A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant; the commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC. Brewing was a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; the diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe and was brewed on a domestic scale. In some form, it can be traced back 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Before the rise of production breweries, the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women, as baking and brewing were seen as "women's work". Breweries, as production facilities reserved for making beer, did not emerge until monasteries and other Christian institutions started producing beer not only for their own consumption but to use as payment.
This industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men. The oldest, still functional, brewery in the world is believed to be the German state-owned Weihenstephan brewery in the city of Freising, Bavaria, it can trace its history back to 1040 AD. The nearby Weltenburg Abbey brewery, can trace back its beer-brewing tradition to at least 1050 AD; the Žatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove that it paid a beer tax in 1004 AD. Early breweries were always built on multiple stories, with equipment on higher floors used earlier in the production process, so that gravity could assist with the transfer of product from one stage to the next; this layout is preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design. Early breweries used large copper vats in the brewhouse, fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers; such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, scientific advances led to a better understanding of the brewing process.
Today all brewery equipment is made of stainless steel. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. A handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently; the steam engine, vastly improved in 1775 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms and pumps into the brewery. It gave brewers the ability to mix liquids more reliably while heating the mash, to prevent scorching, a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another. All breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps; the steam engine allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring. Carl von Linde, along with others, is credited with developing the refrigeration machine in 1871. Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, always at the same temperature.
Yeast is sensitive to temperature, and, if a beer were produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavours onto the beer. Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, store it in underground cellars, or caves, to protect it from summer's heat; the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce beer led to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen. Pure yeast cultures allow brewers to pick out yeasts for their fermentation characteristics, including flavor profiles and fermentation ability; some breweries in Belgium, still rely on "spontaneous" fermentation for their beers. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Breweries today are made predominantly of stainless steel, although vessels have a decorative copper cladding for a nostalgic look.
Stainless steel has many favourable characteristics that make it a well-suited material for brewing equipment. It imparts no flavour in beer, it reacts with few chemicals, which means any cleaning solution can be used on it and it is sturdy. Sturdiness is important, as most tanks in the brewery have positive pressure applied to them as a matter of course, it is not unusual that a vacuum will be formed incidentally during cleaning. Heating in the brewhouse is achieved through pressurized steam, although direct-fire systems are not unusual in small breweries. Cooling in other areas of the brewery is done by cooling jackets on tanks, which allow the brewer to control the temperature on each tank individually, although whole-room cooling is common. Today, modern brewing plants perform myriad analyses on their beers for quality control purposes. Shipments of ingredients are analyzed to correct for variations. Samples are pulled at every step and tested for content, unwanted microbial infections
Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming. Standards vary worldwide, but organic farming features practices that cycle resources, promote ecological balance, conserve biodiversity. Organizations regulating organic products may restrict the use of certain pesticides and fertilizers in the farming methods used to produce such products. Organic foods are not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or synthetic food additives. In the 21st century, the European Union, the United States, Mexico and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification to market their food as organic. Although the produce of kitchen gardens may be organic, selling food with an organic label is regulated by governmental food safety authorities, such as the National Organic Program of the US Department of Agriculture or European Commission. From an environmental perspective, fertilizing and the use of pesticides in conventional farming may negatively affect ecosystems, biodiversity and drinking water supplies.
These environmental and health issues are intended to be avoided in organic farming. However, the outcome of farming organically may not produce such benefits because organic agriculture has higher production costs and lower yields, higher labor costs, higher consumer prices. Demand for organic foods is driven by consumer concerns for personal health and the environment. From the perspective of science and consumers, there is insufficient evidence in the scientific and medical literature to support claims that organic food is either safer or healthier to eat than conventional food. While there may be some differences in the nutrient and antinutrient contents of organically and conventionally produced food, the variable nature of food production, shipping and handling makes it difficult to generalize results. Claims that "organic food tastes better" are not supported by tests. For the vast majority of its history, agriculture can be described as having been organic; the organic farming movement arose in the 1940s in response to the industrialization of agriculture.
