A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Cumberland Island, Georgia, is the largest of the Sea Islands of the southeastern United States. The long-staple Sea Island cotton was first grown here by a local family, the Millers, who helped Eli Whitney develop the cotton gin. With its unusual range of wildlife, the island has been declared a National Park and a National Seashore. Little Cumberland Island is connected to the main island by a marsh. John F. Kennedy Jr. and Carolyn Bessette were married in the First African Baptist Church on Cumberland Island in 1996. Cumberland Island forms part of Georgia. Cumberland Island constitutes the westernmost point of shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean in the United States; the island is 17.5 miles long, with an area of 36,415 acres, including 16,850 acres of marsh and tidal creeks. There is no bridge to the island; the island has three major ecosystem regions. Along the western edge of the island there are large areas of salt marshes. One will see gnarled live oak trees covered with Spanish moss and the palmetto plants at the edge of Cumberland's dense maritime forest.
Cumberland Island's most famous ecosystem is its beach. The island is home to many native interesting animals, as well as non-native species. There are white-tailed deer, raccoons, nine-banded armadillos, wild boars, feral hogs, American alligators, as well as many marshland inhabitants, it is famous for its feral horses roaming free on the island. The first inhabitants were indigenous peoples. Inhabitants participated in the Savannah archaeological culture and spoke the Timucua language, its inhabitants were part of a Timucua group who spoke the Mocama dialect. In the 17th century the island and the adjacent coast were controlled by the Tacatacuru chiefdom; the main village, known as Tacatacuru, was located towards the southern end of the island. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Cumberland Island was part of the Mocama missionary province of Spanish Florida; when the Spanish arrived in the 1550s, they named the island San Pedro. They built a garrison and mission, San Pedro de Mocama, in 1603.
It was one of the main mission centers, situated at a major Mocama site. Another Spanish mission on Cumberland was Puturiba, which operated from 1595–1597. An additional mission, San Phelipe, was relocated from the North Newport River to the northern end of Cumberland from 1670–1684. Historical records indicate that until 1681, there were 300 natives and several Spanish missionary priests living on Cumberland Island. In 1683, |French] pirates attacked Cumberland Island and burning many of the buildings. Many of the natives and the Spanish missionaries fled the island. An attack in 1684 by the Spanish pirate Thomas Jingle led to the final abandonment of the island. Survivors retreated to St. Augustine to the south. During the colonial years, many had died of exposure to European infectious diseases, to which they had no natural immunity; the Tacatacuru relocated closer to St. Augustine, Cumberland Island was thereafter occupied by the Yamasee. By most of the Mocama had converted to Roman Catholicism as taught to them by the Spanish priests before the island was abandoned.
English General James Oglethorpe arrived at the Georgia coast in 1733. The name of Cumberland Island was given the following year by a young Yamacraw named Toonahowi He suggested the island be named for William Augustus, the 13-year-old Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, son of King George II. Oglethorpe established a hunting lodge called Dungeness, named after a headland in England. A fort was erected at the southern point of the island called Fort William. At the northern end of the island, Oglethorpe built Fort St. Andrews. For a decade the small village of Berrimacke existed near the fort; the forts were built to defend English settlements to the north from the Spanish in Florida. After the English defeated the Spanish in the Battle of Bloody Marsh in 1742, the need for the forts ended, they abandoned the forts and the village disappeared. No trace remains today of Fort William, most signs of Fort St. Andrews have been washed away. In the 1760s, the island saw little activity; when naturalist William Bartram visited the island in 1774, the island was uninhabited.
The Revolutionary War hero Nathanael Greene founded most of southern Cumberland Island as a result of a business deal used to finance the army. Greene died in 1786, his wife, Catharine Littlefield Greene, remarried Phineas Miller ten years later. She named; the mansion featured 6-foot thick walls at the base, four chimneys and 16 fireplaces, was surrounded by 12 acres of gardens. Dungeness was the site of many special social galas, where statesmen and military leaders enjoyed the Millers' hospitality; when the island was occupied during the War of 1812, the British used Dungeness as their headquarters. They freed the American slaves on the island; the Millers' Dungeness burned down in 1866. The Millers were the first major planters of Sea Island cotton on Cumberland, they held a total of 210 slaves to work the plantation. Catharine and Phineas Miller helped Eli Whitney develop the cotton gin, debuted in 1793. While Sea Island cotton wa
Wayne County, Georgia
Wayne County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 30,099; the county seat is Jesup. Wayne County comprises Georgia Micropolitan Statistical Area. At the time of European contact, the area of what would become Wayne County was settled by the Guale people. Being close to the coast and bordered by the Altamaha River, Wayne County's history includes occupation by Spanish missionaries at the time of the settlement of Saint Augustine as well as short-lived French occupation; the flags of France, Spain and the Confederate States of America all flew over Wayne. Seventy years after General James Oglethorpe settled the colony of Georgia and 27 years after that colony became one of the 13 original states, Wayne County came into being; the county was named for Mad Anthony Wayne. When he surprised the British garrison at Stony Point on July 15, 1779, he acquired the nickname "Mad" Anthony. From one siege to another, he was a vital member of General George Washington's staff serving well under General Nathanael Greene and coming to Georgia in 1781 in his service during the American Revolution.
It was created by an Act of the Legislature in 1803 after the Wilkinson Treaty was signed with the Creek Indians on January 16, 1802, which ceded part of the Tallassee Country and part of the lands within the forks of the Oconee and Ocmulgee Rivers to the United States. As laid out, the new county – the 28th Georgia county – was a long narrow strip of land 100 miles in length but with varying measures of width along the way, it was six miles as it stood just south of the Altamaha River, eight miles wide near the Satilla and five miles wide at a location about 27 miles south of the Altamaha. All counties organized prior to 1802 were headright counties – no surveys were made of those counties, it was found that under the headright system more land was given away than existed and this was the case for Wayne County. Although created in 1803, no valid lottery was done for the county until the Land Lottery Act of 1805; the 1805 Act divided the half million acres of Wayne County, formed the Tallassee Strip, set the stage for the land lottery that would result in more formal settlement of the area.
It is December 7, 1805, that the county chose to observe as the creation date. The area was not a popular one for lottery draws as the straws were drawn sight unseen and the winner was as to draw swampland as he was prime agricultural lots; the county was slow in developing and those in the area were in no hurry to be concerned with matters governmental. On December 8, 1806, the Georgia General Assembly created appointed five commissioners to establish a permanent site for a county seat and called for county court to be held at the home of one those commissioners, Francis Smallwood, until a permanent site could be established. In December 1808, the General Assembly called for a new set of commissioners to select a county seat, as the site picked by the previous set had picked a site near the upper corner of the county and was not centrally located. Court was to be held at the house of a Captain William Clements. In December 1823, the General Assembly appointed another board of commissioners to establish a county seat.
The first post office in Wayne County was established at Tuckersville, sometimes seen as Tuckerville, on January 29, 1814. Tuckersville acted as the county seat. John Tucker was the first postmaster and his service was followed by William A. Knight and Robert Stafford, Jr. before the mail service was discontinued in 1827. Tuckersville disappears from most maps by 1850, its exact location remains a mystery although it is known it was 9 miles north of Waynesville on the Post Road near the ford of Buffalo Swamp. The intersection of Mount Pleasant Road and 10 Mile Road is a possible location, it was not until December 1829. Wayne County's first official county seat was Waynesville, Georgia considered to be a central location in the long and narrow county for settlers to travel for court and other primary government functions. Waynesville was the site of Wayne County's first school, called Mineral Springs Academy, it was named for the famous mineral springs which were a short distance east of the residential section of the town.
In December 1832, a petition of voters from Wayne County caused the General Assembly to call for the election of another board of commissioners to establish a centrally located county seat. In the early 1840s, Waynesville was still being used as the county seat. In December 1847, the General Assembly called for another set of commissioners to select a county seat near the home of William Flowers near the ford of the Buffalo Swamp; the law called for county court to be held at the courthouse in existence near the residence of James Rawlinson. In January 1856, the General Assembly called for a vote to be held in Wayne County about the removal of the county seat and to where it should be removed. Although there is some doubt about whom the City of Jesup is named for, there is no doubt it became Jesup on October 24, 1870. At the time Jesup was part of Appling County. Ambling along as Station Number 6 on the Atlantic and Gulf Railroad, the town grew into a city due to the efforts of its first mayor, Willis Clary.
Clary had first moved to Wayne County in 1868 and was elected mayor shortly after moving into the town at a meeting held December 3, 1870. Clary is credited with convincing the Macon and Brunswick Railroad to locate its tracks so that they crossed the Atlantic and Gulf rails at Jesup. On
Nahunta is a city in Brantley County, United States. It is the county seat of Brantley County, it is part of Georgia Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 1,053 at the 2010 census; the city is an important crossroad. S. Route 82 and U. S. Route 301 intersect in its downtown area. Nahunta called Victoria, was founded about 1870, it is believed that the town was renamed in 1899 for timber executive N. A. Hunter, but the origin of the name has never been verified. In 1923, the seat of Brantley County was transferred to Nahunta from Hoboken; the Georgia General Assembly incorporated Nahunta as a city in 1925. Nahunta is located at 31°12′16″N 81°58′56″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.8 square miles, of which 0.019 square miles, or 0.65%, is water. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,053 people residing in the city; the racial makeup of the city was 78.8% White, 17.2% Black, 0.1% from some other race and 1.8% from two or more races. 2.1% were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
As of the census of 2000, there were 930 people, 375 households, 253 families residing in the city. The population density was 311.2 people per square mile. There were 470 housing units at an average density of 157.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 74.30% White, 24.30% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.97% of the population. There were 375 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.0% were married couples living together, 18.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 26.6% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,368, the median income for a family was $29,792. Males had a median income of $26,184 versus $21,083 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,790. About 22.0% of families and 30.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.9% of those under age 18 and 19.3% of those age 65 or over. Brantley County students in grades Kindergarten to grade twelve are in the Brantley County School District, which consists of six elementary schools, a middle school, a high school; the district has 196 full-time teachers and over 3,332 students. Atkinson Elementary School Hoboken Elementary School Nahunta Elementary School Nahunta Primary School Waynesville Primary School Brantley County Middle School Brantley County High School Brantley County Courthouse Nahunta Subdivision
Waycross is the county seat of, only incorporated city in, Ware County. In the U. S. state of Georgia. The population was 14,725 at the 2010 Census. Waycross includes two historic districts and several other properties that are on the National Register of Historic Places, including the U. S. Post Office and Courthouse, Lott Cemetery, the First African Baptist Church and Parsonage, the Obediah Barber Homestead; the area now known as Waycross was first settled circa 1820, locally known as "Old Nine" or "Number Nine" and Pendleton. It was renamed Tebeauville in 1857, incorporated under that name in 1866, designated county seat of Ware County in 1873, it was incorporated as "Way Cross" on March 3, 1874. Waycross gets its name from the city's location at key railroad junctions. Waycross was home to Laura S. Walker conservationist. Walker promoted a comprehensive program of forestry activity, including the establishment of forest parks, she erected markers and monuments along old trails and at historic sites, in Waycross and Ware County so that local history would not be forgotten.
An effort to recognize her work culminated in President Franklin D Roosevelt issuing a proclamation to establish the Laura S Walker National Park in her honor. She was the only living person for. In 1937, the federal government purchased distressed farmland for the park. Work on the park was undertaken by the Works Progress Administration and the Civilian Conservation Corps. In 1941, the national park was deeded over to Georgia. Waycross was the site of the 1948 Waycross B-29 crash, which led to the legal case United States v. Reynolds, expanding the government's state secrets privilege. During the 1950s the city had a tourist gimmick: local police would stop motorists with out-of-state license plates and escort them to downtown Waycross. There they would be met by the Welcome World Committee and given overnight lodging, dinner and a trip to the Okefenokee Swamp; the tradition faded away. In the mid-1990s, the Bubba Burger, a frozen hamburger that needed no defrosting, was created in Waycross; this was the creation of Eaves Foods, Inc. a company that changed to Bubba Foods, LLC. in 2000.
Bubba Burgers are now sold nationwide as well as worldwide through the United States Military Commissary system. Waycross is the closest city to the Okefenokee Swamp. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.7 square miles, of which 11.7 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. The closest major city is Jacksonville, 81 miles away. In May 2010, the city purchased the Bandalong Litter Trap and installed it in Tebeau Creek, a tributary of the Satilla River; the trap is manufactured in the United States. Although the city has maintained a good standing with the state's Environmental Protection Division, the city wanted to take action to reduce the amount of human generated trash entering the Satilla River and the Atlantic Ocean. Georgia Governor Sonny Perdue said, "Water is one of Georgia's most important and precious resources... the litter trap installed by Waycross is a model of stewardship for the state and the nation." The Satilla River litter trap is only the second in the nation.
Part of Waycross was situated in Pierce County, but effective July 1, 2015, Waycross was no longer located nor allowed to be located in Pierce County. State Rep. Chad Nimmer introduced HB 523 during the 2015 Legislative Session without providing the required statutory notice to the City of Waycross. HB 523 de-annexed the portion of Waycross located in Pierce County and prevents the City of Waycross from coming back into Pierce County. Waycross Journal-Herald The Florida Times-Union Waycross Area Television Service Channel 10AM WAYX AM 1230 WSFN AM 1350 FM W201DK 88.1 WXVS 90.1 WASW 91.9 WAYX 96.3 Simulcast with WSIZ WWUF 97.7 WYNR 102.5 WWSN 103.3 WKUB 105.1 WSGT 107.1 WXGA-TV, a Georgia Public Broadcasting outlet, is licensed to Waycross and serves nearby Valdosta. Waycross is part of Florida television market. With over 1,000 employees and 100 physicians, Satilla Regional Medical Center is a leading center in health care in the area; the three-story facility has a trauma unit, cancer care unit, outpatient surgery and imaging services.
In 2012, Satilla Regional Medical Center joined the Mayo Clinic Health System and became the Mayo Clinic Health System in Waycross. U. S. Highway 1 runs north–south through Waycross, while concurrent with U. S. Highway 23. U. S. Highway 82 is an east–west highway in Waycross. U. S. Highway 84 runs east–west through Waycross. There are no limited-access highways anywhere near Waycross. Waycross-Ware County Airport is a public airport located three miles northwest of the central business district of Waycross, it is owned by the City of Ware County. Six railroad lines meet at Waycross, making it a logical location for shunting freight to different destinations. CSX Transportation operates Rice Yard here, a major "hump"-type classification yard; as of the 2010 United States Censu
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti