Oroso is a municipality of northwestern Spain in the province of A Coruña, in the autonomous community of Galicia. It belongs to the comarca of Órdenes
Bran Castle, situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Brașov, is a national monument and landmark in Romania. The fortress is situated on the border between Transylvania and Wallachia, on DN73. Known outside Romania as Dracula's Castle, it is erroneously referred to as the home of the title character in Bram Stoker's Dracula. There is, however, no evidence that Stoker knew anything about this castle, which has only tangential associations with Vlad the Impaler, voivode of Wallachia, the putative inspiration for Dracula. Dutch author Hans Corneel de Roos proposes as location for Castle Dracula an empty mountain top, Mount Izvorul Călimanului, 2,033 metres high, located in the Călimani Alps near the former border with Moldavia. Stoker's description of Dracula's crumbling fictional castle bears no resemblance to Bran Castle; the castle is now a museum dedicated to displaying furniture collected by Queen Marie. Tourists can see the interior by a guided tour. At the bottom of the hill is a small open-air museum exhibiting traditional Romanian peasant structures from the Bran region.
In 1212, the Teutonic Order built the wooden castle of Dietrichstein as a fortified position in the Burzenland at the entrance to a mountain pass through which traders had travelled for more than a millennium, but in 1242 it was destroyed by the Mongols. The original name of the castle, Dietrichstein or lapis Theoderici in Latin, lit. "Dietrich's Stone", seems to have been derived from the Comthur and regional Preceptor, frater Theodericus, mentioned in a 1212 document. This Dietrich is the probable builder of the castle. A 1509 document confirms that the Törzburg county had once belonged to Commander Dietrich of the Teutonic Order; the first documented mentioning of Bran Castle is the act issued by Louis I of Hungary on 19 November 1377, giving the Saxons of Kronstadt the privilege to build the stone castle on their own expense and labour force. In 1438–1442, the castle was used in defense against the Ottoman Empire, became a customs post on the mountain pass between Transylvania and Wallachia.
Although many castles of the time belonged to members of nobility, it has been established that Bran Castle was built exclusively for fortification and protection of German colonists in Transylvania. It is believed the castle was held by Mircea the Elder of Wallachia during whose period the customs point was established; the Wallachian ruler Vlad Țepeș does not seem to have had a significant role in the history of the fortress, although he passed several times through the Bran Gorge. At some point Bran Castle belonged to the Hungarian kings, but due to the failure of King Vladislas II to repay loans, the city of Brașov regained possession of the fortress in 1533. Bran played a militarily strategic role up to the mid-18th century. With the 1920 Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost Transylvania, the castle became a royal residence within the Kingdom of Romania after being donated to the royal house by the Saxons of Kronstadt-Braşov, who had no more use for it and no interest in financing the time-damaged property.
It became the favorite home and retreat of Queen Marie, who ordered its extensive renovation conducted by the Czech architect Karel Zdeněk Líman. The castle was inherited by her daughter Princess Ileana who ran a hospital there in World War II, it was seized by the communist regime with the expulsion of the royal family in 1948. In 2005, the Romanian government passed a special law allowing restitution claims on properties illegally expropriated, such as Bran, thus a year the castle was awarded ownership to American Dominic von Habsburg, the son and heir of Princess Ileana. On 18 May 2006, after a period of legal proceedings, the castle was returned to heirs of the Habsburg family. However, the Romanian state, through the Ministry of Culture, will administer it over the next three years. In September 2007, an investigation committee of the Romanian Parliament stated that the retrocession of the castle to Archduke Dominic was illegal, as it broke the Romanian law on property and succession. However, in October 2007 the Constitutional Court of Romania rejected the parliament's petition on the matter.
