Nord-Pas-de-Calais (French pronunciation:, is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Hauts-de-France, it consisted of the departments of Pas-de-Calais. Nord-Pas-de-Calais borders the English Channel, the North Sea and Picardy; the majority of the region was once part of the historical Netherlands, but became part of France between 1477 and 1678 during the reign of king Louis XIV. The historical French provinces that preceded Nord-Pas-de-Calais are Artois, French Flanders, French Hainaut and Picardy; these provincial designations are still used by the inhabitants. With its 330.8 people per km2 on just over 12,414 km2, it is a densely populated region, having some 4.1 million inhabitants, 7% of France's total population, making it the fourth most populous region in the country, 83% of whom live in urban communities. Its administrative centre and largest city is Lille; the second largest city is Calais, which serves as a major continental economic/transportation hub with Dover of Great Britain 42 kilometres away.
Other major towns include Valenciennes, Douai, Béthune, Maubeuge, Arras and Saint-Omer. Numerous films, like Bienvenue chez les Ch'tis. Nord-Pas-de-Calais combines the names of the constituent departments of Pas-de-Calais; the regional council, spells the name Nord-Pas de Calais. The northern part of the region was a part of the County of Flanders, with Douai as its capital; those who wish to evidence the historical links the region has with Belgium and the Netherlands prefer to call this region the French Low Countries, which means French Netherlands in French. Other alternative names are Région Flandre-Artois, Hauts-de-France, Picardie-du-Nord. Inhabited since prehistoric times, the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region has always been a strategic region in Europe. French President Charles de Gaulle, born in Lille, called the region a "fatal avenue" through which invading armies passed. Over the centuries, it was conquered in turn by the Celtic Belgae, the Romans, the Germanic Franks, the Spanish and Austrian Netherlands, the Dutch Republic.
After the final French annexation in the early 18th century, much of the region was again occupied by Germany during the First and Second World Wars. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defense services along the route from Boulogne to Cologne created a Germanic–Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the 8th century. By the 9th century, most inhabitants north of Lille spoke a dialect of Middle Dutch, while the inhabitants to the south spoke a variety of Romance dialects; this linguistic border is still evident today in the place names of the region. Beginning in the 9th century, the linguistic border began a steady move to the east. By the end of the 13th century, the linguistic border had shifted to the river Lys in the south and Cap-Griz-Nez in the west. During the Middle Ages, the Pas-de-Calais department comprised County of Boulogne and the County of Artois, while the Nord department was made up of the southern portions of the County of Flanders and the County of Hainaut.
Boulogne and Flanders were fiefs of the French crown, while Hainaut and after 1493 Flanders were within the Holy Roman Empire. Calais was an English possession from 1347 to 1558. In the 15th century, all of the territories, except Calais, were united under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy, along with other territories in northern France and areas in what is now Belgium and the Netherlands. With the death of the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold in 1477, the Boulonnais and Artois were seized by the French crown, while Flanders and Hainaut were inherited by Charles's daughter Marie. Shortly thereafter, in 1492, Artois was ceded back to Marie's son Philip the Handsome, as part of an attempt to keep Philip's father, Emperor Maximilian I, neutral in French King Charles VIII's prospective invasion of Italy. Thus, most of the territories of what is now Nord-Pas-de-Calais were reunited to the Burgundian inheritance, which had passed through Marie's marriage to the House of Habsburg; these territories formed an integral part of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands as they were defined during the reign of Philip's son, Emperor Charles V, passed to Charles's son, Philip II of Spain.
