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University of Cambridge
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The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, England, often regarded as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Founded in 1209 and given royal status by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople, the two ancient universities share many common features and are often referred to jointly as Oxbridge. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent colleges, Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the worlds oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world. The university also operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridges libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the year ended 31 July 2015, the university had an income of £1.64 billion. The central university and colleges have an endowment of around £5.89 billion. The university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as Silicon Fen. It is a member of associations and forms part of the golden triangle of leading English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners. As of 2017, Cambridge is ranked the fourth best university by three ranking tables and no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects. Cambridge is consistently ranked as the top university in the United Kingdom, the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, scientists, politicians, lawyers, philosophers, writers, actors, and foreign Heads of State. Ninety-five Nobel laureates, fifteen British prime ministers and ten Fields medalists have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty, by the late 12th century, the Cambridge region already had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, and most scholars moved to such as Paris, Reading. After the University of Oxford reformed several years later, enough remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach everywhere in Christendom, the colleges at the University of Cambridge were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself, the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels, the hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridges first college, the most recently established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s

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Anthropic principle
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The anthropic principle is a philosophical consideration that observations of the Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it. Some proponents of the principle reason that it explains why this universe has the age. As a result, they believe it is unremarkable that this universe has fundamental constants that happen to fall within the narrow range thought to be compatible with life. Most often such arguments draw upon some notion of the multiverse for there to be a population of universes to select from and from which selection bias could occur. The anthropic principle states that this is a necessity, because if life were impossible, no living entity would be there to observe it, and thus would not be known. That is, it must be possible to some universe, and hence. The term anthropic in anthropic principle has been argued to be a misnomer, while singling out our kind of carbon-based life, none of the finely tuned phenomena require human life or some kind of carbon chauvinism. Any form of life or any form of atom, stone, star or galaxy would do. The anthropic principle has given rise to confusion and controversy. All versions of the principle have been accused of discouraging the search for a physical understanding of the universe. e. It is a tautology or truism, however, building a substantive argument based on a tautological foundation is problematic. Stronger variants of the principle are not tautologies and thus make claims considered controversial by some. In 1961, Robert Dicke noted that the age of the universe, as seen by living observers, instead, biological factors constrain the universe to be more or less in a golden age, neither too young nor too old. If the universe were one tenth as old as its present age, there would not have sufficient time to build up appreciable levels of metallicity especially carbon. Small rocky planets did not yet exist, Dicke later reasoned that the density of matter in the universe must be almost exactly the critical density needed to prevent the Big Crunch. A slight increase in the interaction would bind the dineutron and the diproton. Water, as well as sufficiently long-lived stable stars, both essential for the emergence of life as we know it, would not exist. More generally, small changes in the strengths of the four fundamental interactions can greatly affect the universes age, structure

3.
No-hair theorem
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All other information about the matter which formed a black hole or is falling into it, disappears behind the black-hole event horizon and is therefore permanently inaccessible to external observers. Physicist John Archibald Wheeler expressed this idea with the black holes have no hair which was the origin of the name. In a later interview, John Wheeler says that Jacob Bekenstein coined this phrase, the first version of the no-hair theorem for the simplified case of the uniqueness of the Schwarzschild metric was shown by Werner Israel in 1967. The result was generalized to the cases of charged or spinning black holes. There is still no rigorous mathematical proof of a general no-hair theorem, even in the case of gravity alone, the conjecture has only been partially resolved by results of Stephen Hawking, Brandon Carter, and David C. Robinson, under the hypothesis of non-degenerate event horizons and the technical, restrictive. None of the particle physics pseudo-charges are conserved in the black hole. These numbers represent the attributes of an object which can be determined from a distance by examining its gravitational. All other variations in the hole will either escape to infinity or be swallowed up by the black hole. By changing the reference frame one can set the momentum and position to zero. This eliminates eight of the numbers, leaving three which are independent of the reference frame, mass, angular momentum magnitude, and electric charge. Thus any black hole which has been isolated for a significant period of time can be described by the Kerr–Newman metric in a chosen reference frame. It has since extended to include the case where the cosmological constant is positive. Magnetic charge, if detected as predicted by some theories, would form the fourth parameter possessed by a black hole. However, these exceptions are often unstable solutions and/or do not lead to conserved quantum numbers so that The spirit of the conjecture, however. It has been proposed that black holes may be considered to be bound states of hairless black holes. In 2004, the analytical solution of a -dimensional spherically symmetric black hole with minimally coupled self-interacting scalar field was derived. The solution is stable and does not possess any unphysical properties, however, the LIGO results provide some experimental evidence consistent with the uniqueness or no-hair theorem