In addition, an investigation commission of the Romanian government issued a decision in December 2007 reaffirming the validity and legality of the restitution procedures used and confirming that the restitution was made in full compliance with the law. On 18 May 2009, the Bran Castle administration was transferred from the government to the administration of Archduke Dominic and his sisters, Baroness Maria Magdalena of Holzhausen and Elisabeth Sandhofer. On 1 June 2009, the Habsburgs opened the refurbished castle to the public as the first private museum of the country and presented in collaboration with Bran village a joint strategic concept to maintain their prominent role in the Romanian tourist circuit and to safeguard the economic base in the region. Vlad III Dracula, better known as Vlad the Impaler, was the ruler of Wallachia on and off between 1448-1476. Other than being colloquially known as the inspiration for Bram Stoker's titular character in the novel "Dracula", Vlad III is known for committing brutal acts of war.
During his reign, he was under constant threat of attack from both the Hungarian forces. During an infamous retreat from Ottoman forces, Vlad III had the bodies of his enemies and his citizens alike im
Bran known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain. It consists of pericarp. Along with germ, it is an integral part of whole grains, is produced as a byproduct of milling in the production of refined grains. Bran is present in cereal grain, including rice, wheat, barley and millet. Bran is not the same as chaff, a coarser scaly material surrounding the grain but not forming part of the grain itself. Bran is rich in dietary fiber and essential fatty acids and contains significant quantities of starch, protein and dietary minerals, it is a source of phytic acid, an antinutrient that prevents nutrient absorption. The high oil content of bran makes it subject to rancidification, one of the reasons that it is separated from the grain before storage or further processing. Bran is heat-treated to increase its longevity. Rice bran is a byproduct of the rice milling process, it contains various antioxidants that impart beneficial effects on human health. A major rice bran fraction contains 12%–13% oil and unsaponifiable components.
This fraction contains tocotrienols, beta-sitosterol. Rice bran contains a high level of dietary fibres, it contains ferulic acid, a component of the structure of nonlignified cell walls. However, some research suggests. One study found the levels to be 20% higher than in drinking water. Bran is used to enrich breads and breakfast cereals for the benefit of those wishing to increase their intake of dietary fiber. Bran may be used for pickling as in the tsukemono of Japan. Rice bran in particular finds many uses in Japan. Besides using it for pickling, Japanese people add it to the water when boiling bamboo shoots, use it for dish washing. In Kitakyushu City, it is used for stewing fish, such as sardine. Rice bran is stuck to the surface of commercial ice blocks to prevent them from melting. Bran oil may be extracted for use by itself for industrial purposes, or as a cooking oil, such as rice bran oil. Wheat bran is useful as feed for poultry and other livestock, as part of a balanced ration with other inputs.
Wheatings, a milling byproduct comprising bran with some pieces of endosperm left over, are included in this category. Bran was found to be the most successful slug deterrent by BBC's TV programme Gardeners' World, it is a common food source used for feeder insects, such as mealworms and waxworms. Wheat bran has been used for tanning leather since at least the 16th century. George Washington had a recipe for small beer involving bran and molasses, it is common practice to heat-treat bran with the intention of slowing undesirable rancidification. However, a detailed 2003 study of heat-treatment of oat bran found a complex pattern whereby intense heat treatment reduced the development of hydrolitic rancidity and bitterness with time, but increased oxidative rancidity; the authors recommended that heat treatment should be sufficient to achieve selective lipase inactivation, but not so much as to render the polar lipids oxidisable upon prolonged storage. Alkylresorcinols Cereal germ Chaff Dietary fiber Phytic acid Rice bran solubles
Bran is a small commune in southwestern France situated in the department of Charente-Maritime. The inhabitants of Bran are known as les Brannaises. Traditional named-places within the commune. Le Bourg, Chez Cottereau, Le Foucaud, Le Vignac, Les Bardes, Les Rouyers, Pied Sec, Chez Bruneau, Chez Rouffaud, La Croix Breau, Chez Marpeau, Chez Désiré, Le Moulin Blanc, Le Fief des Sables, Le Morillon, Taillefer, Le Pas de Bran, Chez Bégaud, La Maison d'école. Baignes-Sainte-Radegonde to the north Vanzac to the west Chantillac to the south The commune is located in the Campanian, chalky limestone of the Upper Cretaceous which occupies a large southern part of the Charentes. A small eastern part is occupied by a terrain consisting of kaolinic sand and pebbles dating from the Tertiary; these soils are forested with maritime pines and constitute the northwestern edge of the Double saintongeaise. Two small streams, the Lariat and the Mathelon, cross the commune and are indirect tributaries of the river Seugne.