In 1939, Lord Northbourne coined the term organic farming in his book Look to the Land, out of his conception of "the farm as organism," to describe a holistic, ecologically balanced approach to farming—in contrast to what he called chemical farming, which relied on "imported fertility" and "cannot be self-sufficient nor an organic whole." Early soil scientists described the differences in soil composition when animal manures were used as "organic", because they contain carbon compounds where superphosphates and haber process nitrogen do not. Their respective use affects humus content of soil; this is different from the scientific use of the term "organic" in chemistry, which refers to a class of molecules that contain carbon those involved in the chemistry of life. This class of molecules includes everything to be considered edible, include most pesticides and toxins too, therefore the term "organic" and the term "inorganic" as they apply to organic chemistry is an equivocation fallacy when applied to farming, the production of food, to foodstuffs themselves.
Properly used in this agricultural science context, "organic" refers to the methods grown and processed, not the chemical composition of the food. Ideas that organic food could be healthier and better for the environment originated in the early days of the organic movement as a result of publications like the 1943 book The Living Soil and Farming and Gardening for Health or Disease. In the industrial era, organic gardening reached a modest level of popularity in the United States in the 1950s. In the 1960s, environmentalists and the counterculture championed organic food, but it was only in the 1970s that a national marketplace for organic foods developed. Early consumers interested in organic food would look for non-chemically treated, non-use of unapproved pesticides, fresh or minimally processed food, they had to buy directly from growers. "Know your farmer, know your food" became the motto of a new initiative instituted by the USDA in September 2009. Personal definitions of what constituted "organic" were developed through firsthand experience: by talking to farmers, seeing farm conditions, farming activities.
Small farms grew vegetables using organic farming practices, with or without certification, the individual consumer monitored. Small specialty health food stores and co-operatives were instrumental to bringing organic food to a wider audience; as demand for organic foods continued to increase, high volume sales through mass outlets such as supermarkets replaced the direct farmer connection. Today, many large corporate farms have an organic division. However, for supermarket consumers, food production is not observable, product labeling, like "certified organic," is relied upon. Government regulations and third-party inspectors are looked to for assurance. In the 1970s, interest in organic food grew with the rise of the environmental movement, was spurred by food-related health scares like the concerns about Alar that arose in the mid-1980s. Organic food production is a self-regulated industry with government oversight in some countries, distinct from private gardening; the European Union, the United States, Canada and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification based on government-defined standards in order to marke
Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse, in the Belgian province of Namur. It is around 90 kilometres south-east of Brussels, 30 kilometres south-east of Charleroi, 30 kilometres south of Namur and 20 kilometres north of Givet; the municipality includes the old communes of Anseremme, Bouvignes-sur-Meuse, Dréhance, Falmignoul, Foy-Notre-Dame, Lisogne and Thynes. Dinant is positioned in the Upper Meuse valley, at a point where the river cuts into the western Condroz plateau. Sited in a steep sided valley, between the rock face and the river; the original settlement had little space in which to grow away from the river, it therefore expanded into a long, thin town, on a north-south axis, along the river shore. During the 19th century, the former Île des Batteurs to the south was attached directly to the town when a branch of the river was filled in. Dinant has been enriched by the agricultural opportunities presented by the fertile land on the plateau that overlooks it.
Within the town, brassware production is a traditional craft that has benefited from the presence of the broad and, at this point navigable river which has facilitated easy delivery of the raw materials and ready distribution of the resulting products of the artisans' workshops. Another traditional source of wealth is provided by the limestone cliffs overlooking the town, which supported a high-end quarrying industry, producing black marble and bluestone, whose distribution benefitted from the proximity of the wide and deep navigable river; the name Dinant comes from the Celtic Divo-Nanto, meaning "Sacred Valley" or "Divine Valley". The Dinant area was populated in Neolithic and Roman times; the first mention of Dinant as a settlement dates from the 7th century, when Saint Perpete, bishop of Tongeren, which at the time had its capital in Maastricht, took Dinant as his residence and founded the church of Saint Vincent. In 870, Charles the Bald gave part of Dinant to be administered by the Count of Namur, the other part by the bishop of Tongeren, by that time based in Liège.
