Jasper Francis Cropsey
Jasper Francis Cropsey was an important American landscape artist of the Hudson River School. Cropsey was born on his father Jacob Rezeau Cropsey's farm in Rossville on Staten Island, New York, the oldest of eight children; as a young boy, Cropsey had recurring periods of poor health. While absent from school, Cropsey taught himself to draw, his early drawings included architectural sketches and landscapes drawn on notepads and in the margins of his schoolbooks. Trained as an architect, he set up his own office in 1843. Cropsey studied watercolor and life drawing at the National Academy of Design under the instruction of Edward Maury and first exhibited there in 1844. A year he was elected an associate member and turned to landscape painting. Cropsy traveled in Europe from 1847–1849, visiting England, France and Italy, he was elected a full member of the Academy in 1851. Cropsey was a personal friend of Henry Tappan, the president of the University of Michigan from 1852 to 1863. At Tappan's invitation, he traveled to Ann Arbor in 1855 and produced two paintings, one of the Detroit Observatory, a landscape of the campus.
He went abroad again in 1856, resided seven years in London, sending his pictures to the Royal Academy and to the International exhibition of 1862. Returning home, he opened a studio in New York and specialized in autumnal landscape paintings of the northeastern United States idealized and with vivid colors. Cropsey co-founded, with ten fellow artists, the American Society of Painters in Water Colors in 1866. Cropsey's interest in architecture continued throughout his life and was a strong influence in his painting, most evident in his precise arrangement and outline of forms, but Cropsey was best known for his lavish use of color and, as a first-generation member from the Hudson River School, painted autumn landscapes that startled viewers with their boldness and brilliance. As an artist, he believed landscapes were the highest art form and that nature was a direct manifestation of God, he felt a patriotic affiliation with nature and saw his paintings as depicting the rugged and unspoiled qualities of America.
Jasper Cropsey was rediscovered by galleries and collectors in the 1960s. Today, Cropsey's paintings are found in most major American museums, including the National Gallery of Art, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, the Detroit Institute of Arts, the Timken Museum of Art in San Diego, the Honolulu Museum of Art, the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, the Denver Art Museum, the Princeton University Art Museum, the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Works by Cropsey hang in the White House. Cropsey and his wife Maria are buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in New York; some of his works include Jedburgh Abbey. His architectural works included Manhattan brownstones, the since-demolished 14th Street station for the IRT Sixth Avenue Line in Manhattan, St. Luke's Episcopal Church on Staten Island; some of Cropsey's painting command high prices at auctions. Greenwood Lake sold at Christie's auction in 2012 for $422,500. Sunset, Camel's Hump, Lake Champlain sold for $314,500 in 2011 Cropsey's home and studio, Ever Rest, in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York, has the largest permanent collection of Cropsey's work, collected by great-granddaughter Barbara Newington.
The collection has been on display since the founding of the Newington-Cropsey Foundation. Cropsey married Maria Cooley in May 1847, he had met her during one of his visits to Greenwood Lake after 1843. Maria's father, Isaac P. Cooley, was a justice of the peace from 1837 to 1839 and became a judge over the New Jersey Court of Common Pleas in 1840. Cooley became a member of New Jersey State House of Assembly from 1860 to 1861. Cooley offered to build Cropsey a studio on his estate but the offer was declined. In 1869 Cropsey built a 29-room Gothic Revival mansion and studio in Warwick, New York that he named Aladdin; as well as living in New York City, he spent part of his time in Warwick until the mansion was sold in 1884. In 1884 Cropsey first rented in 1885 bought a house at Hastings-on-Hudson, New York he named Ever Rest, he and Maria had two children: Lilly Frances Cropsey. Cropsey lived at Ever Rest until his death and his wife Maria lived there until she died in 1906, having been married to "Frank" for 54 years.
List of Hudson River School artists Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. P. 16 Works at The Athenaeum Newington Cropsey Foundation White Mountain Paintings by Jasper Francis Cropsey Sleepy Hollow Cemetery Apple Blossoms by Jasper Cropsey Alfred Brophy and Progress: Antebellum Landscape Art and Property Law, McGeorge Law Review 40: 651 Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza Biography and Works Reynolda House Museum of American Art American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art, which contains material on Cropsey
The Brandywine School was a style of illustration—as well as an artists colony in Wilmington, Delaware and in Chadds Ford, near the Brandywine River—both founded by artist Howard Pyle at the end of the 19th century. The works produced there were published in adventure novels and romances in the early 20th century. Pyle, one of the foremost illustrators in America at the time, began teaching art classes at Drexel University in 1895. However, he was dissatisfied with the confines of formal art education, beginning in 1898, he began teaching students during the summers at the Turner Mill in Chadds Ford; the mill, alongside the Brandywine, provided views of a scenic landscape to inspire the artists. In 1900, Pyle opened his own school attached to his personal art studio. Pyle created this school so that he might train a generation of illustrators who were artistically and financially successful, he hoped that through this, he would foster an American style of painting, something he felt the country lacked.