The region has been occupied since prehistoric times. Many circular ditches remain from Protohistory, identified by aerial surveys at Pérat, Moulin Blanc and Foucaud; the Gallo-Roman period is marked by a Roman road from Saintes to Coutras at a place called Le Pérat. This Roman road passed near the Gallo-Roman villa of Baignes-Saintes-Radegonde at a place called the Petit Moulin, via the Gallo-Roman agglomeration of the plain of Bourelles to the west of the village of Chantillac; this route took the small Roman bridge with a ford located in the town of Polignac to join the old road called "Charlemagne" before the town of Montguyon. During the Hundred Years War many underground passages were dug as refuges and to store food, they can still be found at Le Morillon, at Les Rouyers and Chez Bégaud. After the wars the landowners divided up their properties and installed managers who gave their names to many of the existing lieux-dits; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the censuses of the population carried out in the commune since 1793.
From the 1st of January 2009, the legal populations of the communes are published annually as part of a census, now based on an annual collection of information, successively covering all municipal territories over a period of five years. For municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants, a census survey of the whole population is carried out every five years, the legal populations of the intermediate years being estimated by interpolation or extrapolation. For the commune, the first comprehensive census within the framework of the new system was carried out in 2004. In 2014, the municipality had 126 inhabitants, an increase of 3.28% compared to 2009 The 12th century parish church of St. Andrew was rebuilt in the 14th and 15th centuries, was completely destroyed during the French wars of religion, its nave was enlarged in the 15th century and its bell tower was rebuilt in the 19th century. There is an 18th century limestone pulpit against the south wall of the church. A major restoration of the church was undertaken from 2009 to 2011 followed by inauguration on January 14, 2012.
During the restoration several works were undertaken: repair of floors and exterior coatings, opening of an obstructed mullion window, stained glass installation, clearing of the crypt with access grid, installation of lighting and an electric heating system. A large tableau above the altar, covered with black paint, was cleaned revealing an 18th century painting of the crucifixion. Improvements to the area surrounding the church were carried out in 2016; the recreation area is located adjacent to a lake at Les Trois Moulins and is equipped with a covered pavilion with barbecue, a picnic area with tables and seats, children's games and a petanque area. An annual festival is held in the recreation area in August; the lake is used for regular fishing events. Located at the intersection of the hamlets of Rouffaud and Fiefs des Sables. In the center of the crossroads there was a chapel dedicated to Saint Barbara, virgin of the fourth century, patron saint of Bran, it gave rise to numerous pilgrimages on Whit Monday, in which several communes participated: Chepniers, Pouillac, Châtenet, Chantillac, Messac....
Tradition notes. This chapel, fallen into ruin, was destroyed in 1866. Located at chez Rouffaud is the remnant of a windmill dating from 1883, it is on the highest point of the commune at 101 m above sea level. Communes of the Charente-Maritime department INSEE
A branle —also bransle, brawl, brall, brando, bran, or brantle —is a type of French dance popular from the early 16th century to the present, danced by couples in either a line or a circle. The term refers to the music and the characteristic step of the dance; the name branle derives from the French verb branler, referring to the side-to-side movement of a circle or chain of dancers holding hands or linking arms. Dances of this name are encountered from about 1500 and the term is used for dances still danced in France today. Before this the word is encountered in dance only as the "swaying" step of the basse danse; the branle was danced by a chain of dancers in couples, with linked arms or holding hands. The dance alternated a number of larger sideways steps to the left with the same number of smaller steps to the right so that the chain moved to the left. Although French dances of rustic provenance, danced to the dancers' singing, the branle was adopted, like other folk-dances, into aristocratic use by the time that printed books allow us to reconstruct the dances.