In the 11th century, the emperor Henry IV granted several rights over Dinant to the Prince-Bishop of Liège, including market and justice rights. From that time on, the city became one of the 23 ‘‘bonnes villes’’ of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège; the first stone bridge on the Meuse and major repair to the castle, built earlier date from the end of the 11th century. Throughout this period, until the end of the 18th century, Dinant shared its history with its overlord Liège, sometimes rising in revolt against it, sometimes partaking in its victories and defeats against the neighbouring County of Namur, its strategic location on the Meuse exposed Dinant to battle and pillage, not always by avowed enemies: in 1466, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, uncle of Louis de Bourbon, Prince-Bishop of Liège, Philip’s son Charles the Bold punished an uprising in Dinant during the Liège Wars, by casting 800 burghers into the Meuse and setting fire to the city. The city's economic rival was downriver on the opposite shore of the Meuse.
Late Medieval Dinant and Bouvignes specialised in metalwork, producing finely cast and finished objects in a silvery brass alloy, called dinanderie and supplying aquamaniles, candlesticks and other altar furniture throughout the Meuse valley, the Rhineland and beyond. Henri Pirenne gained his doctorate in 1883 with a thesis on medieval Dinant. In the 16th- and 17th-centuries wars between France and Spain, Dinant suffered destruction and epidemics, despite its neutrality. In 1675, the French army under Marshal François de Créquy occupied the city. Dinant was taken by the Austrians at the end of the 18th century; the whole Bishopric of Liège was ceded to France in 1795. The dinanderies fell out of fashion and the economy of the city now rested on leather tanning and the manufacture of playing cards; the famous couques de Dinant appeared at that time. The city suffered devastation again at the beginning of the First World War. On the 15 August 1914, French and German troops fought for the town in the Battle of Dinant, among the wounded was Lieut.
Charles de Gaulle. On 23 August, 674 inhabitants were summarily executed by Saxon troops of the German Army — the biggest massacre committed by the Germans in 1914. Within a month, some five thousand Belgian and French civilians were killed by the Germans at numerous similar occasions; the city's landmark is the Collegiate Church of Notre Dame de Dinant. It was rebuilt in Gothic style on its old foundations after falling rocks from the adjacent cliff destroyed the former Romanesque style church in 1227. Several stages for a pair of towers on the west end were completed before the project was abandoned in favour of the present central tower with a famous onion dome and facetted multi-staged lantern. Above the church rises the vertical flank of the rocher surmounted by the fortified Citadel of Dinant, first built in the 11th century to control the Meuse valley; the Prince-Bishops of Liège rebuilt and enlarged it in 1530. Its present aspect, with the rock-hewn stairs, is due to rebuilding in 1821, during the United Kingdom of the Netherlands phase of Dinant's chequered history.
A cable car is available during the high season to take visitors from the Collegiate Church of Notre-Dame to the top of the Citadel. Apart from the main block is the Rocher Bayard t
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Alcohol by volume
Alcohol by volume is a standard measure of how much alcohol is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage. It is defined as the number of millilitres of pure ethanol present in 100 mL of solution at 20 °C; the number of millilitres of pure ethanol is the mass of the ethanol divided by its density at 20 °C, 0.78924 g/mL. The ABV standard is used worldwide; the International Organization of Legal Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different concentrations and temperatures. In some countries, e.g. France, alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac, although there is a slight difference since the Gay-Lussac convention uses the International Standard Atmosphere value for temperature, 15 °C. Mixing two solutions of alcohol of different strengths causes a change in volume. Mixing pure water with a solution less than 24% by mass causes a slight increase in total volume, whereas the mixing of two solutions above 24% causes a decrease in volume; the phenomenon of volume changes due to mixing dissimilar solutions is called "partial molar volume".
Water and ethanol are both polar solvents. When water is added to ethanol, the smaller water molecules are attracted to the ethanol's hydroxyl group, each molecule alters the polarity field of the other; the attraction allows closer spacing between molecules than is found in non-polar mixtures. Thus, ABV is not the same. Volume fraction, used in chemistry, is defined as the volume of a particular component divided by the sum of all components in the mixture when they are measured separately. To make a 50% v/v ethanol solution, for example, you would measure 50 mL of ethanol and separately measure 50 mL of water mix the two together; the resulting volume of solution will not measure 100 mL due to the change of volume on mixing. Details about typical amounts of alcohol contained in various beverages can be found in the articles about them. Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by-volume number; this may lead to confusion over similar products bought in varying regions that have different names on country specific labels.
For example, Stroh rum, 80% ABV is advertised and labeled as Stroh 80 when sold in Europe, but is named Stroh 160 when sold in the United States. In the United Kingdom proof is 1.75 times the number. For example, 40% abv is 80 proof in the US and 70 proof in the UK. However, since 1980, alcohol proof in the UK has been replaced by ABV as a measure of alcohol content. In the United States, a few states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight, expressed as a percentage of total mass; some brewers print the ABW on beer containers on low-point versions of popular domestic beer brands. One can use the following equation to convert between ABV and ABW: A B V × 0.78924 = A B W × density of beverage at 20 C in g/mL At low ABV, the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV. However, because of the miscibility of alcohol and water, the conversion factor is not constant but rather depends upon the concentration of alcohol. 100% ABW is equivalent to 100% ABV. During the production of wine and beer, yeast is added to a sugary solution.
During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol. The density of sugar in water is greater than the density of alcohol in water. A hydrometer is used to measure the change in specific gravity of the solution before and after fermentation; the volume of alcohol in the solution can be estimated. There are a number of empirical formulae which brewers and winemakers use to estimate the alcohol content of the liquor made; the simplest method for wine has been described by English author C. J. J. Berry: A B V = / 7.36 The calculation for beer is: A B V = 133.62 × However, many brewers use the following formula which uses a different constant: A B V = 131.25 It is derived in this manner: A B V = ρ
Wood-fired ovens known as wood ovens, are ovens that use wood fuel for cooking. There are two types of wood-fired ovens: "black ovens" and "white ovens". Black ovens are heated by burning wood in a chamber. Food is cooked in that same chamber while the fire is still going, or in the heated chamber after the fire and coals have been swept out. White ovens are heated by heat transfer from flue-gas path. Thus, the oven remains clean from ash. While the traditional wood-fired oven is a masonry oven, such ovens can be built out of adobe, cob or cast iron. Wood-fired ovens are distinct from wood-fired stoves that have a hot cooking surface for pots and pans, like on a gas or electric stove. A wood stove may have an oven separate from the fire chamber. Regardless of material they all have an oven chamber consisting of a dome and an entry. Unlike modern household gas or electric ovens that provide a nearly constant cooking temperature, a black oven is heated only once during the firing stage. After the coals are raked out, the oven cools over a period of hours or days.
Oven temperatures may exceed 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. The mass of the oven acts as a'thermal battery', which releases heat over time; the retained heat in the oven may be used to bake multiple batches. Alternatively, foods requiring different temperatures can be cooked in succession as the temperature of the oven drops. Similar models of wood fired oven available today can be traced back to Ancient Greece. Staple cuisine of the Ancient Greeks included cereals for making bread, fruit and meat, they built ovens in different dimensions according to what sort of bread they were baking. Chimenea Cook stove Electric fireplace List of stoves Masonry oven Moorish oven Stove Wood economy
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts. For historical reasons the volumes of some barrel units are double the volumes of others. In many connections the term "drum" is used interchangeably with "barrel". Since medieval times the term barrel as a unit of measure has had various meanings throughout Europe, ranging from about 100 litres to 1000 litres; the name was derived in medieval times from the French baril, of unknown origin, but still in use, both in French and as derivations in many other languages such as Italian and Spanish. In most countries such usage is obsolescent superseded by SI units; as a result, the meaning of corresponding words and related concepts in other languages refers to a physical container rather than a known measure. In the international oil market context, prices in United States dollars per barrel are used, the term is variously translated to derivations of the Latin/Teutonic root fat. In other commercial connections, barrel sizes such as beer keg volumes are standardised in many countries.