During the Italian Wars much of the conflict between France and Spain occurred in the region. When the Netherlands revolted against Spanish rule, beginning in 1566, the territories in what is now Nord-Pas-de-Calais were those most loyal to the throne, proved the base from which the Duke of Parma was able to bring the whole southern part of the Netherlands back under Spanish control, it was a base for Spanish support of French Catholics in the French Wars of Religion. During the wars between France and Spain in the 17th century, these territories became the principal seat of conflict between the two states and French control over the area was established. Beginning with the annexation of Artois in 1659, most of the current Nord department territory had been acquired by the time of the Treaty of
Mont des Cats
Mont des Cats is a small hill near the town of Godewaersvelde, in French Flanders. Its name in Dutch is Katsberg, it is the seat of an abbey bearing the same name, famous for the cheese produced by the monks since 1890. On top of the hill there is an antenna that reaches a height of 364m and transmits both television and radio signals: it emits FM at 500 W and has 3 x UHF 80kW emitters for televisionThe antenna provides part of the Nord Pas de Calais digital television; the traditional feast of Saint-Hubert is held on the third Sunday in October. The name has nothing to do with cats, but is derived from the name of a Germanic tribe known as Chatti, living in the area after the fall of the Roman Empire. A first community of the Hospital Brothers of St. Anthony was settled in 1650 and lasted until the French Revolution which closed the monastery in 1792. In 1826, a new community of Trappists was funded, this congregation has run the abbey since. Mont des Cats cheese has been produced by the monks since 1890 with the milk of local farms, in a small independent dairy.
The production method are similar to those used for Port-salut. Affinage takes a minimum of one month and during this period the cheese is washed in salted water and dyed with roucou, a reddish derivative from annatto seeds; the texture of the cheese is firm, uncooked and has small holes. The fat content is 50%. In Flanders it is sometimes eaten as a breakfast cheese with coffee; the Mont des Cats is included in cycling races in spring, such as Gent–Wevelgem and the Four Days of Dunkirk. It featured once in the Tour de France. Mont des Cats has inspired the name of the software company Mondeca
Cassel is a commune in the Nord départment in northern France. Built on a prominent hill overlooking French Flanders, the town has existed since Roman times, it was developed by the Romans into an important urban centre and was the focus of a network of roads, which are still in use today, that converge on the hill. After the fall of the Roman Empire, Cassel became an important fortified stronghold for the rulers of Flanders, fought over before being annexed to France in the 17th century, it was the headquarters of Marshal Ferdinand Foch during part of the First World War. In 1940, during the German invasion of France, Cassel was the scene of a fierce three-day battle between British forces and German forces which resulted in much of the town being destroyed. Today the town, rebuilt following the war, is a popular destination for visitors to French Flanders, it is renowned for its extensive views from the summit of Mont Cassel and is the location of the Nord départment's principal museum of local art and folklore.
It is the home of the legendary giants Reuze-Papa and Reuze-Maman, which are paraded in effigy each Easter during the town's annual carnival. The town of Cassel is situated at the top of Mont Cassel, a prominent hill located in the local Houtland region about 30 kilometres from the sea; the hill rises to a height of 176 metres above sea level. Its geological composition comprises limestone capped with a hard ferruginous layer of rock; the hill of Mont Cassel was occupied during the late Iron Age by the Menapii, a Belgic tribe, who made it the capital of a large territory extending from modern Calais to as far as the Rhine. The hilltop was used as an oppidum or hill fort; the Menapii fought against Julius Caesar but were forced to submit to Rome in 53 BC. They rebelled along with their neighbours, the Morini, in 30 or 29 BC; the Roman governor of Gaul, Carrinas quelled the rebellion and the territory of the Menapii was subsequently absorbed into the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. Cassel was redeveloped as the urban centre or civitas of the Menapii.
From the 1st century AD onwards, Cassel developed into a key urban centre for the whole region with an extensive road network converging on the hill. Towards the end of the 3rd century, repeated invasions of Germanic tribes caused devastation throughout the region and at least 80% of settlements in the area are thought to have been abandoned, accompanied by a general economic decline. Cassel was fortified with a circuit of walls at around this time but suffered its own decline, reflected in its loss of status as a regional capital. Following the collapse of the Roman Empire, Flanders became part of the Merovingian realm of Neustria. In the 9th century it became part of West Francia, forming a pagus within the kingdom of Charles the Bald. In 864, Cassel passed into the hands of Baldwin Ironarm, who expanded his holdings to become the first count of the County of Flanders. At the time, the town was on the edge of a deep bay of the North Sea, making it vulnerable to raids by the Vikings, who attacked and destroyed it in the 9th century.