A variety of branles, attributed to different regions, were danced in sequence, so that the suite of branle music gives one of the earliest examples of the classical suite of dances. Such suites ended with a gavotte, which seems to have been regarded as a species of branle; some aristocratic branles included pantomime elements, such the branle de Poitou, the possible ancestor of the minuet, which acts out gestures of courtship. Some of these dances were reserved for specific age groups - the branle de Bourgogne, for instance, for the youngest dancers. Branle music is in common time somewhat like the gavotte, though some variants, like that of Poitou, are in triple time. Branles were danced walking, gliding, or skipping depending on the speed of the music. Among the dance's courtly relations may be the basse danse and the passepied which latter, though it is in triple time and Thoinot Arbeau identify as a type of Breton branle; the first detailed sources for the dance's steps are found in Arbeau's famous text-book Orchesography.
Antonius de Arena describes the steps for the double and single branle, John Marston's The Malcontent sketches the choreography of one type. According to Arbeau, every ball began with the same four branles: the double, the single, the gay and the Burgundian branle; the double branle had a simple form involving two phrases of two bars each. Arbeau gives choreographies for eight branles associated with specific regions. Most of these dances seem to have a genuine connection to the region: the Trihory of Brittany, Arbeau says, was if performed around Langres where his book was published, but "I learned it long ago from a young Breton, a fellow student of mine at Poitiers". On the other hand, Arbeau identifies some branles as adapted to ballet and mime; when his student Capriol asks whether the Maltese branle is native to Malta, rather than just "a fanciful invention for a ballet", Arbeau replies that he "cannot believe it to be other than a ballet". He describes a "Hermit" branle based upon mime.
There were several well-established branle suites of up to ten dances. Arbeau named these suites branles coupés, which means "cut" or "intersected" branles but is translated as "mixed branles". Antonius de Arena mentions mixed branles in his macaronic treatise Ad suos compagnones, By 1623 such suites had been standardized into a set of six dances: premier bransle, bransle gay, bransle de Poictou, bransle double de Poictou, cinquiesme bransle, a concluding gavotte. A variant is found in the Tablature de mandore by Sieur de Chancy. A suite of seven dances collectively titled Branles de Boccan begins with a branle du Baucane, composed by the dancing master and violinist Jacques Cordier, known as "Bocan", followed by a second, untitled branle the branle gay, branle de Poictu, branle double de Poictu, branle de Montirandé and la gavotte. In the late 16th century in England the branle was mentioned by Shakespeare. In the 17th century it was danced at the courts of Louis XIV of France and Charles II of England, where it became "even more common than in France".
There are a few late examples in Beauchamp-Feuillet notation, such as Danses nouvelles presentees au Roy by Louis-Guillaume Pécour. In Italy the branle became the brando, in Spain the bran; the Branle seems to have survived for some time as the brail. Emmanuel Adriaenssen includes a piece called Branle Englese in his book of lute music, Pratum Musicum and Thomas Tomkins' Worster Braules is included in the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, but of thousands of lute pieces from England only 18 were called branle, though one called "courant" is known from continenta
Bran Ferren, is an American technologist, architectural designer, vehicle designer, engineer and sound designer, visual effects artist, lecturer, entrepreneur, a prolific inventor. Ferren is the former President of Research and Development of Walt Disney Imagineering as well as founder of Associates & Ferren, a multidisciplinary engineering and design firm acquired in 1993 by Disney, he is Chief Creative Officer of Applied Minds. Apple's "pinch-to-zoom" patent, which features prominently in its legal battle with Samsung, was invalidated by the US Patent and Trademark Office in 2013 based on a 2005 patent by Ferren and Hillis for multi-touch gestures. Bran Ferren was the only child of artists John Rae Ferren, he grew up surrounded by art and technology. His father, whose work is part of the permanent collections of many American art museums, mixed with luminaries such as Picasso, Miró, Mondrian before becoming an integral member of the New York School of Abstract Expressionists, his father was personal friends with Alfred Hitchcock and created paintings for The Trouble with Harry and designed the nightmare sequence in Vertigo.
Ferren's uncles came from the worlds of engineering and technology: Roy Ferren served as director of flight test for North American Aviation and worked on the B-25 Mitchell bomber, X-15 rocket plane, XB-70 Valkyrie, B-1 Lancer bombers. Stanley Tonkel was a noted senior recording engineer for Columbia Records, who engineered recordings for artists such as Miles Davis, Barbara Streisand, Aretha Franklin, Bob Dylan, he first attended Hunter College Elementary School for gifted students in New York City, followed by a year at the American Community School, in Beirut Lebanon while his father served as the first artist-in-residence for a U. S. Department of State cultural exchange program to introduce American abstract art to the Middle East. After returning from overseas, he spent three years at the McBurney School in New York City, the last three years of high school at East Hampton High School, in East Hampton, New York. Ferren started his first design and engineering company, Synchronetics while in high school.
He left high school at age 16 to attend MIT, but departed in 1970 to continue entrepreneurial pursuits. Despite his short stay at MIT, he was invited back by school president Charles M. Vest to be a keynote speaker for MIT Technology Day 1996. Before his 21st birthday, Ferren had worked on TV commercials and regional theater, he had pioneered visual effects for arena concerts for groups such as Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Laurie Anderson, Pink Floyd, Roger Waters, David Bowie, Paul McCartney, R. E. M, Depeche Mode, Foreigner, using pyrotechnics, audio and novel lighting techniques. Ferren founded Associates & Ferren at the age of 25 to do work at the "crossroads of design and science and entertainment." One of the first projects was for Broadway play The Crucifer of Blood, a Sherlock Holmes mystery that starred Glenn Close and won Ferren a Los Angeles Drama Critics Circle award. The production featured a "shattering display of thunder and lightning", which got the attention of director Ken Russell, leading to Ferren's first prominent assignment as Special Visual Effects director on a major Hollywood science-fiction film, Altered States.
For his work in theater, Ferren received two New York Drama Desk Awards, the Maharam Foundation Award, the American Theater Wing, Hewes Design Award. He has designed the Special Effects and Sound for several Broadway shows, is a long-term member of the Broadway stagehands union, IATSE Local #1, his theatrical special effects design work for the Broadway productions of Frankenstein and Sunday in the Park with George, were acknowledged for their groundbreaking special effects. Frank Rich said in his New York Times review of Sunday in the Park with George: "What Mr. Lapine, his designers and the special-effects wizard Bran Ferren have arranged is gorgeous." It was the first Broadway musical to utilize digitally-processed projection mapping, a radio-controlled costume with a robotic endoskeleton, 20kW xenon light ray effects, dazzling high powered lasers that broke the 4th wall, traveling throughout the audience. Frank Rich said of his work in Frankenstein, "Bran Ferren's special audio-visual effects are impressive by theatrical standards" and Carol Lawson, said in the New York Times, that "critics have remarked that Mr. Ferren's work on this play, which included the spectacular destruction of Dr. Frankenstein's laboratory by his monster, had the lavishness that audiences have come to expect in films, but have never before seen in the theater."As principal designer of Associates & Ferren, Ferren went on to lead many high-profile projects, such as special effects for the Paul McCartney World Tour, R.
E. M, Depeche Mode, Pink Floyd, visual effects for Little Shop of Horrors, he was a technical consultant for the films Impostor and Fat Man and Little Boy, designed the titles for Simon, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, Guilty as Sin, Little Shop of Horrors. In addition to special effects, they were considered leaders in advanced projection and laser effects technology, provided customized equipment for dozens of major road tours, stationary installations, he produced and was the cinematographer for the movie "Funny", which received a Nomination for a Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival, nomination for Best Documentary at the Chicago International Film Festival, Gold Jury prize at the Houston International Film Festival (now called WorldFest Housto
Accademia della Crusca
The Accademia della Crusca abbreviated as La Crusca, is an Italian society for scholars and Italian linguists and philologists established in Florence. It is the most important research institution on the Italian language as well as the oldest linguistic academy in the world; the Accademia was founded in Florence in 1583. It has been characterized by its efforts to maintain the purity of the Italian language. Crusca means "bran" in Italian, which conveys the metaphor that its work is similar to winnowing as it is well explained by the emblem of the Accademia della Crusca that depicts a sifter, straining out corrupt words and structures; the academy motto is "Il più bel fior ne coglie", a famous verse of the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca. In 1612, the Accademia published the first edition of its Dictionary, the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, which served as the model for similar works in French, Spanish and English; the academy is a member of the European Federation of National Linguistic Institutes.