US dry barrel: 7,056 cubic inches Defined as length of stave 28 1⁄2 in, diameter of head 17 1⁄8 in, distance between heads 26 in, circumference of bulge 64 in outside measurement. Any barrel, 7,056 cubic inches is recognized as equivalent; this is equal to 26.25 US dry gallons. US barrel for cranberries 5,826 cubic inches Defined as length of stave 28 1⁄2 in, diameter of head 16 1⁄4 in, distance between heads 25 1⁄4 in, circumference of bulge 58 1⁄2 in outside measurement. No equivalent in cubic inches is given in the statute, but regulations specify it as 5,826 cubic inches; some products have a standard weight or volume that constitutes a barrel: Cornmeal, 200 pounds Cement, 4 cubic feet or 376 pounds Sugar, 5 cubic feet Wheat or rye flour, three bushels or 196 pounds Lime, 280 pounds large barrel, or 180 pounds small barrel Butter and cheese in UK, 224 pounds Salt, 280 pounds Fluid barrels vary depending on what is being measured and where. In the UK a beer barrel is 36 imperial gallons. In the US most fluid barrels are 31.5 US gallons.
The size of beer kegs in the US is based loosely on fractions of the US beer barrel. When referring to beer barrels or kegs in many countries, the term may be used for the commercial package units independent of actual volume, where common range for professional use is 20-60 L a DIN or Euro keg of 50 L. Richard III, King of England from 1483 until 1485, had defined the wine puncheon as a cask holding 84 gallons and a wine tierce as holding 42 gallons. By 1700 custom had made the 42-gallon watertight tierce a standard container for shipping eel, herring, wine, whale oil and many other commodities in the English colonies. After the American Revolution in 1776, American merchants continued to use the same size barrels. In the worldwide oil industry, an oil barrel is defined as 42 US gallons, about 159 litres or 35 imperial gallons. Oil companies that are listed on American stock exchanges report their production in terms of volume and use the units of bbl, Mbbl, or MMbbl and for widest comprehensive statistics the Gbbl denoting a billion.
There is a conflict concerning the units for oil barrels. For all other physical quantities, according to the International System of Units, the uppercase letter "M" means Mega, for example: Mm, MHz, MW, MeV, but due to tradition, the Mbbl acronym is used today meaning "one thousand bbl", as a heritage of the roman number "M" meaning "one thousand". On the other hand, there are efforts to avoid this ambiguity, most of the barrel dealers today prefer to use bbl, instead of Mbbl, mbbl, MMbbl or mmbbl. Outside the United States, volumes of oil are reported in cubic metres instead of oil barrels. Cubic metre is the basic volume unit in the International System. In Canada, oil companies measure oil in cubic metres but convert to barrels on export, since most of Canada's oil production is exported to the US; the nominal conversion factor is 1 cubic metre = 6.2898 oil barrels, but conversion is done by custody transfer meters on the border since the volumes are specified at different temperatures and the exact conversion factor depends on both density and temperature.
Canadian companies operate internally and report to Canadian governments in cubic metres, but convert to US barrels for the benefit of American investors and oil marketers. They will quote prices in Canadian dollars per cubic metre to other Canadian companies, but use US dollars per barrel in financial reports and press statements, making it appear to the outside world that they operate in barrels. Companies