Frederick is a city and county seat of Tillman County, United States. The population was 3,940 at the 2010 census, it is an agriculture-based community that produces wheat and cattle. Frederick is home to three dairies, a 1400-acre industrial park, Frederick Regional Airport, which includes restored World War II hangars which house the World War II Airborne Demonstration Team. Frederick was visited in April 1905 by U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. Established in 1901, the Frederick area was among the last of the Oklahoma Territory land to be opened to settlement. What is now Frederick used to be two towns: Hazel. Both towns were established in 1901, when the Kiowa-Comanche-Apache reservation was opened to settlement. In 1902 the towns combined in order to take advantage of the Blackwell and Southern Railroad; the new town was named Frederick, after the son of a railroad executive. Gosnell received the depot, the residents of Hazel moved north to the new town of Frederick; the post office moved from Gosnell to Frederick, for which it was renamed in 1902.
Most of the business district was destroyed by fires in 1904 and 1905. The buildings had been made of wood, were replaced with brick. In the spring of 1905, President Teddy Roosevelt visited Frederick to meet with Jack "Catch-'em-alive" Abernathy, the famed barehanded wolf hunter, introduced the area to tourism and its recreational value. In 1907 the City of Frederick was incorporated, Oklahoma became a state, Frederick was named the seat of Tillman County, the Katy Railroad came to Frederick. By 1915, Frederick had 15 miles of sidewalks and crossings, 75 miles of wide, rolled streets; the first paved streets were laid in 1918. Frederick was a major stop on the Wichita Falls and Northwestern Railway, one of the Frank Kell and Joseph A. Kemp properties which operated from 1906 to 1923 from Wichita Falls to Forgan in the Oklahoma Panhandle; the line was sold to the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad. The link to Frederick was abandoned in 1973, when Altus, Oklahoma became the northern terminus of the successor railroad.
The Frederick Army Air Field opened in 1941, training pilots to fly UC-78 light transport aircraft and B-25 bombers. In 1953, the base was turned over to the City of Frederick, is now the Frederick Municipal Airport and Industrial Park. In 1962 a flagpole was erected in Pioneer Park, fulfilling the agreement between Gosnell and the railroad. Frederick is located at 34°23′25″N 99°0′58″W, it is at the junction of U. S. Highway 183 and State Highway 5. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles, of which, 5.0 square miles of it is land and 0.20% is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,637 people, 1,797 households, 1,211 families residing in the city; the population density was 935.3 people per square mile. There were 2,145 housing units at an average density of 432.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.04% White, 11.32% African American, 2.80% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 13.85% from other races, 3.52% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22.02% of the population. There were 1,797 households out of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.6% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.12. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, 20.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $22,190, the median income for a family was $28,724. Males had a median income of $22,324 versus $18,033 for females; the per capita income for the city was $13,575. About 19.0% of families and 23.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.
Frederick has a City Manager/Council type of government. There are one from each of the wards and one at large position; the current City Manager is Robert Johnston and the Mayor is Eddie Whitworth. Great Plains Technology Center is located in Frederick. Frederick is served by Frederick Public Schools, which include a high school, middle school, elementary school; the public school team name is the Bombers. The Frederick High School 1956 football team won the first state championship with an inter-racial team, in 2007 became the only team inducted into the Oklahoma Sports Hall of Fame. Template:Dead link= November 2016 The teams were combined of the two high schools in Frederick, Frederick High School and Boyd High School; the Frederick Bombers returned to the state championship 40 years and won the state championships in 1993, 1994. 1995 and 1996. School colors: In the 1950s the school colors were maroon and gray; this was changed in the late 1960s to white. In the late 1980s, the color black was added to the white.
Frederick hosts the annual Oklahoma Cotton Festival in September. The Frederick Public Library funded in 1915 by the Carnegie Foundation, is still in service; the Tillman County Historical Society in the Pioneer Heritage Townsite Center features the old railroad depot and other historic buildings. A life-size statue of Louis and Temple Abernath
The Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 is an American single-engine helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky. It had a single three-blade rotor powered by a 75 horsepower engine; the first "free" flight of the VS-300 was on 13 May 1940. The VS-300 was the first successful single lifting rotor helicopter in the United States and the first successful helicopter to use a single vertical-plane tail rotor configuration for antitorque. With floats attached, it became the first practical amphibious helicopter. Igor Sikorsky's quest for a practical helicopter began in 1938, when as the Engineering Manager of the Vought-Sikorsky Division of United Aircraft Corporation, he was able to convince the directors of United Aircraft that his years of study and research into rotary-wing flight problems would lead to a breakthrough, his first experimental machine, the VS-300, was test flown by Sikorsky on 14 September 1939, tethered by cables. In developing the concept of rotary-wing flight, Sikorsky was the first to introduce a single engine to power both the main and tail rotor systems.
The only previous successful attempt at a single-lift rotor helicopter, the Yuriev-Cheremukhin TsAGI-1EA in 1931 in the Soviet Union, used a pair of uprated, Russian-built Gnome Monosoupape rotary engines of 120 hp each for its power. For flights of his VS-300, Sikorsky added a vertical airfoil surface to the end of the tail to assist anti-torque but this was removed when it proved to be ineffective; the cyclic control was found to be difficult to perfect, led to Sikorsky locking the cyclic and adding two smaller vertical-axis lifting rotors to either side aft of the tailboom. By varying pitch of these rotors fore and aft control was provided. Roll control was provided by differential pitching of the blades. In this configuration, it was found that the VS-300 could not fly forward and Sikorsky joked about turning the pilot's seat around. Sikorsky fitted utility floats to the VS-300 and performed a water landing and takeoff on 17 April 1941, making it the first practical amphibious helicopter.
On 6 May 1941, the VS-300 beat the world endurance record held by the Focke-Wulf Fw 61, by staying aloft for 1 hour 32 minutes and 26.1 seconds. The final variant of the VS-300 was powered by a 150 hp Franklin engine; the VS-300 was one of the first helicopters capable of carrying cargo. The VS-300 was modified over a two-year period, including removal of the two vertical tail rotors, until 1941, when a new cyclic control system gave it much improved flight behavior. In 1943, the VS-300 was retired to the Henry Ford Museum in Michigan, it has been on display there since, except for a trip back to the Sikorsky Aircraft plant for restoration in 1985. Data from General characteristics Crew: one Length: 28 ft 0 in Height: 10 ft 0 in Gross weight: 1,150 lb Powerplant: 1 × Franklin 4AC-199-E, 90 hp at 2,500 rpm Main rotor diameter: 30 ft 0 in Performance Maximum speed: 50 mph Range: 75 mi Endurance: 1 hour 30 minutes Related development Sikorsky R-4Aircraft of comparable role and era Bell 30 "Wingless Helicopter Flies Straight Up", Popular Mechanics, September 1940 article showing Sikorsky flying his first helicopter Heroes of the Sky: VS300 exhibit at the Henry Ford Museum
The Brantly 305 is an American five-seat light helicopter of the 1960s. It is an enlarged version of the Brantly B-2, produced by the Brantly Helicopter Corporation; the five-seater Model 305 helicopter is based on the smaller two-seat Brantly B-2, designed by Newby O. Brantly; the helicopter is powered by a Lycoming IVO-540 flat six piston engine. The enlarged cabin has room for five passengers, two side-by-side forward-facing seats and a bench seat at the rear for three passengers; the Model 305 first flew during January 1964 and FAA type approval was received 29 July 1965. 45 were built during the mid 60's by Brantly and Brantly-Hynes produced an improved version in 1985 of which 4 were built. The Brantly 305 suffered from a ground resonance problems. Hynes developed a more powerful and streamline version in 1993, none were produced. Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976-77 General characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: 3 passengers Length: 24 ft 5 in Rotor diameter: 28 ft 8 in Height: 8 ft 0⅛ in Disc area: 35.8 sq ft Empty weight: 1,800 lb Max.
Takeoff weight: 2,900 lb Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming IVO-540-A1A air-cooled flat-six engine, 305 hp Performance Maximum speed: 120 mph at sea level Cruise speed: 110 mph Range: 220 miles Service ceiling: 12,000 ft Rate of climb: 975 ft/min Related development Brantly B-2 Taylor, John W. R.. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976-77. London:Jane's Yearbooks, 1976. ISBN 0-354-00538-3; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft, 1985, Orbis Publishing
The maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground under its own power. The same term is used for the first launch of rockets; the first flight of a new aircraft type is always a historic occasion for the type and can be quite emotional for those involved. In the early days of aviation it could be dangerous, because the exact handling characteristics of the aircraft were unknown; the first flight of a new type is invariably flown by a experienced test pilot. First flights are accompanied by a chase plane, to verify items like altitude and general airworthiness. A first flight is only one stage in the development of an aircraft type. Unless the type is a pure research aircraft, the aircraft must be tested extensively to ensure that it delivers the desired performance with an acceptable margin of safety. In the case of civilian aircraft, a new type must be certified by a governing agency before it can enter operation. An incomplete list of first flights of notable aircraft types, organized by date, follows.