The founders were called the brigata dei Crusconi and constituted a circle composed of poets, men of letters, lawyers. The members assembled on pleasant and convivial occasions, during which cruscate — discourses in a merry and playful style, which have neither a beginning nor an end — were recited; the Crusconi used humour and irony to distance itself from the pedantry of the Accademia Fiorentina, protected by Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, to contrast itself with the severe and classic style of that body. This battle was fought without compromising the primary intention of the group, literary, expounded in high quality literary disputes; the founders of the Accademia della Crusca are traditionally identified as Giovanni Battista Deti, Antonio Francesco Grazzini, Bernardo Canigiani, Bernardo Zanchini, Bastiano de’ Rossi. Under his leadership, at the beginning of 1583, the Accademia took on a new form, directing itself to demonstrate and to conserve the beauty of the Florentine vulgar tongue, modelled upon the authors of the Trecento.
One of the earliest scholars to influence the work of the Crusca was Agnolo Monosini. He contributed to the 1612 edition of Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca with regard to the influence of Greek, which, he maintained, made a significant contribution to the Fiorentine idiom of the period; the Accademia thus abandoned the jocular character of its earlier meetings in order to take up the normative role it would assume from on. The title of the Accademia came to be interpreted in a new way: the academicians of the Crusca would now work to distinguish the good and pure part of the language from the bad and impure part. From this is derived the symbolism of the Crusca: its logo shows a frullone or sifter with the Petrarchan motto Il più bel fior ne coglie; the members of the Accademia were given nicknames associated with corn and flour, seats in the form of breadbaskets with backs in the shape of bread shovel were used for their meetings. In 1636, Cardinal Richelieu created the Académie française on the model of the Accademia della Crusca.
The linguistic purism of the Accademia found opposition in Cesare Beccaria and the Verri brothers, who through their journal Il Caffè systematically attacked the Accademia's archaisms as pedantic, denouncing the Accademia while invoking for contrast no less than the likes of Galileo and Newton and modern intellectual cosmopolitanism itself. However, since Galileo published his scientific works in his native Florentine Italian, as opposed to the Latin, customary for academic works of the time, it has been argued that he implicitly supported the Accademia's purpose; the Accademia's activities carried on with both high- and low- points until 1783, when Pietro Leopoldo quit and, with several other academicians, created the second Accademia Fiorentina. In 1808, the third Accademia Fiorentina was founded and, by a decree of 19 January 1811, signed by Napoleon, the Crusca was re-established with its own status of autonomy and previous aims. In the 20th century, the decree of 11 March 1923 changed its purpose.
The compilation of the Vocabolario, hitherto the duty of the Crusca, was removed from it and passed to a private society of scholars. In 1955, Bruno Migliorini and others began discussion of the return of the work of preparing the Vocabolario to the Crusca. In 2007, the website E-leo compiling 3,000 drawings and writings of Leonardo da Vinci was launched, with the linguistic help of the Accademia della Crusca to decipher some of the inventor's scribblings. In August 2011, the existence of the Accademia was threatened when Giulio Tremonti and Silvio Berlusconi introduced a proposition to eradicate all public-funded entities with less than 70 members. In August 2015, the Accademia's website was defaced by a hacker linked to ISIS. In February 2016, the Accademia approved the submission of an 8-year old for a new Italian word, Petaloso. Luciano Agostiniani, Florence Gabriella Alfieri, Catania Ilaria Bonomi, Milan Michele Cortelazzo, Padua Paolo D'Achille, Rome Vittorio Formentin, Padua Giuseppe Frasso, Milan Rita Librandi, Naples Alberto Nocentini, Florence Alessandro Pancheri, Pescara Leonardo Maria Savoia, Florence Mirko Tavoni, Pisa Pietro Trifone, Rome John Kinder, Perth (in I