Filet lace is the general word used for all the different techniques of Embroidery on Knotted Net. It is a hand made needlework created by weaving or Embroidery using a long blunt needle and a thread on a ground of knotted net lace or Filet Work made of square or diagonal meshes of the same sizes or of different sizes. Lacis is made on a ground of Leno or small canvas. Filet lace is a form of decorative netting and as such can be presumed to have derived at some point from the fishnet that a community would require for fishing, transporting, etc. and not because they were living close to the water. Latin word filatorium place for spinning, from filare to spin, from Latin filum a thread. Ref: Wiktionary, the latin word Filatory) The Latin word filatorium is being used to describe Filet lace Jourdain quotes a reference to Exeter Cathedral possessing four pieces of Filet lace in 1327. Ingram states that there was a "cushion of net-work in St. Paul's Cathedral so early as 1295." Such work, in the 14th century, was described as "opus araneum".
Filet-work is the result of knotting a fabric of diagonal or square meshes to create an open fabric called Lace. The tool to make a Knotted Net Lace is a Gauge stick for measure of the meshes; the book Renaissance Patterns for Lace and Needlepoint, an unabridged facsimile of the "Singuliers et nouveaux pourtraicts" of 1587 by Federico de Vinciolo contains 50 beautiful and well designed patterns which are suitable for Filet lace-Embroidery on Knotted Net using the Linen Stitch. As mentioned above, filet lace is created by doing embroidery stitches on a knotted net lace; the knotted ground lace can either be made by the lacemaker or as of 2003 purchased commercially in either handmade or machine-made varieties. Making the net by hand with a shuttle needle and a gauge involves anchoring the piece, using either a heavy cushion, a chair or a stirrup around the worker’s foot. Having a secure anchor against which to maintain tension, a square net is made starting from one corner and adding a new mesh on each row until the desired size is reached by decreasing.
The individual meshes are formed on a gauge which helps ensure a uniform size and are created by knotting to a loop in the previous round: square mesh, diagonal mesh, free form. By using a fine thread and different sizes of gauge you will create a beautiful and delicate lace work; the Knotted Lace is stretched on a frame and embroidery stitches are added using a long blunt needle and a thread. Patterns are designed on a grid with a mark for the meshes to be filled with the thread. A path is traced on this pattern and you follow this path with the needle on the ground lace; when a group of certain stitches are used, the technique takes a name: Filet Guipure, Filet Richelieu, Filet Soutache, Linen Stitch, Darning Stitch. Many designs involve weaving the main design in linen stitch, indeed some designs consist of linen stitch; this creates open areas on the piece. A geometrical design or a sampler can use several different stitches, when a figural design will use few stitches or only the linen stitch.
Filet lace is seen in a single color of thread white or ecru, but countries all over the world have used colored thread, precious metal threads, feathers, etc. QUINAULT, Marie-Jo. Filet Lace: Introduction to the Linen Stitch Victoria, BC: Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-1549-9 is a Book with Patterns to Learn the Embroidery on a Knotted Net Carità. Lacis. Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Th. de Dillmont. Filet-Guipure. Mulhouse Jourdain, M. "Drawn Thread Work and Lacis". The Connoisseur. 10: 235–237. Ingram, Caroline Patience. ""Point Compté" or Lace Netting". The Connoisseur. 62: 92–94. Vinciolo, Federico. Les Singuliers et Nouveaux Pourtaicts "FILET LACE BY THE SEA -- Supplies for Embroidery on a Filet Lace Net: Instruction, Filet Nets, etc". Retrieved February 12, 2007. "INSTRUCTION BOOK to LEARN -- "Filet Lace, Introduction to the Linen Stitch" ISBN 141201549-9 -- Item No. FL01". Retrieved August 8, 2014. "STARTING KIT -- Complete kit with all the material, supply & accessories you need to learn and produce finished & fonctional pieces you'll be proud to show -- Item No.
FL104". Retrieved August 8, 2014. Filet Lace – Virtual Museum of Textile Arts "Filet-Guipure". Filet-Guipure, Th de Dillmont, 1923. Retrieved June 2, 2005. "Filet-Guipure". Filet-Guipure, Th de Dillmont, 1923. Retrieved June 2, 2005. "Vinciolo". I Singolari e Nuovi Disegni 1606. Retrieved June 2, 2005. "Digital Archive of Documents Related to Lace". University of Arizona. Retrieved June 13, 2005
Limerick lace is a specific class of lace originating in Limerick, produced throughout the country. It evolved from the invention of a machine which made net in 1808; until John Heathcoat invented a net-making machine in Devon in 1815, handmade net was a expensive fabric. This meant cheap net became available to Irish lacemakers after 1823 when Heathcoat's patent expired. Limerick lace is a hybrid lace of embroidered needle lace or crocheted lace on a machine made net base, it is a'mixed lace' rather than a ‘true lace’, which would be hand made. Limerick lace comes in two forms: tambour lace, made by stretching a net over a frame like a tambourine and drawing threads through it with a hook, needlerun lace, made by using a needle to embroider on a net background; the lace was noted for its variety of delicate fillings, as many as 47 different ones being found in one collar. The Limerick lace industry was founded in 1829 by a native of Oxfordshire; the history of Limerick lace can be divided into two broad periods: the age of factory production 1829-c.1870 and the age of home and workshop production c.1870-1914.
In 1829, Walker brought over 24 girls to teach lace-making in Limerick, drawn to the area by the availability of cheap, skilled female labour, his business thrived. Charles Walker chose Limerick after touring various sites for the business. Limerick had a thriving Limerick glove industry, but at this time had a large population of unemployed women with a tradition of factory work. Limerick lace was produced in factories for the first forty years of its existence. Between the 1830s and 1860s, several lace factories operated in Limerick; the city’s second lace factory was established in 1835 by William Lloyd at Clare Street and in Abbey Court off Nicholas Street. In 1841, there were 400 girls working for him. In 1836, Leycester Greaves, a Cork man opened a factory in Limerick; these lace factories employed 2,000 women and girls. In the 1840s, Limerick lace making was introduced to a number of convents and convent-run institutions, both in Limerick and elsewhere. In 1850, lace making was introduced to the Good Shepherd Convent on Clare Street Limerick, but it was made in other religious houses based in the city, including the Presentation Convent in Sexton Street and the Mercy Convent at Mount Saint Vincent, on O’Connell Avenue.
Limerick lace was disseminated throughout Ireland by Catholic religious sisters, anxious to provide employment at the time of the Famine. They introduced it to several other convents, including religious houses in Youghal, Dunmore East and Kenmare. At the Good Shepherd Convent, the last lace making centre in Limerick, production ceased in 1990. In the 1860s and 1870s, the Limerick lace industry declined due to the market being flooded by machine made lace from chiefly from Nottingham. One reason for this period of decline was the realisation that design was necessary for beautiful lace. Following the Cork Industrial Exhibition of 1883, the President of Queen's College, wrote, ".. only well-designed and finely executed lace can hold its ground against machine lace."It was revived in the 1880s due to the work of Florence Vere O'Brien who established a Lace School in Limerick, which opened with eight pupils in May 1889. This ran until 1922. Another important promoter of Limerick lace during this period was Ishbel Hamilton-Gordon, Countess of Aberdeen who established the Irish Industries Association in 1886 to encourage the'Buy Irish' movement.
This was integral to reviving Limerick lace as a traditional craft. In 1904, Mrs Maude Kearney, a daughter of James Hodkinson, founder of the famous firm of specialists in church decoration in Henry Street, established a lace making business which she called the Thomond Lace Industry. Based in Thomondgate, Thomond Lace employed between fifty and eighty workers at the height of its success. After the Second World War, Limerick lace declined rapidly; those who are known to have worn Limerick lace were Queen Victoria, Edith Roosevelt and Countess Markievicz. When John F. Kennedy visited Limerick in 1963 he was presented with a lace christening robe; this christening robe was created in Clare Street, Limerick. Generations of churchmen wore Limerick lace and used lace to decorate their churches. Limerick Museum holds the largest collection of Limerick lace in the country. A collection is held in the Sisters of Mercy in Charleville, Co. Cork. Limerick lace is formed on a mesh using one or both of two techniques: Tambour – where chain stitch is created using a hook.
Needlerun – where stitches are darned onto the ground using a needle. Sometimes applique was used, including net appliqued onto net; the types of lace made in the first factory at this time were fichus, blond lace trimming and grey lace, traced by tambour workers and filled by runners. In the 1840s the types of lace in production were floss work, satin stitch, two-stitch and moss work, however the introduction of machine-made lace was impacting the quality of the running work. Limerick lace is still produced on a small commercial bases by individual lace makers such as Eileen Browne. A number of classes are held both within Limerick and throughout the country in an attempt to revive the practice. In 2014, the Limerick Archives published a comprehensive history on Limerick lace called Amazing Lace, written by Dr Matthew Potter and edited by Jacqui Hayes. Hybrid - a conference and a series of exhibitions dedicated to Limerick lace were held in 2016, it was a collaboration between Limerick Archives and L
Tambour lace refers to a family of lace made by stretching a fine net over a frame and creating a chain stitch using a fine hook to reach through the net and draw the working thread through the net. The chain-stitch embroidery was used extensively in the Orient - Persia and china - many centuries ago but is thought not to have come to Europe until the seventeenth century. Little of it is heard of until the 1760s when translucent muslins from India already tamboured with sprigs, were coming into fashion. In the second half of the eighteenth and the early nineteenth century, tambouring was a fashionable pastime for ladies of the French and English courts, it was done on fine muslin, was variously known as sewed muslin and flowered muslin. Although tambour is a surface embroidery, it is used in Limerick lace
Armenian needlelace is a pure form of needle lace made using only a needle and pair of scissors. Like lacis, or filet lace, Armenian needlelace seems to be an obvious descendant of net making. Where lacis adds decorative stitches to a net ground, Armenian needlelace involves making the net itself decorative. There is some archeological evidence suggesting the use of lace in prehistoric Armenia and the prevalence of pre-Christian symbology in traditional designs would suggest a pre-Christian root for this art form. In contrast to Europe where lace was the preserve of the nobility, in Armenia it decorated everything from traditional headscarves to lingerie and lacemaking was part of many or most women's lives; the lace is made by tying knots tied onto the previous round of the piece creating small loops of thread onto which the next round of knots can be tied. Patterns are created by varying the length of the loops, missing loops from the previous round, adding extra loops and similar; when used as an edging the lace can be made directly onto the hem of the fabric being edged.
When a doily or freeform object is being started a series of loops is tied onto a slip knot, pulled tight to complete the first round. List of fabric names Kasparian, Alice Odian. Armenian Needlelace and Embroidery: A Preservation of Some of History's Oldest and Finest Needlework. Epm Pubns Inc. ISBN 0-914440-65-9. Dickson, Elena. Knotted Lace in the Eastern Mediterranean Tradition. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 1-86351-121-0
Punto in Aria
Punto in aria is an early form of needle lace devised in Italy. It is considered the first true lace because it was the first meant to be stitched alone, not first onto a woven fabric, it is a related needle lace to reticella, their designs have many similarities when compared side-by-side. However, the punto in aria was an important improvement on the reticella method, was a breakthrough in needle lace design; the reticella was the design, the catalyst of the transition between fabrics made into lace by subtracting threads after needling, lace made from scratch without fabric support. The reticella design required one to draw out threads after stitching onto fabric; as that design evolved, an increasing number of threads required withdrawing. So many threads were drawn-out that the foundation became flimsy and lace makers devised a new framework that did not require original foundation fabric; this came to be known as punto in aria. Punto in aria retains many of the characteristics of reticella but is able to go beyond the geometric framework.
The lace makers devised a parchment base for their work. This base consisted of three layers of fabric with the parchment pattern on top; the layers were basted together. The pattern was laid over with a gimp, basted down through the pattern and layers of support fabric; when the lace was finished, the basting stitches were cut between the layers thus leaving only the lace
Binche lace is a type of bobbin lace that originated in the town of Binche, Belgium. It is continuous, in one piece, it is made in strips 2 inches wide. Though it has no cordonnet outlining the design against the ground, occasional pieces are made with a fine one, about the same thickness as the thread used in the pattern; the pattern in Binche lace is detailed, with animal scenes and figures. Binche lace is sometimes known as "Fairy lace". Tradition says that Binche lace was started in the 15th century by lacemakers that moved to Binche from Ghent with Mary of Burgundy, however there is no proof for this legend. However, Binche lace was being made by the end of the 16th century. In 1585, when the river Scheldt was closed to shipping, Binche did not suffer a decline in its lacemaking as did others up the river such as Antwerp lace. Binche lace was the subject of a royal edict in 1686, which implies that the lace must have been important; the heyday of Binche lace was in the 18th century. It began to die out at the end of the 18th century, was not made much during or after the 19th century.
In 1862 Victor Hugo mentioned Binche lace as the material of Cosette's wedding gown in Les Misérables, as he remembered it from his youth as being a lace of great beauty. The quality of Binche lace declined at the end of the 18th century, with the lace becoming coarser and the patterns less detailed. Binche lace resembled Valenciennes lace. In the 20th century there was another lace called Binche lace, that consisted of bobbin-made patterns sewn onto machine-made net, like Brussels lace. However, it was of inferior quality, thus was never common
Bobbin lace is a lace textile made by braiding and twisting lengths of thread, which are wound on bobbins to manage them. As the work progresses, the weaving is held in place with pins set in a lace pillow, the placement of the pins determined by a pattern or pricking pinned on the pillow. Bobbin lace is known as pillow lace, because it was worked on a pillow, bone lace, because early bobbins were made of bone or ivory. Bobbin lace is one of the two major categories of handmade laces, the other being needlelace, derived from earlier cutwork and reticella. A will of 1493 by the Milanese Sforza family mentions lace created with twelve bobbins. Bobbin lace evolved from braid-making in 16th-century Italy. Genoa was famous for its braids, hence it is not surprising to find bobbin lace developed in the city, it traveled along with the Spanish troops through Europe. Coarse passements of gold and silver-wrapped threads or colored silks became finer, bleached linen yarn was used to make both braids and edgings.
The making of bobbin lace was easier to learn than the elaborate cutwork of the 16th century, the tools and materials for making linen bobbin lace were inexpensive. There was a ready market for bobbin lace of all qualities, women throughout Europe soon took up the craft which earned a better income than spinning, weaving or other home-based textile arts. Bobbin lace-making was established in charity schools and convents. In the 17th century, the textile centers of Flanders and Normandy eclipsed Italy as the premiere sources for fine bobbin lace, but until the coming of mechanization hand-lacemaking continued to be practiced throughout Europe, suffering only in those periods of simplicity when lace itself fell out of fashion. Bobbin lace may be made with fine threads. Traditionally it was made with linen, wool, or cotton threads, or with precious metals. Today it is made with wire and other filaments. Elements of bobbin lace may include toile or toilé, réseau, fillings of part laces, gimp, tallies and rolls.
Not all styles of bobbin lace include all these elements. Many styles of lace were made in the heyday of lacemaking; the advent of machine-made lace at first pushed lace-makers into more complicated designs beyond the capabilities of early machines simpler designs so they could compete on price, pushed them out of business entirely. The resurgence of lace-making is a recent phenomenon and is done as a hobby. Lacemaking groups still meet in regions as varied as Devonshire and Orange County, California. In the European towns where lace was once a major industry in Belgium, Spain and centre Portugal and Slovenia lacemakers still demonstrate the craft and sell their wares, though their customer base has shifted from the wealthy nobility to the curious tourist. Still new types of lace are being developed such as the 3D Rosalibre and a colored version of Milanese lace by borrowing rolls from Duchesse lace to store various shades and colors. Other artists are giving grounds a major role by distorting and varying stitches, pin distances and thread sizes or colours.
The variations are explored by mathematics and algorithms. The lace maintaining its shape without stiffening is no longer a requirement. Inspiring journals and foundations show that old techniques with a new twist can challenge young people to create works that can classify as art. A Dutch design graduate in 2006 discovered; the first fences became museum pieces. The fences are now produced in Bangalore by concrete rebar plaiters; the major tools to make bobbin lace are a pillow, bobbins and prickings. The part laces require a crochet hook fine types of lace require fine hooks. There are different types of pillows and bobbins linked to areas and type of lace. Bobbins, which are traditionally made of wood or bone, are used to hold the thread, they come in different shapes associated with certain types of lace. The parts of a bobbin are the neck, where the thread is wound, a head, where thread is hitched to keep it from coming unwound, the shank, used as a handle. Bobbins from England may have a beaded spangle at the end of the shank, which makes the bobbin heavier and helps with tensioning the thread.
Bobbins are 3 1/2 - 4 inches long, though they may be shorter or longer. Bobbins are used in pairs, they have a single head and a bulbous rounding near the end of the shank that helps with tensioning threads. The bulbous rounding need the end of the shank is small, making these bobbins good for fine, straight laces; these double-headed bobbins are spangled. They are called Bucks or Midlands bobbins. Honiton bobbins are straight below the single head, the end of the shank comes to a blunt point, which helps with sewing, they may be called a lace stick. Square bobbins have a shank with flattened sides, which makes it easier to keep them from rolling on the pillow; the pillows must be firm. The pillows were traditionally stuffed with straw, but nowadays polystyrene is used. An early type of pillow can be seen in The Lace-Maker by Caspar Netscher; the pillow has a wooden frame, is sloping. The lace-maker rests it on her lap; the bolster or cylindrical pillow was much cheaper to make as it is just a fabric bag stuffed with straw.
It was used in Bedfordshire lace. It needs a stan