June, 1875 – Thomas Moy's Aerial Steamer, England October 9, 1890 – Clément Ader – took off from Gretz-Armainvilliers, Ouest of Paris, France. August 14, 1901 – Gustave Whitehead From Leutershausen, Bavaria. May 15, 1902 -- Lyman Gilmore -- took off from California. March 31, 1903 – Richard Pearse – took off from Waitohi Flat, South Island, New Zealand. December 17, 1903 – Wright brothers Wright Flyer – first heavier-than-air powered aircraft. Took off four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. March 18, 1906 – Traian Vuia, a Romanian inventor and engineer, who flew 11 meters in his self-named monoplane at Montesson near Paris, France. October 23, 1906 – Alberto Santos-Dumont 14-bis flight, in Bagatelle park, France. July 4, 1908 - Glenn Curtiss flew the first pre-announced public flight of a heavier-than-air flying machine, he flew 5,080 feet, to win its $2,500 purse. December 22, 1916 - Sopwith Camel - this iconic biplane first took off from Brooklands, Surrey. July 28, 1935 – Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress – World War II American heavy bomber.
December 17, 1935 – Douglas DC-3 – propeller-driven passenger and cargo aircraft of which more than 10,000 were produced. December 29, 1939 – Consolidated B-24 – World War II American heavy bomber. November 2, 1947 – Hughes H-4 Hercules – only flight of this oversized flying boat. July 27, 1949 – de Havilland Comet – first jet airliner. August 23, 1954 – Lockheed C-130 Hercules – military transport plane. May 27, 1955 – Sud Aviation Caravelle – first jet airliner with engines mounted in the tail. March 25, 1958 - Avro Canada CF-105 Arrow - Canadian supersonic fighter interceptor. First non-experimental aircraft equipped with a fly-by-wire flight control system. April 25, 1962 – Lockheed A-12 – supersonic reconnaissance aircraft. June 29, 1962 – Vickers VC10 – first airliner with 4 engines mounted in the tail. April 9, 1967 – Boeing 737 – short-to-medium-range airliner. October 4, 1968 – Tupolev Tu-154 – Soviet/Russian airliner, still in operation. December 31, 1968 – Tupolev Tu-144 – Soviet supersonic airliner.
February 9, 1969 – Boeing 747 – first widebody airliner. March 2, 1969 – Anglo-French Concorde – supersonic airliner. September 19, 1969 – Mil Mi-24 – Russian/Soviet-made helicopter used by many countries to this day. October 28, 1972 – Airbus A300 – first Airbus aircraft, short- to medium-range wide-body jet airliner. February 22, 1987 – Airbus A320 airliner – first civilian aircraft to have an all-digital fly-by-wire system. December 21, 1988 – Antonov An-225 Mriya – jet with the longest fuselage and wingspan and overall heaviest aircraft. June 12, 1994 – Boeing 777 – long-range airliner with the most powerful jet engines made. April 27, 2005 – Airbus A380 – double-decker jet airliner largest capacity in the world, took off from Toulouse–Blagnac Airport. December 11, 2009 – Airbus A400M – military cargo plane, Airbus' first propeller plane. December 15, 2009 – Boeing 787 Dreamliner – first major widebody airliner to use non-metal composite materials for most of its construction. November 11, 2015 - Mitsubishi Regional Jet - Japanese twin-engine regional jet, the first designed and built in Japan, took off from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Tokyo.
May 5, 2017 - Comac C919 - Chinese commercial aircraft. October 3, 1942 - V-2 Rocket made its first successful test flight; the nose cone crossed the Karman line considered the end of Earth's atmosphere, making it the first human-made object to reach space. August 3, 1953 - PGM-11 Redstone, designed by Wernher von Braun, was the US's first large ballistic missile. Launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 4, it flew for 80 seconds until an engine failure caused it to crash into the sea. October 4, 1957 - Sputnik, first orbital rocket. December 22, 1960 - Vostok-K, first human-rated rocket. November 9, 1967 - Saturn V, most powerful rocket launched so far, was used to launch humans to the Moon. April 12, 1981 - Space Shuttle, first reusable launch system, largest payload at the time of its maiden flight. December 21, 2004 - Delta IV Heavy, largest payload at the time of its maiden flight. February 6, 2018 - Falcon Heavy, largest payload at the time of its maiden flight reusable.
