Pale ale is an ale made with predominantly pale malt. The highest proportion of pale malts results in a lighter colour; the term'pale ale' first appeared around 1703 for beers made from malts dried with high-carbon coke, which resulted in a lighter colour than other beers popular at that time. Different brewing practices and hop levels have resulted in a range of different tastes and strengths within the pale ale family. Coke had been first used for dry roasting malt in 1642, but it wasn't until around 1703 that the term "pale ale" was first applied to beers made from such malt. By 1784, advertisements appeared in the Calcutta Gazette for "excellent" pale ale. By 1830, the expressions "bitter" and "pale ale" were synonymous. Breweries tended to designate beers as "pale ales", though customers would refer to the same beers as "bitters." It is thought that customers used the term bitter to differentiate these pale ales from other less noticeably hopped beers such as porters and milds. By the mid to late 20th century, while brewers were still labeling bottled beers as pale ales, they had begun identifying cask beers as bitters, except those from Burton on Trent, which tend to be referred to as pale ales.
Different brewing practices and hop levels have resulted in a range of taste and strength within the pale ale family. Amber ale is an emerging term used in Australia and North America for pale ales brewed with a proportion of amber malt and sometimes crystal malt to produce an amber colour ranging from light copper to light brown. A small amount of crystal or other coloured malt is added to the basic pale ale base to produce a darker colour, as in some Irish and British pale ales. In France the term "ambrée" is used to signify a beer, either cold or warm fermented, amber in colour. In North America, American-variety hops are used in varying degrees of bitterness, although few examples are hoppy. Diacetyl is perceived or absent in an amber ale. American pale ale was developed around 1980; the brewery thought to be the first to use significant quantities of American hops in the style of APA and use the name "pale ale", was the Sierra Nevada Brewing Company, which brewed the first experimental batch of Sierra Nevada Pale Ale in November 1980, distributing the finished version in March 1981.
Anchor Liberty Ale, a 6% abv ale brewed by the Anchor Brewing Company as a special in 1975 to commemorate Paul Revere's midnight ride in 1775, which marked the start of the American War of Independence, was seen by Michael Jackson, a writer on beverages, as the first modern American ale. Fritz Maytag, the owner of Anchor, visited British breweries in London and Burton upon Trent, picking up information about robust pale ales, which he applied when he made his American version, using just malt rather than the malt and sugar combination common in brewing at that time, making prominent use of the American hop, Cascade; the beer was popular, became a regular in 1983. Other pioneers of a hoppy American pale ale are Jack McAuliffe of the New Albion Brewing Company and Bert Grant of Yakima Brewing. American pale ales are around 5% abv, with significant quantities of American hops Cascade. Although American brewed beers tend to use a cleaner yeast, American two row malt, it is the American hops that distinguish an APA from a British or European pale ale.
The style is close to the American India pale ale, boundaries blur, though IPAs are stronger and more assertively hopped. The style is close to Amber ale, though these are darker and maltier due to the use of crystal malts. Bière de Garde, or "keeping beer", is a pale ale traditionally brewed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France; these beers were brewed by farmhouses in the winter and spring, to avoid unpredictable problems with the yeast during the summertime. The origin of the name lies in the tradition that it was matured or cellared for a period of time once bottled, to be consumed in the year, akin to a Saison. There are a number of beers named "Bière de Garde" in France, some of the better known brands include: Brasserie de Saint-Sylvestre, Trois Monts. Blonde ales are pale in colour; the term "blonde" for pale beers is common in Europe and South America – in France, the UK, Brazil – though the beers may not have much in common, other than colour. Blondes tend to be clear and dry, with low-to-medium bitterness and aroma from hops, some sweetness from malt.
