valley is at the centre of the trail with the main West/East and North/South routes crossing over in the area. List of Yorkshire Pits
1950 FIFA World Cup
The 1950 FIFA World Cup, held in Brazil from 24 June to 16 July 1950, was the fourth FIFA World Cup. It was the first World Cup since 1938, the planned 1942 and 1946 competitions having been cancelled due to World War II, it was won by Uruguay, who had won the inaugural competition in 1930. They clinched the cup by beating the hosts Brazil 2–1 in the deciding match of the four-team final group; this was the only tournament not decided by a one-match final. It was the first tournament where the trophy was referred to as the Jules Rimet Cup, to mark the 25th anniversary of Jules Rimet's presidency of FIFA; because of World War II, the World Cup had not been staged since 1938. After the war, FIFA were keen to resurrect the competition as soon as possible, they began making plans for a World Cup tournament to take place. In the aftermath of the war, much of Europe lay in ruins; as a result, FIFA had some difficulties finding a country interested in hosting the event, since many governments believed that their scarce resources ought to be devoted to more urgent priorities than a sporting celebration.
The World Cup was at risk of not being held for sheer lack of interest from the international community, until Brazil presented a bid at the 1946 FIFA Congress, offering to host the event on condition that the tournament take place in 1950. Brazil and Germany had been the leading bidders to host the cancelled 1942 World Cup. Brazil's new bid was similar to the mooted 1942 bid and was accepted. Having secured a host nation, FIFA would still dedicate some time to persuading countries to send their national teams to compete. Italy was of particular interest as the long-standing defending champions, having won the two previous tournaments in 1934 and 1938; the Italians were persuaded to attend, but travelled by boat rather than by plane. Brazil and Italy qualified automatically. Of these, seven were allocated to Europe, six to the Americas, one to Asia. Both Germany and Japan were unable to participate; the Japan Football Association, the German Football Association were not readmitted to FIFA until September 1950, while the Deutscher Fußball-Verband der DDR in East Germany was not admitted to FIFA until 1952.
The French-occupied Saarland had been accepted by FIFA two weeks before the World Cup. Italy and other countries, involved in World War II as allies of Germany and Japan, were able to participate in qualification. Italy qualified automatically as defending champions of 1938. Finland, despite being a co-belligerent of Nazi Germany from 1941-1944, was allowed to qualify but withdrew before qualification was complete, FIFA declared their matches as friendlies; the British nations were invited to take part, having rejoined FIFA four years earlier, after 17 years of self-imposed exile. It was decided to use the 1949–50 British Home Championship as a qualifying group, with the top two teams qualifying. England finished first and Scotland second. A number of teams refused to participate in the qualifying tournament, including most nations behind the Iron Curtain, such as the Soviet Union, 1934 finalists Czechoslovakia and 1938 finalists Hungary. Yugoslavia was the only Eastern European nation to take part in the tournament.
Argentina and Peru in South America withdrew after the qualifying draw, in Argentina's case because of a dispute with the Brazilian Football Confederation. This meant that Chile, Bolivia and Uruguay qualified from South America by default. In Asia, the Philippines and Burma all withdrew, leaving India to qualify by default. In Europe, Austria withdrew. Belgium withdrew from the qualification tournament; these withdrawals meant that Switzerland and Turkey qualified without having to play their final round of matches. The following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament. However, only 13 teams would in the end participate in the World Cup after withdrawals by the rest. Before the qualification competition, George Graham, chairman of the Scottish Football Association, had said that Scotland would only travel to Brazil as winners of the Home Championship.. After Scotland ended up in second place behind England, the Scottish captain George Young, encouraged by England captain Billy Wright, pleaded with the SFA to change its mind and accept the place in Brazil.
Turkey withdrew, citing financial problems and the cost of travelling to South America. FIFA invited Portugal and France, eliminated in qualifying, to fill the gaps left by Scotland and Turkey. Portugal and Ireland refused, but France accepted, was entered into the draw; the draw, held in Rio on 22 May 1950, allocated the fifteen remaining teams into four groups: The teams' pre-tournament Elo rankings are shown in parenthesis. After the draw, the Indian football association AIFF decided against going to the World Cup, citing travel costs (although FIFA had agreed
South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue
South Yorkshire Fire and Rescue is the statutory fire and rescue service for the area of South Yorkshire, England. The service covers the areas of Barnsley, Doncaster and Sheffieldthumbnail Currently the service operates 21 fire stations across the county, 17 of which are staffed on a wholetime basis, with the remaining four staffed by on-call retained firefighters; the stations can be found in: Barnsley Barnsley Cudworth Penistone Tankersley Doncaster District Doncaster Adwick-le-Street Askern, Doncaster Edlington Rossington Thorne Rotherham District Rotherham Dearne Maltby Aston Park Sheffield Central Birley Moor Elm Lane Lowedges Parkway Rivelin Valley StocksbridgeTwo new fire stations are now open at Parkway and Birley Moor in Sheffield replacing the stations at Mansfield Road, Darnall Road and Mosborough. 18 Water Rescue Ladders 4 Heavy Rescue Pumps 2 Turntable Ladders 1 Water Rescue Unit 1 Water Carrier 2 Incident Command Units 1 B. A Support Unit 1 Incident Response Unit 2 High-Volume Pumps 1 Line Rescue Unit 2 Small Fire Units 2 Co-Responder Vehicle 1 Welfare Unit Fire service in the United Kingdom Fire apparatus Firefighter FiReControl List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Official website Sheffield Fire Brigade History website
A pit village, colliery village or mining village is a settlement built by colliery owners to house their workers. The villages were built on the coalfields of Britain during the Industrial Revolution where new coal mines in isolated or unpopulated areas needed accommodation for the incoming workers. New Sharlston Colliery Village, Yorkshire Howe Bridge, Lancashire Gin Pit village, Lancashire Creswell Model Village, Derbyshire New Bolsover model village, Derbyshire Newstead Colliery Village Woodlands, Yorkshire The 1939 film The Stars Look Down, based on the 1935 novel by A. J. Cronin is set in the fictitious pit village of Sleescale; the film was shot on location at St Helens Siddick Colliery in Workington. How Green Was My Valley and the subsequent film were based in a fictional pit village in the South Wales Valleys, as was The Proud Valley starring Paul Robeson. Billy Elliot, set in a fictitious pit village during the miners' strike of 1984-1985 was shot on location in Easington Colliery.
Brassed Off was set in "Grimley". The depopulation of Fitzwilliam, West Yorkshire was the theme of a song by Chumbawamba and David Peace's novel Nineteen Seventy Four. Citations Bibliography
Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It comprises most of Yorkshire, as well as North East Lincolnshire, it does not include Middlesbrough and Cleveland or other areas of Yorkshire, such as Sedbergh not included in the aforementioned administrative areas. The largest settlements are, Sheffield, Bradford and York; the population in 2011 was 5,284,000. The committees for the regions, including the one for Yorkshire and the Humber, ceased to exist upon the dissolution of Parliament on 12 April 2010. Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, the Government Offices were abolished in 2011. Scammonden Dam, is the highest dam in UK at 73 metres, Dean Head cutting is the deepest roadway cutting in Europe at 183 ft, at Scammonden Bridge, on the M62. Sutton-under-Whitestonecliffe claims to be longest place name in England. In the Yorkshire and the Humber region, there is a close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology.
The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic; the North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age, while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands. The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire Dales, at 737 metres; the region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire, the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse, which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary; the most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure; the River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York. The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck; the River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.
The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse. The most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole; the River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south westwards through the Vale of Pickering turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh. In the far north of the county, the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough; the smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby. To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds, the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull; the western Pennines are served by the River Ribble, which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes. The lower stretches of the River Trent flow through North Lincolnshire and meet the Ouse at Trent Falls.
The largest freshwater lake in the region is Hornsea Mere in the East Riding of Yorkshire. This region of England has cool summers and mild winters, with the upland areas of the North York Moors and the Pennines experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season; the latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather in winter. Between depressions, there are small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude, this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a seasonal basis. Cities such as Sheffield and Bradford are cooler due to their inland and upland location, while York and Wakefield are warmer due to their lowland location.
The temperature is lower at night. Snow is not uncommon in the winter, Yorkshire is hilly/mountainous, the Yorkshire Dales and the Pennines can have extreme snowstorms with high snowdrifts. Inland/upland settlements, such as Skipton or Ilkley, have more snow than coastal towns. Hull and Scarborough have less snow. Climate data for settlements in the region: There are seven cities in Yorkshire and the Humber: Bradford, Kingston upon Hull, Ripon, Sheffield and York. Large towns in the area include Barnsley, Grimsby, Harrogate and Scunthorpe. Leeds is the largest settlement and the largest part of an urban area with a population of 1.5 million. Leeds is now one of the largest financial centres in the United Kingdom. Sheffield is a large manufacturing centre. Bradford was a textile manufacturing city; as jobs moved offshore the decline of this industry has resulted in a more diverse economy. Kingston upon Hull is the main port in the region and a notable fishing harbou
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
Eduardo Oliver "Ted" Robledo was a Chilean professional football player. He played as a left-sided defender, is most notable for his time spent with Newcastle United. Robledo was born in Chile to a Chilean father and an English mother, he emigrated with his family to Wath-on-Dearne, Yorkshire in 1932, at the age of four, due to the political instability in Chile at the time. The family lived at Barnsley Rd, West Melton, in the same house where the Anglo-French biographer David Bret was raised. Robledo started his footballing career at Barnsley with his brother George. First Division Newcastle United signed him on 27 January 1949. Newcastle were only interested in signing his brother, but neither of the Robledo brothers would move without the other, their appearance together in the 1952 FA Cup Final was the first time more than one foreign player had appeared in a cup final eleven. The majority of Robledo's appearances for the club came in the 1951–52 season. Robledo played for Newcastle until the end of the 1952 -- 53 season.
After retiring from football, Robledo served on an oil tanker where he died in mysterious circumstances in December 1970, at the age of 42. It was rumoured that Robledo was drowned, his body has never been found. His brother George outlived him by nearly two decades, dying in April 1989 just before his 63rd birthday. Newcastle United FA Cup winner: 1952 Player Profile: Eduardo Oliver'Ted' Robledo at toon1892.co.uk