4.
Penrose diagram
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In theoretical physics, a Penrose diagram is a two-dimensional diagram capturing the causal relations between different points in spacetime. It is an extension of a Minkowski diagram where the vertical dimension represents time, and the horizontal dimension represents space, the biggest difference is that locally, the metric on a Penrose diagram is conformally equivalent to the actual metric in spacetime. The conformal factor is such that the entire infinite spacetime is transformed into a Penrose diagram of finite size. For spherically symmetric spacetimes, every point in the diagram corresponds to a 2-sphere, straight lines of constant time and straight lines of constant space ordinates therefore become hyperbolas, which appear to converge at points in the corners of the diagram. These points represent conformal infinity for space and time, Penrose diagrams are more properly called Penrose–Carter diagrams, acknowledging both Brandon Carter and Roger Penrose, who were the first researchers to employ them. They are also called conformal diagrams, or simply spacetime diagrams, two lines drawn at 45° angles should intersect in the diagram only if the corresponding two light rays intersect in the actual spacetime. So, a Penrose diagram can be used as an illustration of spacetime regions that are accessible to observation. The diagonal boundary lines of a Penrose diagram correspond to the infinity or to singularities where light rays must end, thus, Penrose diagrams are also useful in the study of asymptotic properties of spacetimes and singularities. Penrose diagrams are used to illustrate the causal structure of spacetimes containing black holes. Singularities are denoted by a boundary, unlike the timelike boundary found on conventional space-time diagrams. This is due to the interchanging of timelike and spacelike coordinates within the horizon of a black hole. The singularity is represented by a boundary to make it clear that once an object has passed the horizon it will inevitably hit the singularity even if it attempts to take evasive action. Penrose diagrams are used to illustrate the hypothetical Einstein-Rosen bridge connecting two separate universes in the maximally extended Schwarzschild black hole solution. The precursors to the Penrose diagrams were Kruskal–Szekeres diagrams and these introduced the method of aligning the event horizon into past and future horizons oriented at 45° angles, and splitting the singularity into past and future horizontally-oriented lines. The Einstein-Rosen bridge closes off so rapidly that passage between the two asymptotically flat exterior regions would require faster-than-light velocity, and is therefore impossible, in addition, highly blue-shifted light rays would make it impossible for anyone to pass through. In the case of the hole, there is also a negative universe entered through a ring-shaped singularity that can be passed through if entering the hole close to its axis of rotation. Causality Causal structure Conformal cyclic cosmology Weyl transformation dInverno, Ray, see Chapter 17 for a very readable introduction to the concept of conformal infinity plus examples. Complete Analytic Extension of the Symmetry Axis of Kerrs Solution of Einsteins Equations, see also on-line version Hawking, Stephen & Ellis, G. F. R

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Doomsday argument
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The Doomsday argument is a probabilistic argument that claims to predict the number of future members of the human species given only an estimate of the total number of humans born so far. Simply put, it says that supposing that all humans are born in a random order, leslie and has since been independently discovered by J. Richard Gott and Holger Bech Nielsen. Similar principles of eschatology were proposed earlier by Heinz von Foerster, F is uniformly distributed on even after learning of the absolute position n. That is, for example, there is a 95% chance that f is in the interval, in other words, we could assume that we could be 95% certain that we would be within the last 95% of all the humans ever to be born. If we know our absolute position n, this implies a bound for N obtained by rearranging n/N >0.05 to give N < 20n. Assuming that the population stabilizes at 10 billion and a life expectancy of 80 years. This problem is similar to the famous German tank problem, the step that converts N into an extinction time depends upon a finite human lifespan. If immortality becomes common, and the birth rate drops to zero, a precise formulation of the Doomsday Argument requires the Bayesian interpretation of probability. The assumption of no prior knowledge on the distribution of N, assume for simplicity that the total number of humans who will ever be born is 60 billion, or 6,000 billion. Now, if we assume that the number of humans who will ever be born equals N1, the probability that X is amongst the first 60 billion humans who have ever lived is of course 100%. However, if the number of humans who will ever be born equals N2, in essence the DA therefore suggests that human extinction is more likely to occur sooner rather than later. It is possible to sum the probabilities for each value of N, for example, taking the numbers above, it is 99% certain that N is smaller than 6,000 billion. Note that as remarked above, this argument assumes that the probability for N is flat, or 50% for N1. On the other hand, it is possible to conclude, given X, more precisely, Bayes theorem tells us that P=PP/P, and the conservative application of the Copernican principle tells us only how to calculate P. Taking P to be flat, we still have to make an assumption about the prior probability P that the number of humans is N. If we conclude that N2 is much more likely than N1, a further, more detailed discussion, as well as relevant distributions P, are given below in the Rebuttals section. The Doomsday argument does not say that humanity cannot or will not exist indefinitely and it does not put any upper limit on the number of humans that will ever exist, nor provide a date for when humanity will become extinct. An abbreviated form of the argument does make these claims, by confusing probability with certainty, however, the actual DAs conclusion is, There is a 95% chance of extinction within 9,120 years

6.
General relativity
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General relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newtons law of gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time. In particular, the curvature of spacetime is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter, the relation is specified by the Einstein field equations, a system of partial differential equations. Examples of such differences include gravitational time dilation, gravitational lensing, the redshift of light. The predictions of relativity have been confirmed in all observations. Although general relativity is not the only theory of gravity. Einsteins theory has important astrophysical implications, for example, it implies the existence of black holes—regions of space in which space and time are distorted in such a way that nothing, not even light, can escape—as an end-state for massive stars. The bending of light by gravity can lead to the phenomenon of gravitational lensing, General relativity also predicts the existence of gravitational waves, which have since been observed directly by physics collaboration LIGO. In addition, general relativity is the basis of current cosmological models of an expanding universe. Soon after publishing the special theory of relativity in 1905, Einstein started thinking about how to incorporate gravity into his new relativistic framework. In 1907, beginning with a thought experiment involving an observer in free fall. After numerous detours and false starts, his work culminated in the presentation to the Prussian Academy of Science in November 1915 of what are now known as the Einstein field equations. These equations specify how the geometry of space and time is influenced by whatever matter and radiation are present, the Einstein field equations are nonlinear and very difficult to solve. Einstein used approximation methods in working out initial predictions of the theory, but as early as 1916, the astrophysicist Karl Schwarzschild found the first non-trivial exact solution to the Einstein field equations, the Schwarzschild metric. This solution laid the groundwork for the description of the stages of gravitational collapse. In 1917, Einstein applied his theory to the universe as a whole, in line with contemporary thinking, he assumed a static universe, adding a new parameter to his original field equations—the cosmological constant—to match that observational presumption. By 1929, however, the work of Hubble and others had shown that our universe is expanding and this is readily described by the expanding cosmological solutions found by Friedmann in 1922, which do not require a cosmological constant. Lemaître used these solutions to formulate the earliest version of the Big Bang models, in which our universe has evolved from an extremely hot, Einstein later declared the cosmological constant the biggest blunder of his life

7.
Centre national de la recherche scientifique
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The French National Center for Scientific Research is the largest governmental research organisation in France and the largest fundamental science agency in Europe. It employs 32,000 permanent employees and 6,000 temporary workers, the National Committee for Scientific Research, which is in charge of the recruitment and evaluation of researchers, is divided into 47 sections. Research groups are affiliated with one institute and an optional secondary institute. For administrative purposes, the CNRS is divided into 18 regional divisions, CNRS research units are called laboratoires informally and unités de recherche in administrative parlance. They are either operated solely by CNRS or UPR) or in association with other institutions, each research unit has a unique numeric code attached and is headed by a director. A research unit may be subdivided into research groups, CNRS also has support units, which, analogously to the research units, are called unités propres de service or unités mixtes de service. A UPS or UMS may for instance supply administrative, computing, library, the headquarters of CNRS are at the Campus Gérard Mégie in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. Researchers who are permanent employees of the CNRS are classified in two categories, in order of seniority, Research scientists, 2nd class, 1st class, Research directors, 2nd class, 1st class, exceptional class. In principle, research directors tend to research groups. Employees for support activities include research engineers, studies engineers, assistant engineers, contrary to what the name would seem to imply, these can have administrative duties. All permanent support employees are recruited through annual nationwide competitive campaigns, following a 1983 reform, the candidates selected have the status of civil servants and are part of the public service. The CNRS is represented with administrative offices in Brussels, Beijing, Tokyo, Singapore, Washington, bonn, Moscow, Tunis, Johannesburg, Santiago de Chile, Israel, and New Delhi. The CNRS was created on 19 October 1939 by decree of President Albert Lebrun, since 1954, the centre has annually awarded gold, silver, and bronze medals to French scientists and junior researchers. The performance of the CNRS has been questioned, with calls for wide-ranging reforms, in particular, the effectiveness of the recruitment, compensation, career management, and evaluation procedures have been under scrutiny. Governmental projects include the transformation of the CNRS into an organ allocating support to projects on an ad hoc basis. Another controversial plan advanced by the government involves breaking up the CNRS into six separate institutes, alain Fuchs was appointed president on 20 January 2010. His position combines the positions of president and director general