Fruitiness from esters may be perceived. A lighter body from higher carbonation may be noticed. In the United Kingdom, golden or summer ales were developed in the late 20th century by breweries to compete with the pale lager market. A typical golden ale has an profile similar to that of a pale lager. Malt character is subdued and the hop profile ranges from spicy to citrus. Alcohol is in the 4% to 5% abv range; the UK style is attributed to John Gilbert, owner of Hop Back Brewery, who developed "Summer Lightning" in 1989, which won several awards and inspired numerous imitators. Belgian blondes are made with pilsner malt; some beer writers regard golden ales as distinct styles, while others do not. Duvel is a typical Belgian blonde ale, one of the most popular bottled beers in the country as well as being well-known internationally. In the second half of the nineteenth century, the recipe for pale ale was put into use by the Burto
Bock is a strong lager of German origin. Several substyles exist, including maibock, a paler, more hopped version made for consumption at spring festivals. A dark beer, a modern bock can range from light copper to brown in colour; the style is popular, with many examples brewed internationally. The style known now as bock was a dark, malty hopped ale first brewed in the 14th century by German brewers in the Hanseatic town of Einbeck; the style from Einbeck was adopted by Munich brewers in the 17th century and adapted to the new lager style of brewing. Due to their Bavarian accent, citizens of Munich pronounced "Einbeck" as "ein Bock", thus the beer became known as "bock". To this day, as a visual pun, a goat appears on bock labels. Bock is associated with special occasions religious festivals such as Christmas, Easter or Lent. Bocks have a long history of being brewed and consumed by Bavarian monks as a source of nutrition during times of fasting. Traditional bock is a sweet strong hopped lager.
The beer should be clear, colour can range from light copper to brown, with a bountiful and persistent off-white head. The aroma should be malty and toasty with hints of alcohol, but no detectable hops or fruitiness; the mouthfeel is smooth, with low to no astringency. The taste is toasty, sometimes with a bit of caramel. Again, hop presence is low to undetectable, providing just enough bitterness so that the sweetness is not cloying and the aftertaste is muted; the following commercial products are indicative of the style: Point Bock Einbecker Ur-Bock Dunkel, Pennsylvania Brewing St. Nick Bock, Aass Bock, Great Lakes Rockefeller Bock, Stegmaier Brewhouse Bock; the maibock style known as helles bock or heller bock, is a helles lager brewed to bock strength. It is a recent development compared to other styles of bock beers associated with springtime and the month of May. Colour can range from deep gold to light amber with a large, persistent white head, moderate to moderately high carbonation, while alcohol content ranges from 6.3% to 7.4% by volume.
The flavour is less malty than a traditional bock, may be drier and more bitter, but still with a low hop flavour, with a mild spicy or peppery quality from the hops, increased carbonation and alcohol content. The following commercial products are indicative of the style: Ayinger Maibock, Mahr's Bock, Hacker-Pschorr Hubertus Bock, Capital Maibock, Einbecker Mai-Urbock, Hofbräu Maibock, Victory St. Boisterous, Gordon Biersch Blonde Bock, Smuttynose Maibock, Old Dominion Brewing Company Big Thaw Bock, Rogue Dead Guy Ale, Franconia Brewing Company Maibock Ale, Church Street maibock, Tröegs Cultivator. Doppelbock or double bock is a stronger version of traditional bock, first brewed in Munich by the Paulaner Friars, a Franciscan order founded by St. Francis of Paula. Doppelbock was high in alcohol and sweet, thus serving as "liquid bread" for the Friars during times of fasting, when solid food was not permitted. Today, doppelbock is still strong—ranging from 7%–12% or more by volume, it isn't clear, with color ranging from dark gold, for the paler version, to dark brown with ruby highlights for darker version.
It has a large, persistent head. The aroma is intensely malty, with some toasty notes, some alcohol presence as well; the flavor is rich and malty, with toasty notes and noticeable alcoholic strength, little or no detectable hops. Paler versions may have a drier finish; the monks who brewed doppelbock named their beer "Salvator", which today is trademarked by Paulaner. Brewers of modern doppelbocks add "-ator" to their beer's name as a signpost of the style; the following are representative examples of the style: Predator, Paulaner Salvator, Ayinger Celebrator, Weihenstephaner Korbinian, Andechser Doppelbock Dunkel, Spaten Optimator, Augustiner Maximator, Tucher Bajuvator, Weltenburger Kloster Asam-Bock, Capital Autumnal Fire, EKU 28, Eggenberg Urbock 23º, Bell's Consecrator, Moretti La Rossa, Samuel Adams Double Bock, Tröegs Tröegenator Double Bock, Wasatch Brewery Devastator, Great Lakes Doppelrock, Abita Andygator, Wolverine State Brewing Company Predator, Burly Brewing's Burlynator, Christian Moerlein Emancipator Doppelbock.
Eisbock is a traditional specialty beer of the Kulmbach district of Germany, made by freezing a doppelbock and removing the water ice to concentrate the flavour and alcohol content, which ranges from 9% to 13% by volume. It is clear, with a colour ranging from deep copper to dark brown in colour with ruby highlights. Although it can pour with a thin off-white head, head retention is impaired by the higher alcohol content; the aroma is intense, with no hop presence, but can contain fruity notes of prunes and plums. Mouthfeel is full and smooth, with significant
Duvel Moortgat Brewery
Duvel Moortgat Brewery is a Flemish family-controlled brewery founded in 1871. Its strong golden pale ale, Duvel, is exported to more than forty countries. Duvel is Brabantian and Antwerp dialect for devil, the standard Dutch word being duivel; the brewery Moortgat was founded in 1871 by Jan-Leonard Moortgat, descended from a family of brewers that lived in Steenhuffel, Belgium. In the 1950s, the third generation of Moortgats took control of the brewery. In the early 1970s, when the company was struggling financially, Moortgat bottled and distributed the Danish beer, Tuborg; the two companies ended this arrangement in the early 1980s, but it did save the brewery who, by had managed to set up massive distribution channels for their flagship beer, Duvel. In June 1999, Duvel Moortgat NV went public on Euronext Brussels. Duvel Moortgat was an original investor in the Brewery Ommegang craft brewery founded in Cooperstown, New York, in the late 1990s. More the Belgian company took over complete control of the brewery and founded a stateside sales organization Duvel USA to handle both Ommegang and Duvel Moortgat brands and others.
In 2006, Duvel Moortgat bought fellow Belgian brewery Brasserie d'Achouffe. In 2010, Duvel Moortgat acquired 100 percent of the shares of the De Koninck Brewery. With this acquisition, Duvel Moortgat was able to expand its portfolio of specialty beers. In 2014, Duvel Moortgat acquired Boulevard Brewing Company, located in Kansas City, Missouri, U. S. In July 2015, it was announced that Duvel Moortgat would acquire Paso Robles, California craft brewer Firestone Walker Brewing Company. To commemorate the end of World War I, the Moortgats named their main beer Victory Ale. In the 1920s, an avid drinker described the beer as "nen echten duvel" - in reference to its formidable alcohol content - and the name of the beer was changed to Duvel, it has become the brewery's flagship beer. Considered by many the definitive version of the Belgian Strong Pale Ale style, Duvel is brewed with Pilsner malt and dextrose, hopped with Saaz hops and Styrian Goldings, the yeast still stems from the original culture of Scottish yeast bought by Albert Moortgat during a business tour of the U.
K. just after World War I. In 2007, a special version of the regular Duvel, which uses 2 hop varieties, was released; this limited-edition product added American hops of the Amarillo variety, boosted the alcohol content to 9.5% ABV and is called Duvel Tripel Hop. In 2010, a second limited-edition of Tripel Hop was brewed after a bet with the Duvel Moortgat CEO. If the Facebook group We want Duvel Tripel Hop reached at least 10,000 members, a second edition would be brewed; the group reached 10,000 members within the CEO stuck to his promise. Between 2010-2016, 6 editions of Duvel Tripel Hop were released: 2010: Amarillo. 2012: Citra. 2013: Sorachi Ace. 2014: Mosaic. 2015: Equinox. 2016: HBC 291. In May 2016, Duvel issued special edition blind tasting packs of the six releases of Duvel Tripel Hop, opened an online vote for people to choose their favourite edition. In June 2016 it was announced that the most popular edition was the 2012 Duvel Tripel Hop: Citra, that this would become a permanent addition to the Duvel Moortgat portfolio.
In 1963, Moortgat began brewing its Maredsous line of abbey beers, under license of the monks of Maredsous Abbey. There are three beers offered under the Maredsous name: Maredsous Blonde, Maredsous Brune, Maredsous Triple. In 1930, the brewery launched Bel Pils; the Vedett, a pilsener, was created in 1945 by Jan's son. Since 2003, Vedett has been relaunched as a trendy luxury lager, aimed at young customers in upscale urban bars. Vedett has a marketing campaign that gives customers the chance to have photos of themselves placed on the labels of bottles. In 1989, a wheat beer was launched in collaboration with Palm Breweries called Steendonk. In 2000, a new beer was born as a result of the association between Moortgat and cheese factory Campina; this product has since been discontinued. In 2001, they acquired 50% of the Czech brewery Bernard. In 2003, they acquired Brewery Ommegang in New York. In, 2013, it was announced that Duvel Moortgat would acquire Kansas City, Missouri craft brewer Boulevard Brewing Company.
In 2015, Paso Robles, California-based craft brewer Firestone Walker Brewing Company was acquired by Duvel Moortgat. In 2018, Duvel Single Fermented Belgian Golden Ale, a 6.8% Belgian Golden Ale, fermented only once and packaged in 500ml cans, was introduced. Official website
A wine bottle is a bottle made of glass, used for holding wine. Some wines are fermented in the bottle, others are bottled only after fermentation; the bottle has become a standard unit of volume to describe sales in the wine industry, measuring 750 millilitres. Wine bottles are produced, however, in a variety of shapes. Wine bottles are traditionally sealed with a cork, but screw-top caps are becoming popular, there are several other methods used to seal a bottle. Many traditional wine bottle sizes are named for historical figures; the chart below lists the sizes of various wine bottles in multiples relating to a standard bottle of wine, 0.75 litres. The "wineglassful"—an official unit of the apothecaries' system of weights—is much smaller at 2.5 imp fl oz. Most champagne houses are unable to carry out secondary fermentation in bottles larger than a magnum due to the difficulty in riddling large, heavy bottles. After the secondary fermentation completes, the champagne must be transferred from the magnums into larger bottles, which results in a loss of pressure.
Some believe this re-bottling exposes the champagne to greater oxidation and therefore results in an inferior product compared to champagne which remains in the bottle in which it was fermented. * For many years, the US standard wine and liquor bottle was the "fifth", meaning one-fifth of a US gallon, or 25.6 US fluid ounces. Some beverages came in tenth-gallon, half-gallon and one-gallon sizes. In 1979, the US adopted the metric system for wine bottles, with the basic bottle becoming 750 ml, as in Europe. Wine producers in Portugal, Spain and Germany follow the tradition of their local areas in choosing the shape of bottle most appropriate for their wine. Port and Bordeaux varieties: straight-sided and high-shouldered with a pronounced punt. Port and sherry bottles may have a bulbous neck to collect any residue. Burgundies and Rhône varieties: tall bottles with sloping shoulders and a smaller punt. Schlegel variety, predominantly used in German wine growing regions: similar to Burgundy bottles, but more slender and elongated.
Rhine and Alsace varieties: narrow and tall with little or no punt. Champagne and other sparkling wines: thick-walled and wide with a pronounced punt and sloping shoulders. German wines from Franconia: the Bocksbeutel bottle; the Chianti and some other Italian wines: the fiasco, a round-bottomed flask encased in a straw basket. This is more used for everyday table wines. Many North and South American, South African, Australasian wine producers select the bottle shape with which they wish to associate their wines. For instance, a producer who believes his wine is similar to Burgundy may choose to bottle his wine in Burgundy-style bottles. Other producers have chosen idiosyncratic bottle styles for marketing purposes. Pere-Anselme markets its Châteauneuf-du-Pape in bottles; the Moselland company of Bernkastel-Kues in Germany has a Riesling with a bottle in the shape of a stylized cat. The home wine maker may use any bottle, as the shape of the bottle does not affect the taste of the finished product.
The sole exception is in producing sparkling wine, where thicker-walled bottles should be used to handle the excess pressure. Most wine bottles standards have a bore diameter of 18.5 mm at the mouth of the bottle and increase to 21 mm before expanding into the full bottle. The traditional colors used for wine bottles are: Bordeaux: dark green for reds, light green for dry whites, colorless for sweet whites. Burgundy and the Rhone: dark green. Mosel and Alsace: dark to medium green, although some producers have traditionally used amber. Rhine: amber, although some producers have traditionally used green. Champagne: Usually dark to medium green. Rosé champagnes are a colorless or green. Clear colorless bottles have become popular with white wine producers in many countries, including Greece and New Zealand. Dark-colored bottles are most used for red wines, but many white wines still come in dark green bottles; the main reason for using colored or tinted glass is that natural sunlight can break down desirable antioxidants such as vitamin c and tannins in a wine over time, which affects storability and can cause a wine to prematurely oxidise.
Dark glass can prevent increase storage life. It is therefore ready-to-drink white wines with a short anticipated storage lifespan which are bottled in clear colorless bottles. Commercial corked wine bottles have a protective sleeve called a foil covering the top of the bottle, the purpose of, to protect the cork from being gnawed away by rodents or infested with the cork weevil and to serve as collar to catch small drips when pouring; the foil serves as a decorative element of the bottle's label. Foils were made of lead, but research showed that trace amounts of toxic lead could remain on the lip of the bottle and mix with the poured wine, so lead foil wrapping was phased out, by the 1990s, most foils were made of tin, heat-shrink plastic, aluminium or polylaminate aluminium. Sealing wax is sometimes used. In the US, the FDA banned lead foils on domestic and imported wine bottles as of 1996; some bottles of wine have a paper strip beneath the foil, as a seal of authenticity, which must be broken before the bottle can be uncorked.
Bottles of high-end Rioja w
Eau de vie
An eau de vie is a clear, colourless fruit brandy, produced by means of fermentation and double distillation. The fruit flavour is very light. In English-speaking countries, eau de vie refers to a distilled beverage made from fruit other than grapes. Similar terms may specify the fruit used to produce it. Although eau de vie is a French term, similar beverages are produced in other countries. In French, eau de vie is a generic term for distilled spirits; the proper French term for fruit brandy is eau-de-vie de fruit, while eau-de-vie de vin means wine spirit, several further categories of spirits are legally defined as eau-de-vie in a similar fashion. Many eaux de vie made from fruits, pomace, or rye have a protected designation of origin within the European Union. Ripe fruit is fermented and bottled to preserve the freshness and aroma of the parent fruit. Eaux de vie are not aged in wooden casks, hence they are clear. Although this is the usual practice, some distillers age their products before bottling.
Most available flavors in France are eau de vie de poire —known as eau de vie de Poire Williams when made from the Williams pear—Eau de vie de framboise, eau de vie de pomme, eau de vie de mirabelle, eau de vie de pêche. When made from pomace, it is called pomace marc. While most eaux de vie from the Alpine regions of Europe only rest briefly in glass containers, others are aged in wooden casks before bottling. Thus, calvados, an apple-based spirit from northwestern France, is required by law to spend at least two years in wood, most producers offer much older products to the market; some slivovitz are aged in wooden casks, giving them their golden or amber color and some additional flavors. In the Caribbean, eaux-de-vie are made from tropical fruits such as banana, guava, mango and sapodilla; the term can refer to maple eau de vie, made from maple syrup. An eau de vie is served as a digestif; the typical serving size is 30 to 60 ml, owing to the high alcohol content of the spirit and because it is drunk after a meal during which wine, or some other alcoholic beverage, has been served.
Buying guide from Food & Wine
A brewery or brewing company is a business that makes and sells beer. The place at which beer is commercially made is either called a brewery or a beerhouse, where distinct sets of brewing equipment are called plant; the commercial brewing of beer has taken place since at least 2500 BC. Brewing was a cottage industry, with production taking place at home; the diversity of size in breweries is matched by the diversity of processes, degrees of automation, kinds of beer produced in breweries. A brewery is divided into distinct sections, with each section reserved for one part of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe and was brewed on a domestic scale. In some form, it can be traced back 5000 years to Mesopotamian writings describing daily rations of beer and bread to workers. Before the rise of production breweries, the production of beer took place at home and was the domain of women, as baking and brewing were seen as "women's work". Breweries, as production facilities reserved for making beer, did not emerge until monasteries and other Christian institutions started producing beer not only for their own consumption but to use as payment.
This industrialization of brewing shifted the responsibility of making beer to men. The oldest, still functional, brewery in the world is believed to be the German state-owned Weihenstephan brewery in the city of Freising, Bavaria, it can trace its history back to 1040 AD. The nearby Weltenburg Abbey brewery, can trace back its beer-brewing tradition to at least 1050 AD; the Žatec brewery in the Czech Republic claims it can prove that it paid a beer tax in 1004 AD. Early breweries were always built on multiple stories, with equipment on higher floors used earlier in the production process, so that gravity could assist with the transfer of product from one stage to the next; this layout is preserved in breweries today, but mechanical pumps allow more flexibility in brewery design. Early breweries used large copper vats in the brewhouse, fermentation and packaging took place in lined wooden containers; such breweries were common until the Industrial Revolution, when better materials became available, scientific advances led to a better understanding of the brewing process.
Today all brewery equipment is made of stainless steel. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. A handful of major breakthroughs have led to the modern brewery and its ability to produce the same beer consistently; the steam engine, vastly improved in 1775 by James Watt, brought automatic stirring mechanisms and pumps into the brewery. It gave brewers the ability to mix liquids more reliably while heating the mash, to prevent scorching, a quick way to transfer liquid from one container to another. All breweries now use electric-powered stirring mechanisms and pumps; the steam engine allowed the brewer to make greater quantities of beer, as human power was no longer a limiting factor in moving and stirring. Carl von Linde, along with others, is credited with developing the refrigeration machine in 1871. Refrigeration allowed beer to be produced year-round, always at the same temperature.
Yeast is sensitive to temperature, and, if a beer were produced during summer, the yeast would impart unpleasant flavours onto the beer. Most brewers would produce enough beer during winter to last through the summer, store it in underground cellars, or caves, to protect it from summer's heat; the discovery of microbes by Louis Pasteur was instrumental in the control of fermentation. The idea that yeast was a microorganism that worked on wort to produce beer led to the isolation of a single yeast cell by Emil Christian Hansen. Pure yeast cultures allow brewers to pick out yeasts for their fermentation characteristics, including flavor profiles and fermentation ability; some breweries in Belgium, still rely on "spontaneous" fermentation for their beers. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Breweries today are made predominantly of stainless steel, although vessels have a decorative copper cladding for a nostalgic look.
Stainless steel has many favourable characteristics that make it a well-suited material for brewing equipment. It imparts no flavour in beer, it reacts with few chemicals, which means any cleaning solution can be used on it and it is sturdy. Sturdiness is important, as most tanks in the brewery have positive pressure applied to them as a matter of course, it is not unusual that a vacuum will be formed incidentally during cleaning. Heating in the brewhouse is achieved through pressurized steam, although direct-fire systems are not unusual in small breweries. Cooling in other areas of the brewery is done by cooling jackets on tanks, which allow the brewer to control the temperature on each tank individually, although whole-room cooling is common. Today, modern brewing plants perform myriad analyses on their beers for quality control purposes. Shipments of ingredients are analyzed to correct for variations. Samples are pulled at every step and tested for content, unwanted microbial infections
Beer is one of the oldest and most consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. Beer is brewed from cereal grains—most from malted barley, though wheat and rice are used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation; some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.
Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is commonly available on draught in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries; the strength of modern beer is around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume, although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above. Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared drinks; the earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000 year old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. There is evidence; the earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.
It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back further — to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed. Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer. During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment, crucial to the pyramids' construction; some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer. The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC. A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice. Any substance containing sugar can undergo alcoholic fermentation, it is that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer.
Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. Xenophon noted. Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, it was brewed on a domestic scale; the product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, numerous types of plants and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as, a addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water and barley-malt. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries.
During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. In 1912, the use of brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States; this innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer. As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ran