In order to develop that intrinsically American style, Pyle believed that his students must spend time outdoors, taking in the scenery and the history of their country. To help facilitate this, Pyle brought his students to Chadds Ford, where he would tell his students stories about the area’s revolutionary history while they painted landscapes. Pyle advocated against studying in Europe, hoping that his students would find fame and success through an American education; the school and studio, which are still standing, are located a short walk from the Brandywine Park, a stretch of riverside park designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. Of the 500 students who applied to attend Pyle's school in its first year, only twelve were accepted, it was through the absorption of Pyle's particular style and teaching that the tradition known as the "Brandywine School" emerged. Pyle continued to operate the school until 1910, during which time he was mentor to such successful artists as N. C. Wyeth, Frank E. Schoonover, Stanley M. Arthurs, William James Aylward, Thornton Oakley, Violet Oakley, Clifford Ashley, Anna Whelan Betts, Ethel Franklin Betts, Ellen Bernard Thompson Pyle, Jessie Willcox Smith, Olive Rush, Philip R. Goodwin, Allen Tupper True, Harvey Dunn.
In all, 75 artists were trained by Pyle during the ten years. The Brandywine School continued on in Pyle's students after his death in 1911. Several of his students, inspired by Pyle's example, taught the next generation of the school's students. In 1905, Wilmington philanthropist Samuel Bancroft constructed a set of buildings to house and provide studios for four of Pyle's most successful students: Wyeth, Schoonover and Ashley. Schoonover remained in his studio for the next 63 years, in 1942 he used it to open his own school, where he taught artists such as Ellen du Pont Wheelwright. After Pyle's death, Arthurs purchased the Pyle studio and continued the school from 1912 to 1950. Wyeth stayed in his Wilmington studio for a time before moving to Chadds Ford, where he taught his own children, including artist Andrew Wyeth; the style was a source of inspiration for, used extensively by Disney previsualization artists for the animated film, Treasure Planet
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts, expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual ideas, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power. In their most general form these activities include the production of works of art, the criticism of art, the study of the history of art, the aesthetic dissemination of art; the three classical branches of art are painting and architecture. Music, film and other performing arts, as well as literature and other media such as interactive media, are included in a broader definition of the arts; until the 17th century, art referred to any skill or mastery and was not differentiated from crafts or sciences. In modern usage after the 17th century, where aesthetic considerations are paramount, the fine arts are separated and distinguished from acquired skills in general, such as the decorative or applied arts. Though the definition of what constitutes art is disputed and has changed over time, general descriptions mention an idea of imaginative or technical skill stemming from human agency and creation.
The nature of art and related concepts, such as creativity and interpretation, are explored in a branch of philosophy known as aesthetics. In the perspective of the history of art, artistic works have existed for as long as humankind: from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. One early sense of the definition of art is related to the older Latin meaning, which translates to "skill" or "craft," as associated with words such as "artisan." English words derived from this meaning include artifact, artifice, medical arts, military arts. However, there are many other colloquial uses of all with some relation to its etymology. Over time, philosophers like Plato, Aristotle and Kant, among others, questioned the meaning of art. Several dialogues in Plato tackle questions about art: Socrates says that poetry is inspired by the muses, is not rational, he speaks approvingly of this, other forms of divine madness in the Phaedrus, yet in the Republic wants to outlaw Homer's great poetic art, laughter as well.
In Ion, Socrates gives no hint of the disapproval of Homer. The dialogue Ion suggests that Homer's Iliad functioned in the ancient Greek world as the Bible does today in the modern Christian world: as divinely inspired literary art that can provide moral guidance, if only it can be properly interpreted. With regards to the literary art and the musical arts, Aristotle considered epic poetry, comedy, dithyrambic poetry and music to be mimetic or imitative art, each varying in imitation by medium and manner. For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, poetry with language; the forms differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation—through narrative or character, through change or no change, through drama or no drama. Aristotle believed that imitation is natural to mankind and constitutes one of mankind's advantages over animals.
The more recent and specific sense of the word art as an abbreviation for creative art or fine art emerged in the early 17th century. Fine art refers to a skill used to express the artist's creativity, or to engage the audience's aesthetic sensibilities, or to draw the audience towards consideration of more refined or finer work of art. Within this latter sense, the word art may refer to several things: a study of a creative skill, a process of using the creative skill, a product of the creative skill, or the audience's experience with the creative skill; the creative arts are a collection of disciplines which produce artworks that are compelled by a personal drive and convey a message, mood, or symbolism for the perceiver to interpret. Art is something that stimulates an individual's thoughts, beliefs, or ideas through the senses. Works of art can be explicitly made for this purpose or interpreted on the basis of images or objects. For some scholars, such as Kant, the sciences and the arts could be distinguished by taking science as representing the domain of knowledge and the arts as representing the domain of the freedom of artistic expression.
If the skill is being used in a common or practical way, people will consider it a craft instead of art. If the skill is being used in a commercial or industrial way, it may be considered commercial art instead of fine art. On the other hand and design are sometimes considered applied art; some art followers have argued that the difference between fine art and applied art has more to do with value judgments made about the art than any clear definitional difference. However fine art has goals beyond pure creativity and self-expression; the purpose of works of art may be to communicate ideas, such as in politically, spiritually, or philosophically motivated art. The purpose may be nonexistent; the nature of art has been described by philosopher Richard Wollheim as "one of the most elusive of the traditional problems of human culture". Art has been defined as a vehicle for the expression or communication of emotions and ideas, a means for exp
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure, recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 90,000 places listed on the country's National Register of Historic Places, only some 2,500 are recognized as National Historic Landmarks. A National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed. Prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. In 1935, Congress passed the Historic Sites Act, which authorized the Interior Secretary authority to formally record and organize historic properties, to designate properties as having "national historical significance", gave the National Park Service authority to administer significant federally owned properties. Over the following decades, surveys such as the Historic American Buildings Survey amassed information about culturally and architecturally significant properties in a program known as the Historic Sites Survey.
Most of the designations made under this legislation became National Historic Sites, although the first designation, made December 20, 1935, was for a National Memorial, the Gateway Arch National Park in St. Louis, Missouri; the first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17, 1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the survey data gathered under this legislation, the National Historic Landmark program began to take more formal shape; when the National Register of Historic Places was established in 1966, the National Historic Landmark program was encompassed within it, rules and procedures for inclusion and designation were formalized. Because listings triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the listing procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9, 1960, 92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A. Seaton; the first of these was a political nomination: the Sergeant Floyd Monument in Sioux City, Iowa was designated on June 30 of that year, but for various reasons, the public announcement of the first several NHLs was delayed.
NHLs are designated by the United States Secretary of the Interior because they are: Sites where events of national historical significance occurred. More than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States. There are the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nation's NHLs. Three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states: Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York. There are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia; some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, other U. S. territories. S.-associated states such as Micronesia. Over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are owned; the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks.
A friends' group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve and promote National Historic Landmarks. If not listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation. About three percent of Register listings are NHLs. American Water Landmark List of U. S. National Historic Landmarks by state List of churches that are National Historic Landmarks in the United States Listed building, a similar designation in the UK National Historic Sites and Persons, similar designations in Canada National Natural Landmark United States Memorials United States National Register of Historic Places listings Official National Historic Landmarks Program website A History of the NHL Program List of National Historic Landmarks National Historic Landmarks: Archaeological Properties Historical Landmarks - United States Lighthouses
George Alexis Weymouth
George Alexis Weymouth, better known as Frolic Weymouth, was an American artist, whip or stager, conservationist. He served on the United States Commission of Fine Arts in the 1970s and was a member of the Du Pont family, his mother, Dulcinea "Deo" Ophelia Payne du Pont, was the eldest of Eugene Eleuthere du Pont's four daughters. Frolic was six generations removed from Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, the founder of the DuPont corporation. In 1930, Dulcinea married investment banker George T. Weymouth. Weymouth was christened George Alexis Weymouth. According to a well-known story, shortly after George's birth, his 3-year-old brother, lost his foxhound. After asking his mother, "Where's Frolic?" His exasperated mother replied, "Shut up! Here's your damn Frolic!" and thrust George before Gene. The name stuck. Weymouth graduated from St. Mark's School in Southborough, Massachusetts in 1954, he received his undergraduate degree in American studies from Yale University in 1958. Weymouth suffered from dyslexia, but he believed that being from a prominent family enabled him to graduate from Yale.
"I couldn't write or spell. I still can't. I don't know anything but painting pictures and being on a horse," he said in 2007."It's no big deal" being a du Pont, he once said. In 2000, 3,700 members of the Du Pont family attended a reunion at Longwood Gardens. Several years Weymouth wondered aloud, "How many there are now? Du Ponts have always been busy in bed."Weymouth was married to Anna Brelsford McCoy for 18 years until their divorce in 1979. He has one son, whom he adopted, he resided in a converted 17th-century Swedish trading post with an 18th-century addition on 250 acres called "Big Bend" in Chadds Ford, that he purchased in 1961. According to Weymouth, William Penn purchased the land from the Native American Lenape tribe in 1683. Big Bend was the Lenape's original term for the land. Weymouth died on April 24, 2016 at his home in Chadds Ford from complications of congestive heart failure at the age of 79, according to Andrew Stewart, a spokesman for the conservancy and museum. Weymouth's early work, done in egg tempera, was highly personal.
His portrait of his grandfather, Eugene du Pont, Jr. features the detail of a herringbone suit coat and the worn fabric of a favorite recliner. His The Way Back is a self-portrait of only his hands guiding a single horse carriage up the lane to Big Bend. Weymouth painted portraits of Luciano Pavarotti and of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Queen Elizabeth’s husband, a work which hangs in Windsor Castle. Weymouth was selected by NASA to paint at Cape Canaveral during the moon shots. Through his circle of fellow artists, Weymouth became a close friend and relation of artist Andrew Wyeth, he was married to Andrew Wyeth's niece. They divorced in 1979. Jamie Wyeth, Andrew Wyeth's son, married Weymouth's cousin Phyllis. Weymouth was the confidant who discreetly hid Andrew Wyeth's nudes of Prussian-born neighbor and caretaker Helga Testorf for 17 years before they became public. In the 2004 documentary, The Way Back: A Portrait of George A. Weymouth, Andrew Wyeth said he didn't "know of anyone who means as much to me."
He helped found the Brandywine River Museum, which presents the work of Andrew Wyeth, N. C. Wyeth, Jamie Wyeth, other Wyeth family members and selections from the canon of American art. Weymouth served on the Visual Arts Panel of the Pennsylvania Council of the Arts and received many awards, including the Cliveden Heritage Preservation Award and the University of Delaware Merit Award for Community Service. Weymouth was a member of the U. S. Commission of Fine Arts from 1972 to 1977. In a conversation about Andy Warhol, Jamie Wyeth expressed the opinion that Frolic Weymouth was the "real character."Weymouth surrounded himself with art and gardens. A centerpiece in Weymouth’s Big Bend is "The Vidette," an enormous painting of a horseman in the snow dating from 1912; this N. C. Wyeth work is on loan for exhibitions. Anna Hyatt Huntington’s "Greyhounds Playing" graces the garden. Elsewhere, a carved wooden Indonesian fertility bench features two interlocked monkeys, highlighting Weymouth's admitted fascination with fornication.
In the mid-1960s, Weymouth convinced friends F. I. du Pont and William Prickett to help him buy two parcels in Chadds Ford, along the banks of the Brandywine Creek, proposed for industrial development. This purchase led to the founding of the Tri-County Conservancy, now known as the Brandywine Conservancy & Museum of Art, an environmental and cultural preservation organization that subsequently led to the founding of such organizations all over the country. Frolic was the chairman of the board of the Brandywine Conservancy from that point on until his death; the organization has permanently protected from development more than 62,000 acres in southeastern Pennsylvania and northern Delaware. In 1969, Weymouth donated his property to the Brandywine Conservancy as its first conservation easement, his home, "The Big Bend," surrounded by Brandywine Creek on three sides, is just inside Pennsylvania at the northern Delaware border. The period-furnished 1750s stone house addition to the original 1650s Swedish log cabin is surrounded by gardens.
His donation was followed by those of the Harry G. Haskell, Jr. Ford B. Draper, Jamie Wyeth; the four easements protected 340 acres and 51⁄2 miles along the Brandywine Creek. In 1984, the King Ranch in Pennsylvania went to market. Rumored buy
Kuerner Farm known as Ring Farm, is a historic farm in Chadds Ford, notable for its association with artist Andrew Wyeth, who created about one-third of his work, over 1,000 paintings and drawings, on subjects he found there over a span of 77 years. The farm was listed in the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark in 2011; the property abuts another National Historic Landmark. The farm is open to public tours, operated by the Brandywine River Museum; the Battle of Brandywine, fought nearby on September 11, 1777, left a cannonball and grapeshot in the farm's fields. Continental troops and militia units marched past on Ring road, but no actual fighting on the property can be documented. Brandywine Battlefield State Park is about a half-mile north of the farm. Caleb Ring built the farmhouse c. 1814, a third story was added c. 1850. Illustrator Howard Pyle taught art students, including N. C. Wyeth, at Turner's Mill on US 1, just north of the farm, during the summers from 1898 to 1903.
In 1926, Karl Kuerner and his wife Anna rented the farm, which they bought in 1940. Karl had been a sheepherder near the Black Forest in his native Germany, had been a machine gunner in the German Army during World War I, before moving to Philadelphia in 1926. Andrew Wyeth's first painting of the farm was completed in 1932, at age 15. In 1945, Andrew's father, N. C. Wyeth, his grandson were killed when their car, stalled at the railroad crossing near the northwest corner of the farm, was struck by a train. Andrew Wyeth met Helga Testorf in 1971 while she was nursing Karl Kuerner at the farm. A German immigrant, she lived across Ring Road from the farm with her husband, she soon began secretly modeling for Wyeth in a famous series of drawings. That year the first nude painting in the series was painted in the sewing room in the farm house; the works, numbering more than 240, remained secret until 1987, when they were exhibited at the National Gallery of Art. Karl Kuerner died in 1979, followed by Anna in 1997.
In 1999, the farm was acquired by the Brandywine Conservancy, which offers tours of the farm through its Brandywine River Museum. It was designated a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2011. In 2014 the listing was expanded to include the former schoolhouse used by Wyeth as a studio; some of the paintings Andrew Wyeth created here include: Winter 1946 Snow Flurries Brown Swiss Groundhog Day Evening at Kuerners Young Bull Spring Fed Overflow Snow Hill Karl The KuernersIt was here that Wyeth created many of The Helga Pictures, a series of more than 200 works all involving the model Helga Testorf, whom he met while she worked as a nurse caring for the farm's owner, Karl Kuerner. List of National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania National Register of Historic Places listings in Delaware County, Pennsylvania Wyeth, Andrew. Wyeth at Kuerners. Houghton Mifflin. P. 324. ISBN 978-0-395-21990-4. Wise, Robert J. Jr. 2010, NHL Nomination Form for Kuerner Farm Official website
Nathaniel Wyeth (inventor)
Nathaniel C. Wyeth was inventor, he is best known for creating polyethylene terephthalate that could withstand the pressure of carbonated liquids. Made of recyclable PET plastic, lighter than glass and unbreakable, Wyeth's invention is used today for both carbonated and non-carbonated drinks. Born in Asgard near Chadds Ford, he displayed an engineering talent throughout his youth. Wyeth held a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Pennsylvania, he married Caroline Pyle in 1937. Biographer David Michaelis found less evidence than some local residents who were inclined to think Caroline and Wyeth's father, N. C. Wyeth, carried on a relationship. Caroline died in 1973 and Wyeth married Jean Grady in 1984. Wyeth and Caroline had five sons, Howard, N. Convers III, Andrew and David, one daughter, who died young. A sixth son, died in 1945 with N. C. Wyeth, when their car stalled on a railroad crossing near their home and they were struck by a milk train. Wyeth is known as the brother of painters Andrew Wyeth, Carolyn Wyeth, Henriette Wyeth Hurd, the father of musician Howard Wyeth, as the son of artist and illustrator N. C.
Wyeth. Wyeth called himself "the other Wyeth" because N. C. and Andrew Wyeth were so well known. Nathaniel Wyeth joined DuPont in 1936 as a field engineer. By 1963 he was the company's first engineering fellow and when he retired in 1976, was DuPont's first senior engineering fellow, the company's highest technical position. In 1967, he pondered. After experimenting with a plastic detergent bottle that proved incapable of withstanding the forces of pressurized liquids, he realized that a much stronger material would be required, he experimented with polypropylene, but settled on polyethylene terephthalate as the material and received the patent in 1973. Wyeth received the 1981 Society of Plastics Engineers international award for outstanding achievement, was inducted into the Society of the Plastics Industry Hall of Fame in 1986, he was a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Wyeth was the first person named senior engineering fellow at DuPont, the company's highest technical position.
Nathaniel co-invented twenty-five products. In 1990, Wyeth was award DuPont's Lavoisier Award for Technical Achievement. Wyeth's other innovations included improvements to manufacturing process, textiles and mechanical devices. MIT Inventor of the Week, Aug. 1998 The New York Times. "Nathaniel Wyeth Weds Jean Grady". Retrieved 2007-02-22. Fowler, Glenn. "N. C. Wyeth, Dies at 78; the New York Times. Retrieved 2008-03-29. Nathaniel C. Wyeth. "US Patent 3733309 Biaxially Oriented Poly Bottle, via Google.com". Archived from the original on 2013-01-25. Retrieved 2007-02-19. Nathaniel C. Wyeth at the "Plastics Academy Hall of Fame". Nathaniel C. Wyeth at the "Polymer Processing Hall of Fame"