Flight test Maiden voyage
Learjet is a Canadian owned, American aerospace manufacturer of business jets for civilian and military use based in Wichita, Kansas. Founded in the late 1950s by William Powell Lear as Swiss American Aviation Corporation, it has been a subsidiary of Canadian Bombardier Aerospace since 1990, which markets it as the "Bombardier Learjet Family"; the 3,000th Learjet was delivered in June 2017. Learjet was one of the first companies to manufacture a luxury aircraft. Lear's preliminary design was based upon an experimental American military aircraft known as the Marvel, substituting fuselage-mounted turbojet engines for ducted fan turboshaft engines. However, that preliminary design was abandoned and the final Learjet design was instead adapted from an abortive 1950s Swiss ground-attack fighter aircraft, the FFA P-16; the basic structure of the Swiss P-16 aircraft was seen by Bill Lear and his team as a good starting point to the development of a business jet, formed the Swiss American Aircraft Corporation, located in Altenrhein and staffed with design engineers from Switzerland and Britain.
The aircraft was intended to be called the SAAC-23. Or at one time the'Tina Jet'; the wing with its distinctive tip fuel tanks and landing gear of the first Learjets were little changed from those used by the fighter prototypes. Although building the first jet started in Switzerland, the tooling for building the aircraft was moved to Wichita, Kansas, in 1962. Bill Jr stated that it took too long to get anything done in Switzerland despite the cheaper labor costs. LearJet was in a temporary office which opened in September 1962 while the plant at Wichita's airport was under construction. On February 7, 1963 assembly of the first Learjet began; the next year, the company was renamed the Lear Jet Corporation. The original Learjet 23 was a six- to eight-seater and first flew on October 7, 1963, with the first production model being delivered in October 1964. Just over a month Lear Jet became a publicly owned corporation. Several derived models followed, with the Model 24 first flying on February 24, 1966 and the Model 25 first flying on August 12, 1966.
On September 19 of the same year, the company was renamed Lear Jet Industries Inc. On April 10, 1967, Bill Lear's 60% share of the venture was acquired by the Gates Rubber Company of Denver, for US$27,000,000. Lear remained on the company board until April 2, 1969, when the company was merged with Gates Aviation Corporation and was renamed Gates Learjet Corporation. In 1971, the first Model 25 powered by a Garrett TFE731-2 turbofan engine was flown; this aircraft became the successful Learjet 35. That year, the company was awarded the President's "E" Award for promoting export sales. In 1974, the worldwide Learjet fleet had exceeded the one-million flight hours mark and in 1975 the company produced its 500th jet, both industry firsts. By late 1976 the company increased monthly aircraft production to ten. On August 24, 1977, the Learjet 28 made its first flight, it was based on the Learjet 25, but received a new wing fitted with winglets. These resulted in both improved performance and fuel economy and inspired the name "Longhorn" for the short-lived Learjet 28/29 and for some of the more successful models that followed.
On April 19, 1979, the prototype for the Model 54/55/56 series made its first flight, on July 7, 1983 a standard production Model 55 set six new time-to-climb records for its weight class. In 1984, Gates Learjet announced the start of a high technology endeavor. However, by the end of the year the company had ceased production of its commercial jets in an effort to reduce inventories; this lasted until February 1986, when the company headquarters were transferred to Tucson and production was restarted both in Wichita and Tucson. On September 10, 1985, the Aerospace Division was awarded a contract to produce parts for the Space Shuttle's main engines. In 1987, Gates Learjet was acquired by Integrated Acquisition and the next year the name was changed to Learjet Corporation. By January 1989, all production had been moved from the Tucson facility back to Wichita with an employment of 1,250. In 1990, Canadian company Bombardier Aerospace purchased the Learjet Corporation; the aircraft were marketed as the "Bombardier Learjet Family".
On October 10, 1990, the Learjet 60 mid-sized aircraft had its first flight, followed on October 7, 1995 by the Learjet 45. In October 2007 Bombardier Learjet launched a brand new aircraft program, the Learjet 85, it was the first FAR Part-25 all-composite business aircraft. Bombardier celebrated the 45th anniversary of the first flight by a Learjet with 2008's Year of Learjet campaign. One of its highlights was British Formula One racing driver Lewis Hamilton racing a Learjet and winning an event at the Farnborough Air Show. On October 28, 2015 Bombardier announced cancellation of the Learjet 85 program. Learjet started off in Wichita, as of 2013 has over 3200 employees. Wichita was not the only candidate for the location of Lear’s project. Grand Rapids and Ohio were both locations that were being considered. There were a few other aircraft companies that were located in Kansas, which meant there were many more potential workers that would possess the skills that Lear needed to run his company in the design and manufacturing of the aircraft.
