Brassavola is a genus of 21 orchids. They were named in 1813 by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown; the name comes from physician Antonio Musa Brassavola. This genus is abbreviated B. in trade journals. These species are widespread across Central America, the West Indies and South America, they are epiphytes, a few are lithophytes. A single and succulent leaf grows on an elongated pseudobulb; the orchid yields a raceme of a few flowers. The three sepals and two lateral petals are greenish and long; the base of the broad, sometimes fringed lip enfolds the column. This column contains twelve pollinia. Most Brassavola orchids are fragrant, attracting pollinators with their citrusy smell, but they are only fragrant at night. Longevity of flowers is between five and thirty days. In 1698 Brassavola nodosa was the first tropical orchid to be brought from the Caribbean island Curaçao to Holland, thus began the propagation of this orchid and the fascination for orchids in general. The species of Brassavola have been divided into four sections: This monotypic section, erected by H. G. Jones in 1969, contains the type of the genus: B. cucullata - Hooded brassavola, daddy longlegs orchid This section, erected by Rolfe in 1902, is characterized by narrow labella with fimbriate margins to wider labella with entire margins.
B. fasciculata B. filifolia B. flagellaris B. gardneri B. martiana B. perrinii B. reginae B. retusa B. revoluta B. rhomboglossa B. tuberculata This section, erected by Rolfe in 1902, is characterized by narrowly constricted labellum bases. The sectional type is B. nodosa B. gillettei B. grandiflora B. harrisii B. nodosa - Lady-of-the-night orchid B. subulifolia B. venosa This section, erected by H. G. Jones in 1975, is characterized by laterally-borne inflorescences; the sectional type is B. acaulis B. acaulis Other species accepted as of May 2014 but of unknown section: B. angustata B. ceboletta Brassavola is in the same alliance as the genera Cattleya and Laelia. They have been used extensively in hybridization and represent the "B" at the beginning of the names of such crosses. For example, Blc. is Brassolaeliocattleya. B. Little Stars, a primary hybrid between B. nodosa and B. subulifolia Rhynchovola David Sanders, a primary intergeneric hybrid between B. cucullata and Rhyncholaelia digbyana.
Rhyncolaelia digbyana was classified as a Brassavola. Brassocattleya Yellow Bird = Brassocattleya Richard Mueller × B. nodosa Brassocattleya Richard Mueller is a primary intergeneric hybrid between B. nodosa and C. milleri. C. milleri was classified as a Laelia until it was transferred into Sophronitis, sunk into Cattleya to avoid confusion. Media related to Brassavola at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Brassavola at Wikispecies
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
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Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
In plant systematics Epidendroideae is a subfamily of the orchid family, Orchidaceae. Epidendroideae is larger than all the other orchid subfamilies together, comprising more than 15,000 species in 576 genera. Most Epidendroid orchids are tropical epiphytes with pseudobulbs. There are, some terrestrials such as Epipactis and a few myco-heterotrophs, which are parasitic upon mycorrhizal fungi, they contain the remaining orchids with a single, fertile anther, fully incumbent to suberect. The anther form arises from early anther bending; the incumbent anther is pointed backward in many genera. Most have hard pollinia, i.e. a mass of waxy pollen or of coherent pollen grains. The pollinia are without; the stigma are three-lobed. The apical part of the middle stigma lobe forms a stipe; the ovary is unilocular. The leaves are distichous or spiraling; the Epidendroideae are difficult to classify. They have been divided in “lower epidendroids” and “higher epidendroids”. Epiphytes are plants which grow on top of other plants.
They are not parasitic. By growing on other plants, the epiphytes can reach to the light better or where they can avoid struggling for light. Many mosses and lichens are epiphytes, as are 10 per cent of all seed plants and ferns. Epiphytes are common in some groups of plants, such as ferns, mosses and algae. Over half of the 20,000 species of orchids are epiphytes. Most epiphytic seed plants and ferns are found in tropical and subtropical rainforests because they need high humidity to survive; the areas which most epiphytes grow are the montane rainforests. Epiphytic orchids are found on many positions of the host tree, depending on species requirements and size, some large species will grow in a fork, whereas some small species scramble through thin branches, other species will climb up the trunk etc. etc. The trees provide many habitats with different conditions of temperature and light. In temperate places, epiphytes are most common in moist forests, such as the rainforests in Queensland. Epiphytes are not adapted to droughts in the same way are other flora, because they don’t have access to the ground, but they still have some mechanisms to help them survive.
Some become dormant for months at a time. They contain absorptive plants that are capable at taking up water when it is available and preventing drought when water is scarcer. CAM can be impeded by higher night-time temperatures, dehydrated tissues, high saturation deficits in the surrounding air, which lower the "stomata conductance" of the epiphytes, reducing the CO2 uptake, which in turn reduces growth and reproduction and induces carbon loss. Higher temperatures, strain on evaporation, contact to light cause CAM-idling, the epiphyte closing its stomata when it becomes stressed, that brings down the range of habitats a species can inhabit. Epiphyte species work biomasses are much more sensitive to different relative moisture levels than other plants; the Epidendroideae subfamily is divided into two clades or subgroups known as the higher epidendroids and the lower epidendroids. The higher epidendroids are monophyletic and polyphyletic; the tribes are listed below: This classification has a rather ephemeral nature and is prone to frequent revision.
Changes are to occur as new morphological and genetic data become available. A phylogenetic analysis of the Orchidaceae - evidence from rbcL nucleotide sequences Orchid Tree: a phylogeny of epiphytes on the tree of life
Epidendrum, abbreviated Epi in the horticultural trade, is a large neotropical genus of the orchid family. With more than 1,500 species, some authors describe it as a mega-genus; the genus name refers to its epiphytic growth habit. When Carl Linnaeus named this genus in 1763, he included in this genus all the epiphytic orchids known to him. Although few of these orchids are still included in the genus Epidendrum, some species of Epidendrum are not epiphytic, they are native to the tropics and subtropical regions of the American continents, from North Carolina to Argentina. Their habitat can be epiphytic, terrestrial, or lithophytic. Many are grown at altitudes between 1,000 and 3,000 m, their habitats include humid jungles, dry tropical forests, sunny grassy slopes, cool cloud forests, sandy barrier islands. Members of this genus can be aggressive colonisers of disturbed habitat, many species which were once rare in this genus have become more common as the result of human activities. For example, some of these plants can be found in greater abundance growing terrestrially along road cuts throughout their native ranges as the result of road construction.
Many of these species are easy to grow in rich humus compost with some sand. The plants resemble Dendrobiums in form and habit although they tend to be terrestrial rather than lithophytic and epiphytic, do better in a humus rich, well aerated substrate. Most of the high altitude members of this genus from cloud forests defy cultivation outside their habitat, it is reported that moving a plant from one location to another on the same host tree in habitat will result in the death of the plant due to dependency on a specific mycorrhizal fungal symbiont, they are quite varied in flower appearance. They grow in racemose inflorescences, sometimes in corymbs or panicles; the apical, lateral or basal flowers are small to medium in size and are not marked by a conspicuous display. The inflorescences are dense. Many species are fragrant; the flowers may be produced during several years from the same or new inflorescences. The ellipsoid fruits are 3-ribbed capsules; this genus has the following characteristics: a slit rostellum, producing a transparent or white thick and adhesive liquid.
The sometimes fringed lip is adnate to the column. The genus Prosthechea was split off because the lip is not adnate to the apex of the column; the pollinarium contains four pollinia, sometimes two and eight pollinia, four reduced. The erect, pendent, or creeping stems are reed-like, simple or branching, or may be pseudobulbs or thickened stems. European taxonomists applied the generic epithet Epidendrum to all newly discovered epiphytic orchids. Many of these "Epidendrums" were recognized as being quite diverse and deserving of different generic epithets—many belong to different tribes or subtribes. To add to the confusion, many descriptions of related species were published with different generic epithets; as if the confusion caused by these publications were not great enough, many related genera have been recognized and published. According to the modern rules of taxonomy, each new proposed genus, split off from Epidendrum must bear the name of the oldest generic epithet published for a member of the new genus.
Hence, many genera which have been brought into synonymy with Epidendrum have been segregated out again. Because most of these decisions rest on the informed opinions of authorities, the segregated taxa are then re-published as synonyms. Hence, some of the following information may seem a bit contradictory if the assertion that two names are "synonyms" is misconstrued as an assertion that the two names mean the same thing; the following genera have been brought into synonymy with Epidendrum: Amphiglottis Salisb. Auliza Small Coilostylis Raf. Didothion Raf. Diothonea Lindl. Dothilophis Raf. Doxosma Raf. Epicladium Small Epidanthus L. O. Williams Epidendropsis Garay & Dunst. Exophya Raf. Hemiscleria Lindl. Kalopternix Garay & Dunst. Lanium Benth. Larnandra Raf. Microepidendrum Brieger Minicolumna Brieger Nanodes Lindl. Neolehmannia Kraenzl. Neowilliamsia Garay Nyctosma Raf. Phadrosanthus Neck. Ex Raf. Physinga Lindl. Pleuranthium Benth. Pseudepidendrum Rchb.f. Psilanthemum Klotzsch ex Stein Seraphyta Fisch. & C. A.
Mey. Spathiger Small Stenoglossum Kunth Tritelandra Raf.. Genera which have been erected from Epidendrum include the following examples: Anacheilium Withner & P. A. Harding; this genus contains more than 50 species, reclassified from Prosthechea and Epidendrum. Barkeria Dimerandra Caularthron Coilostylis Withner & Harding Encyclia This is another "mega-genus" differing from Epidendrum in that the plants are pseudobulbous, in that the lip "encircles" the column, rather than being adnate. Like Epidendrum, genera have been and are to continue to be split off from this genus. Euchile C. L. Withner was elevated from a section of Encyclia with two species. Hormidium Lindl. Ex Heynh, described by Brieger as having the lip adnate to the pro
Asparagales is an order of plants in modern classification systems such as the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and the Angiosperm Phylogeny Web. The order takes its name from the type family Asparagaceae and is placed in the monocots amongst the lilioid monocots; the order has only been recognized in classification systems. It was first put forward by Huber in 1977 and taken up in the Dahlgren system of 1985 and the APG in 1998, 2003 and 2009. Before this, many of its families were assigned to the old order Liliales, a large order containing all monocots with colourful tepals and lacking starch in their endosperm. DNA sequence analysis indicated that many of the taxa included in Liliales should be redistributed over three orders, Liliales and Dioscoreales; the boundaries of the Asparagales and of its families have undergone a series of changes in recent years. In the APG circumscription, Asparagales is the largest order of monocots with 14 families, 1,122 genera, about 36,000 species; the order is circumscribed on the basis of molecular phylogenetics, but is difficult to define morphologically, since its members are structurally diverse.
Most species of Asparagales are herbaceous perennials, although some are climbers and some are tree-like. The order contains many geophytes. According to telomere sequence, at least two evolutionary switch-points happened within the order. Basal sequence is formed by TTTAGGG like in majority of higher plants. Basal motif was changed to vertebrate-like TTAGGG and the most divergent motif CTCGGTTATGGG appears in Allium. One of the defining characteristics of the order is the presence of phytomelanin, a black pigment present in the seed coat, creating a dark crust. Phytomelanin is found in most families of the Asparagales; the leaves of all species form a tight rosette, either at the base of the plant or at the end of the stem, but along the stem. The flowers are not distinctive, being'lily type', with six tepals and up to six stamina; the order is thought to have first diverged from other related monocots some 120–130 million years ago, although given the difficulty in classifying the families involved, estimates are to be uncertain.
From an economic point of view, the order Asparagales is second in importance within the monocots to the order Poales. Species are used as food and flavourings, as cut flowers, as garden ornamentals. Although most species in the order are herbaceous, some no more than 15 cm high, there are a number of climbers, as well as several genera forming trees, which can exceed 10 m in height. Succulent genera occur in several families. All species have a tight cluster of leaves, either at the base of the plant or at the end of a more-or-less woody stem as with Yucca. In some cases the leaves are produced along the stem; the flowers are in the main not distinctive, being of a general'lily type', with six tepals, either free or fused from the base and up to six stamina. They are clustered at the end of the plant stem; the Asparagales are distinguished from the Liliales by the lack of markings on the tepals, the presence of septal nectaries in the ovaries, rather than the bases of the tepals or stamen filaments, the presence of secondary growth.
They are geophytes, but with linear leaves, a lack of fine reticular venation. The seeds characteristically have the external epidermis either obliterated, or if present, have a layer of black carbonaceous phytomelanin in species with dry fruits; the inner part of the seed coat is collapsed, in contrast to Liliales whose seeds have a well developed outer epidermis, lack phytomelanin, display a cellular inner layer. The orders which have been separated from the old Liliales are difficult to characterize. No single morphological character appears to be diagnostic of the order Asparagales; the flowers of Asparagales are of a general type among the lilioid monocots. Compared to Liliales, they have plain tepals without markings in the form of dots. If nectaries are present, they are in the septa of the ovaries rather than at the base of the tepals or stamens; those species which have large dry seeds have a dark, crust-like outer layer containing the pigment phytomelan. However, some species with hairy seeds, berries, or reduced seeds lack this dark pigment in their seed coats.
Phytomelan is not unique to Asparagales but it is common within the order and rare outside it. The inner portion of the seed coat is completely collapsed. In contrast, the morphologically similar seeds of Liliales have no phytomelan, retain a cellular structure in the inner portion of the seed coat. Most monocots are unable to thicken their stems once they have formed, since they lack the cylindrical meristem present in other angiosperm groups. Asparagales have a method of secondary thickening, otherwise only found inDioscorea. In a process called'anomalous secondary growth', they are able to create new
The tribe Epidendreae of the Orchidaceae comprises six subtribes: Bletiinae sensu MMIV, which contains only the genera Basiphyllaea and Hexalectris Chysinae Coeliinae Laeliinae Pleurothallidinae Ponerinae