It was rebuilt by Arnulf I, in the 10th century. In 1071, the sixth Count of Flanders, Arnulf III, was killed in the first Battle of Cassel by the forces of Robert the Frisian in a dispute over the succession to the title of count. Although Arnulf was numerically superior and was supported by King Philip I of France, Robert was able to defeat his rival's army and took the title of Count of Flanders with the acquiescence of Philip I after a further five years of struggle; the town was re-fortified by Robert, with a castle and a new set of walls built on the remains of the old Roman walls. The castle does not survive today – it was in ruins by the early 18th century – but is depicted on old engravings as a large square tower, the Tour Grise, dominating the western flank of the hill. Cassel was the capital of a chatellany during the Middle Ages, serving as the administrative centre for an area comprising about fifty towns and villages, it was the site of a second battle that took place on 23 August 1328 involving Philip VI of France and a rebel force led by Nicolaas Zannekin.
The rebels had driven the ruling Count Louis I out of Flanders and sought to press their advantage by occupying Cassel and attacking the French royal army nearby. Although they achieved some initial successes, the rebels were decisively defeated when William I, Count of Hainaut lent his support to the French side. By end of the 16th century Cassel had become a border town between France and the Spanish Netherlands; the French fought with Spain and the independent Dutch Republic for control of the town. In 1658 Turenne expelled two Irish regiments in the pay of the Spanish; the French captured the town in July 1676 under Louis de Crevant, Duke of Humières and strengthened the castle. The following year, a third Battle of Cassel took place just west of the town on 11 April 1677 when a French army under François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg and Philippe I of Orléans defeated Dutch forces commanded by William III of Orange; the battle took place after King Louis XIV of France besieged the Dutch-held town of Saint-Omer during the Franco–Dutch War.
William sent an army to relieve Saint-Omer but was defeated at the village of Zuytpeene just t
Saint-Sylvestre-Cappel is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. Brasserie de Saint-Sylvestre Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history, sometimes involving neighbouring countries; the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as culture and education. Flanders, despite not being the biggest part of Belgium by area, is the area with the largest population. 7,876,873 out of 11,491,346 Belgian inhabitants live in the bilingual city of Brussels. Not including Brussels, there are five modern Flemish provinces. In medieval contexts, the original "County of Flanders" stretched around AD 900 from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary and expanded from there; this county still corresponds with the modern-day Belgian provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders, along with neighbouring parts of France and the Netherlands.
Although this original meaning is still relevant, during the 19th and 20th centuries it became commonplace to use the term "Flanders" to refer to the entire Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, stretching all the way to the River Meuse, as well as cultural movements such as Flemish art. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the Belgian part of this area was made into two political entities: the "Flemish Community" and the "Flemish Region"; these entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a broader cultural mandate, covers Brussels, whereas the Flemish Region does not. Flanders, by every definition, has figured prominently in European history since the Middle Ages. In this period, cities such as Ghent and Antwerp made it one of the richest and most urbanized parts of Europe and weaving the wool of neighbouring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export; as a consequence, a sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution but Flanders was at first overtaken by French-speaking Wallonia. In the second half of the 20th century, due to massive national investments in port infrastructures, Flanders' economy modernised and today Flanders and Brussels are more wealthy than Wallonia and in general one of the wealthiest regions in Europe and the world. Geographically, Flanders is flat, has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a population density of 500 people per square kilometer, it touches France to the west near the coast, borders the Netherlands to the north and east, Wallonia to the south. The Brussels Capital Region is an bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own: Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the north consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands; the term "Flanders" has several main modern meanings: The "Flemish community" or "Flemish nation", i.e. the social and linguistic, scientific and educational and political community of the Flemings.
It comprises 6.5 million Belgians. The political subdivisions of Belgium: the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community; the first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels. The political institutions that govern both subdivisions: the operative body "Flemish Government" and the legislative organ "Flemish Parliament"; the two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders. An ancien régime territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic; until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of what are now France and the Netherlands. One of the Flemish regions which are now part of France, in the Nord department; this is referred to as French Flanders, can be divided into two smaller regions: Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century.
The city of Lille identifies itself as "Flemish", this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The Flemish region which became part of the Dutch Republic, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland; the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the southern part of the Low Countries: the Southern Netherlands. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it became commonplace to refer to the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium as "Flanders"; the linguistic limit between French and Dutch was recorded in the early'60's, from Kortrijk to Maastricht. Now, Flanders extends over the northern part of Belgium, including Belgian Limburg (corresponding to t
Alcohol by volume
Alcohol by volume is a standard measure of how much alcohol is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage. It is defined as the number of millilitres of pure ethanol present in 100 mL of solution at 20 °C; the number of millilitres of pure ethanol is the mass of the ethanol divided by its density at 20 °C, 0.78924 g/mL. The ABV standard is used worldwide; the International Organization of Legal Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different concentrations and temperatures. In some countries, e.g. France, alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac, although there is a slight difference since the Gay-Lussac convention uses the International Standard Atmosphere value for temperature, 15 °C. Mixing two solutions of alcohol of different strengths causes a change in volume. Mixing pure water with a solution less than 24% by mass causes a slight increase in total volume, whereas the mixing of two solutions above 24% causes a decrease in volume; the phenomenon of volume changes due to mixing dissimilar solutions is called "partial molar volume".
Water and ethanol are both polar solvents. When water is added to ethanol, the smaller water molecules are attracted to the ethanol's hydroxyl group, each molecule alters the polarity field of the other; the attraction allows closer spacing between molecules than is found in non-polar mixtures. Thus, ABV is not the same. Volume fraction, used in chemistry, is defined as the volume of a particular component divided by the sum of all components in the mixture when they are measured separately. To make a 50% v/v ethanol solution, for example, you would measure 50 mL of ethanol and separately measure 50 mL of water mix the two together; the resulting volume of solution will not measure 100 mL due to the change of volume on mixing. Details about typical amounts of alcohol contained in various beverages can be found in the articles about them. Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by-volume number; this may lead to confusion over similar products bought in varying regions that have different names on country specific labels.
For example, Stroh rum, 80% ABV is advertised and labeled as Stroh 80 when sold in Europe, but is named Stroh 160 when sold in the United States. In the United Kingdom proof is 1.75 times the number. For example, 40% abv is 80 proof in the US and 70 proof in the UK. However, since 1980, alcohol proof in the UK has been replaced by ABV as a measure of alcohol content. In the United States, a few states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight, expressed as a percentage of total mass; some brewers print the ABW on beer containers on low-point versions of popular domestic beer brands. One can use the following equation to convert between ABV and ABW: A B V × 0.78924 = A B W × density of beverage at 20 C in g/mL At low ABV, the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV. However, because of the miscibility of alcohol and water, the conversion factor is not constant but rather depends upon the concentration of alcohol. 100% ABW is equivalent to 100% ABV. During the production of wine and beer, yeast is added to a sugary solution.
During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol. The density of sugar in water is greater than the density of alcohol in water. A hydrometer is used to measure the change in specific gravity of the solution before and after fermentation; the volume of alcohol in the solution can be estimated. There are a number of empirical formulae which brewers and winemakers use to estimate the alcohol content of the liquor made; the simplest method for wine has been described by English author C. J. J. Berry: A B V = / 7.36 The calculation for beer is: A B V = 133.62 × However, many brewers use the following formula which uses a different constant: A B V = 131.25 It is derived in this manner: A B V = ρ
Bière de Garde
Bière de Garde is a strong pale ale or keeping beer traditionally brewed in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France. These beers were brewed in farmhouses during the winter and spring, to avoid unpredictable problems with the yeast during the summertime. Farmhouse production is now supplemented by commercial production, although most Bière de Garde brewers are small businesses. Beers of this tradition are of a copper colour or golden colour, as the name suggests the origins of this style lies in the tradition that it was matured or cellared for a period of time once bottled, to be consumed in the year, akin to a Belgian Saison. Most varieties are top-fermented and unfiltered, although bottom-fermented and filtered versions exist. Authentic products, using only regional ingredients, are entitled to use the Appellation d'origine contrôlée, "Pas de Calais/Region du Nord; some of the better known brands include Brasserie de Saint-Sylvestre, Trois Monts, Brasseurs Duyck, Brasserie Castelain, Ch'Ti and Brasserie La Choulette, Ambrée.
BibliographyFarmhouse Ales: Culture and Craftsmanship in the European Tradition, Phil Markowski, ISBN 0-937381-84-5 Great Beer Guide: 500 Classic Brews, Michael Jackson, ISBN 0-7513-0813-7 Dictionary of Beer, Ed: A. Webb, ISBN 1-85249-158-2