Lear was offered an industrial revenue bond of 1.2 million US dollars. This would be known as the first historical industrial revenue bond offered by the city. To this day, the Learjet facility is still located in Wichita, is getting ready to be renovated, by expanding the Flight Test Center and building a new center for delivery. A Learjet held the previous speed record for the jour
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, to fly forward and laterally; these attributes allow helicopters to be used in congested or isolated areas where fixed-wing aircraft and many forms of VTOL aircraft cannot perform. The English word helicopter is adapted from the French word hélicoptère, coined by Gustave Ponton d'Amécourt in 1861, which originates from the Greek helix "helix, whirl, convolution" and pteron "wing". English language nicknames for helicopter include "chopper", "copter", "helo", "heli", "whirlybird". Helicopters were developed and built during the first half-century of flight, with the Focke-Wulf Fw 61 being the first operational helicopter in 1936; some helicopters reached limited production, but it was not until 1942 that a helicopter designed by Igor Sikorsky reached full-scale production, with 131 aircraft built. Though most earlier designs used more than one main rotor, it is the single main rotor with anti-torque tail rotor configuration that has become the most common helicopter configuration.
Tandem rotor helicopters are in widespread use due to their greater payload capacity. Coaxial helicopters, tiltrotor aircraft, compound helicopters are all flying today. Quadcopter helicopters pioneered as early as 1907 in France, other types of multicopter have been developed for specialized applications such as unmanned drones; the earliest references for vertical flight came from China. Since around 400 BC, Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys; this bamboo-copter is spun by rolling a stick attached to a rotor. The spinning creates lift, the toy flies when released; the 4th-century AD Daoist book Baopuzi by Ge Hong describes some of the ideas inherent to rotary wing aircraft. Designs similar to the Chinese helicopter toy appeared in some Renaissance paintings and other works. In the 18th and early 19th centuries Western scientists developed flying machines based on the Chinese toy, it was not until the early 1480s, when Italian polymath Leonardo da Vinci created a design for a machine that could be described as an "aerial screw", that any recorded advancement was made towards vertical flight.
His notes suggested that he built small flying models, but there were no indications for any provision to stop the rotor from making the craft rotate. As scientific knowledge increased and became more accepted, people continued to pursue the idea of vertical flight. In July 1754, Russian Mikhail Lomonosov had developed a small coaxial modeled after the Chinese top but powered by a wound-up spring device and demonstrated it to the Russian Academy of Sciences, it was powered by a spring, was suggested as a method to lift meteorological instruments. In 1783, Christian de Launoy, his mechanic, used a coaxial version of the Chinese top in a model consisting of contrarotating turkey flight feathers as rotor blades, in 1784, demonstrated it to the French Academy of Sciences. Sir George Cayley, influenced by a childhood fascination with the Chinese flying top, developed a model of feathers, similar to that of Launoy and Bienvenu, but powered by rubber bands. By the end of the century, he had progressed to using sheets of tin for rotor blades and springs for power.
His writings on his experiments and models would become influential on future aviation pioneers. Alphonse Pénaud would develop coaxial rotor model helicopter toys in 1870 powered by rubber bands. One of these toys, given as a gift by their father, would inspire the Wright brothers to pursue the dream of flight. In 1861, the word "helicopter" was coined by Gustave de Ponton d'Amécourt, a French inventor who demonstrated a small steam-powered model. While celebrated as an innovative use of a new metal, the model never lifted off the ground. D'Amecourt's linguistic contribution would survive to describe the vertical flight he had envisioned. Steam power was popular with other inventors as well. In 1878 the Italian Enrico Forlanini's unmanned vehicle powered by a steam engine, rose to a height of 12 meters, where it hovered for some 20 seconds after a vertical take-off. Emmanuel Dieuaide's steam-powered design featured counter-rotating rotors powered through a hose from a boiler on the ground. In 1887 Parisian inventor, Gustave built and flew a tethered electric model helicopter.
In July 1901, the maiden flight of Hermann Ganswindt's helicopter took place in Berlin-Schöneberg. A movie covering the event was taken by Max Skladanowsky. In 1885, Thomas Edison was given US$1,000 by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. to conduct experiments towards developing flight. Edison built a helicopter and used the paper for a stock ticker to create guncotton, with which he attempted to power an internal combustion engine; the helicopter was damaged by explosions and one of his workers was badly burned. Edison reported that it would take a motor with a ratio of three to four pounds per horsepower produced to be successful, based on his experiments. Ján Bahýľ, a Slovak inventor, adapted the internal combustion engine to power his helicopter model that reached a height of 0.5 meters in 1901. On 5 May 1905, his helicopter flew for over 1,500 meters. In 1908, Edison patented his own design for a helicopter powered by a gasoline engine with box kites attached to a mast by cables for a rotor, but it never flew.
In 1906, two French brothers and Louis Breguet, began experimenting with airfoils for helicopters. In
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe